|Philip the Bold|
|Duke of Burgundy|
|Reign||1363 – 27 April 1404|
|Predecessor||John the Good|
|Successor||John the Fearless|
|Born||17 January 1342|
|Died||27 April 1404 (aged 62)|
Halle, County of Hainaut
|Spouse||Margaret III, Countess of Flanders|
|Father||John II of France|
|Mother||Bonne of Bohemia|
Philip the Bold (French: Philippe le Hardi; Dutch : Filips de Stoute; 17 January 1342 – 27 April 1404) was Duke of Burgundy (as Philip II) and jure uxoris Count of Flanders (as Philip II), Artois and Burgundy (as Philip IV). The fourth and youngest son of King John II of France and his wife, Bonne of Luxembourg, Philip was the founder of the Burgundian branch of the House of Valois. His vast collection of territories made him the undisputed premier peer of the kingdom of France and made his successors formidable subjects, and later rivals, of the kings of France.
Born in Pontoise in 1342, Philip gained his cognomen the Bold at the age of 14, when he fought beside his father at the Battle of Poitiers of 1356 and they were captured by the English. He remained in the custody with his father until the terms of their ransom were agreed to in the Treaty of Brétigny of 1360. He was created Duke of Touraine in 1360, but in 1363, he returned this title to the crown to receive instead the Duchy of Burgundy in apanage from his father as a reward for his courage at the Battle of Poitiers. His father had been the ruler of the duchy since the death of Duke Philip I in 1361. Philip would rule the duchy as Philip II until his death.He was actually the stepbrother of Philip I of Burgundy, whose mother Joan was married to King John II of France, Philip the Bold's father, as his second wife.
On 19 June 1369, Philip married the 19-year-old Margaret of Dampierre, daughter of Louis II, Count of Flanders, who would become the heiress of the County of Flanders, the Duchy of Brabant, the County of Artois, and the Free County of Burgundy after the death of her brother in 1376. Margaret became the widow of Philip's stepbrother Duke Philip I of Burgundy while still a child of about 11. As her father's eventual heiress, Margaret would bring rich possessions to Philip the Bold and his children.
From 1379 to 1382, Philip helped his father-in-law Louis II put down revolts in Flanders, particularly in Ghent, by organising an army against Philip van Artevelde. The revolts were finally ended in 1385, following the death of Louis II, with the Peace of Tournai. As jure uxoris Count of Flanders, he would keep in mind the economic interests of the Flemish cities, which mainly made their money from weaving and spinning. He was aided in this by the expansion of the Three Members – a parliament consisting of representatives from the towns of Bruges, Ghent and Ypres – to the Four Members through the addition of the rural area Franc of Bruges
In 1390, Philip also became the Count of Charolais, a title used by Philip the Good and Charles the Bold as the heirs of Burgundy.
Philip was very active at the court of France, particularly after the death in 1380 of his brother King Charles V, whose successor Charles VI became king at the age of 11. During Charles' minority, a council of Regents was set up to govern France that was made up of four of his uncles: Louis, Duke of Anjou, John, Duke of Berry, and Philip himself from his father's side, and from his mother's side, Louis II, Duke of Bourbon. Among Philip's acts while regent was the suppression of a tax revolt in 1382 known as the Harelle. The regency lasted until 1388, always with Philip assuming the dominant role: Louis of Anjou spent much effort fighting for his claim to the Kingdom of Naples after 1382 and died in 1384, John of Berry was interested mainly in the Languedocand not particularly interested in politics, and Louis of Bourbon was largely an unimportant figure due to his personality (he showed signs of mental instability) and his status (since he was not the son of a king). However, Philip, along with John of Berry and Louis of Bourbon, lost most of their power at court in 1388, when Charles VI chose to favour the advice of the Marmousets, his personal advisors, over that of his uncles when he attained his majority.
In 1392, events conspired to allow Philip to seize power once more in France. Charles VI's friend and advisor Olivier de Clisson had recently been the target of an assassination attempt by agents of John V, Duke of Brittany. The would-be assassin, Pierre de Craon, had taken refuge in Brittany. Charles, outraged at these events, determined to punish Craon, and on 1 July 1392 led an expedition against Brittany. While travelling to Brittany, the king, already overwrought by the slow progress, was shocked by a madman who spent half-an-hour following the procession to warn the king that he had been betrayed. When a page dropped a lance, the king reacted by killing several of his knights and had to be wrestled to the ground. Philip, who was present, immediately assumed command and appointed himself regent, dismissing Charles' advisors. He was the principal ruler of France until 1402.
His seizure of power, however, had disastrous consequences for the unity of the House of Valois and of France itself. The king's brother Louis, Duke of Orléans, resented his uncle taking over as regent instead of himself; the result was a feud between Philip and Louis that continued after their deaths by their families. In particular, both quarrelled over royal funds, which each desired to appropriate for his own ends: Louis to fund his extravagant lifestyle, Philip to further his expansionist ambitions in Burgundy and the Low Countries. This struggle only served to enhance the reputation of Philip, since he appeared to be a sober and honest reformer in comparison to the profligate and irresponsible Louis. Although Charles VI confirmed his brother as regent in 1402 in a rare moment of sanity, Louis's misrule allowed Philip to regain control of France as regent in 1404, shortly before his death.
In 1395, Philip the Bold outlawed cultivation of the Gamay grape in favour of Pinot Noir in an early example of agricultural regulation related to wine quality.
Philip died in Halle, County of Hainaut (modern Belgium), on 27 April 1404. His territories were bequeathed to his eldest son John the Fearless, who also inherited Philip's political position in France and the leadership of the Burgundian branch of the Valois family against the Orléans branch.
In 1378, Philip the Bold acquired the domain of Champmol, just outside Dijon, to build the Chartreuse de Champmol (1383–1388), a Carthusian monastery ("Charterhouse"), which he intended to house the tombs of his dynasty. His tomb, with pleurants and his recumbent effigy, is an outstanding work of Burgundian sculpture. They were created by Jean de Marville (1381–1389), Claus Sluter (1389–1406) and Claus de Werve (1406–1410). Jean Malouel, official painter to the duke, was responsible for the polychrome and gilt decoration. After his death, the body of Philip the Bold was eviscerated and embalmed, then placed in a lead coffin. It was then deposited in the choir of Chartreuse de Champmol on 16 June 1404. His internal organs were sent to the church of Saint Martin at Halle. In 1792, his body was transferred to Dijon Cathedral, and in the following year, his tomb was damaged by revolutionaries and looters. It was restored in the first half of the 19th century and today it is in housed the former palace of the dukes, now part of the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon.
Philip the Bold married Margaret III, Countess of Flanders, on 19 June 1369,a marriage that would eventually reunite not only the Duchy of Burgundy with the Free County of Burgundy and the County of Artois, but also unite it to the rich County of Flanders. Philip and Margaret had the following children:
In arranging the marriages of his children, Philip followed an intelligent diplomatic and strategic design that would be followed by his successors in Burgundy as far as Emperor Maximilian I. For example, the double marriage in 1385 at Cambrai of his son, John the Fearless, and his daughter, Marguerite, to Margaret of Bavaria and William of Bavaria, son and daughter of Albert, Count of Hainault and Holland, prepared the later union of Hainault and Holland with Burgundy and Flanders, as carried out by Philip's grandson, Philip the Good. The marriages also inserted the new Valois Burgundy dynasty into the Wittelsbach network of alliances: the other daughters of Count Albert married William I, Duke of Guelders and Wenceslaus, King of Bohemia; their cousin, Isabeau of Bavaria married Charles VI of France, and became Queen of France.
In addition to his alliance with the low county Bavarians, Philip also made links with the Dukes of Austria and of Savoy by marrying his daughter Catherine to Leopold IV of Austria and his daughter Mary to Amadeus VIII of Savoy.
See also: Dukes of Burgundy family tree
Few of Philip the Bold's residences are still extant. Apart from several elements of the ducal palace in Dijon (Tour de Bar), the Château de Germolles is largely preserved. This residence was offered to his wife, Margaret III, Countess of Flanders in 1381. The princess transformed the old fortress into a luxurious home with the help of artists from the Burgundian School Claus Sluter and Jean de Beaumetz.
|Ancestors of Philip the Bold|
The House of Valois was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty. They succeeded the House of Capet to the French throne, and were the royal house of France from 1328 to 1589. Junior members of the family founded cadet branches in Orléans, Anjou, Burgundy, and Alençon.
The count of Flanders was the ruler or sub-ruler of the county of Flanders, beginning in the 9th century. The title was held for a time by the rulers of the Holy Roman Empire and Spain. During the French Revolution in 1790, the county of Flanders was annexed to France and ceased to exist. In the 19th century, the title was appropriated by Belgium and granted twice to younger sons of Belgian kings. The most recent holder died in 1983.
Duke of Burgundy was a title used by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy, from its establishment in 843 to its annexation by France in 1477, and later by Habsburg sovereigns of the Low Countries (1482-1556).
The Free County of Burgundy was a medieval county of the Holy Roman Empire, within the modern region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, whose name is still reminiscent of the title of its count: Freigraf. It should not be confused with the more westerly Duchy of Burgundy, a fiefdom of Francia since 843.
The Duchy of Burgundy emerged in the 9th century as one of the successors of the ancient Kingdom of the Burgundians, which after its conquest in 532 had formed a constituent part of the Frankish Empire. Upon the 9th-century partitions, the French remnants of the Burgundian kingdom were reduced to a ducal rank by King Robert II of France in 1004. Robert II's son and heir, King Henry I of France, inherited the duchy but ceded it to his younger brother Robert in 1032. Other portions had passed to the Imperial Kingdom of Arles and the County of Burgundy (Franche-Comté).
Philip the Good was Duke of Burgundy from 1419 until his death. He was a member of a cadet line of the Valois dynasty, to which all the 15th-century kings of France belonged. During his reign, the Burgundian State reached the apex of its prosperity and prestige and became a leading center of the arts. Philip is known in history for his administrative reforms, his patronage of Flemish artists such as Jan van Eyck and Franco-Flemish composers such as Gilles Binchois, and the capture of Joan of Arc. In political affairs, he alternated between alliances with the English and the French in an attempt to improve his dynasty's position. As ruler of Flanders, Brabant, Limburg, Artois, Hainaut, Holland, Luxembourg, Zeeland, Friesland and Namur, he played an important role in the history of the Low Countries.
Philip of Rouvres was the Count of Burgundy and Count of Artois from 1347, Duke of Burgundy from 1349, and Count of Auvergne and Boulogne from 1360. He was the only son of Philip, heir to the Duchy of Burgundy, and Joan I, heiress of Auvergne and Boulogne.
John the Fearless was a scion of the French royal family who ruled the Burgundian State from 1404 until his death in 1419. He played a key role in French national affairs during the early 15th century, particularly in the struggles to rule the country for the mentally ill King Charles VI, his cousin, and the Hundred Years' War with England. A rash, ruthless and unscrupulous politician, John the Fearless murdered the King's brother, the Duke of Orléans, in an attempt to gain control of the government, which led to the eruption of the Armagnac–Burgundian Civil War in France and in turn culminated in his own assassination in 1419.
Anthony, Duke of Brabant, also known as Antoine de Brabant, Antoine de Bourgogne and Anthony of Burgundy, was Count of Rethel (1402–1406), Duke of Brabant, Lothier and Limburg (1406–1415), and Co-Duke of Luxemburg (1411-1415). He was killed at the battle of Agincourt.
Margaret III was the last Countess of Flanders of the House of Dampierre, as well as Countess of Artois and Countess of Burgundy. She was the only surviving child and heir of Louis II, Count of Flanders (1346–1384) and Margaret of Brabant.
In the history of the Low Countries, the Burgundian Netherlands were a number of Imperial and French fiefs ruled in personal union by the House of Valois-Burgundy in the period from 1384 to 1482 and later their Habsburg heirs. They constituted the Northern part of the Burgundian State. The area comprised the major parts of present-day Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg and Hauts-de-France.
The Burgundian party was a political allegiance against France that formed during the latter half of the Hundred Years' War. The term "Burgundians" refers to the supporters of the Duke of Burgundy, John the Fearless, that formed after the assassination of Louis I, Duke of Orléans. Their opposition to the Armagnac party, the supporters of Charles, Duke of Orléans, led to a civil war.
Margaret of Nevers, also known as Margaret of Burgundy, was Dauphine of France and Duchess of Guyenne as the daughter-in-law of King Charles VI of France. A pawn in the dynastic struggles between her family and in-laws during the Hundred Years' War, Margaret was twice envisaged to become Queen of France.
Margaret of Bavaria,, was Duchess of Burgundy by marriage to John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy. She was the regent of the Burgundian Low countries during the absence of her spouse in 1404–1419 and the regent in French Burgundy during the absence of her son in 1419–1423. She became most known for her successful defense of French Burgundy against John IV, Count of Armagnac in 1419.
The House of Valois-Burgundy, or the Younger House of Burgundy, was a noble French family deriving from the royal House of Valois. It is distinct from the Capetian House of Burgundy, descendants of King Robert II of France, though both houses stem from the Capetian dynasty. They ruled the Duchy of Burgundy from 1363 to 1482 and later came to rule vast lands including Artois, Flanders, Luxembourg, Hainault, the county palatine of Burgundy (Franche-Comté), and other lands through marriage, forming what is now known as the Burgundian State.
Bonne of Artois was Countess consort of Nevers by marriage to Philip II, Count of Nevers, and Duchess consort of Burgundy by marriage to Philip III, Duke of Burgundy. She served as regent of the County of Nevers during the minority of her son from 1415 until 1424.
Philippe Pot (1428–1493) was a Burgundian nobleman, military leader, and diplomat. He was the seigneur of La Roche and Thorey-sur-Ouche, a Knight of the Golden Fleece, and the Grand Seneschal of Burgundy.
The Chartreuse de Champmol, formally the Chartreuse de la Sainte-Trinité de Champmol, was a Carthusian monastery on the outskirts of Dijon, which is now in France, but in the 15th century was the capital of the Duchy of Burgundy. The monastery was founded in 1383 by Duke Philip the Bold to provide a dynastic burial place for the Valois Dukes of Burgundy, and operated until it was dissolved in 1791, during the French Revolution. Called "the grandest project in a reign renowned for extravagance", it was lavishly enriched with works of art, and the dispersed remnants of its collection remain key to the understanding of the art of the period.
The County of Ferrette was a feudal jurisdiction in Alsace in the Middle Ages and the early modern period. It roughly corresponds with the Sundgau and comprised the lordships of Ferrette (Pfirt), Altkirch, Thann, Belfort, Rougemont and others. These territories were not contiguous, but formed a patchwork of jurisdictions under the Holy Roman Empire.
The Burgundian State is a concept coined by historians to describe the vast complex of territories that is also referred to as Valois Burgundy. It developed in the Late Middle Ages under the rule of the dukes of Burgundy from the French House of Valois, which was composed of French and imperial fiefs. That territorial construction outlasted the properly 'Burgundian' dynasty and the loss of the Duchy of Burgundy itself. As such, it must not be confused with that sole fief.
Philip the Bold
Cadet branch of the House of ValoisBorn: 15 January 1342 Died: 27 April 1404
|Title created|| Duke of Touraine |
| Duke of Burgundy |
John the Fearless
| Count of Charolais |
Louis of Male
| Count of Nevers |
| Count Palatine of Burgundy |
Count of Artois and Flanders
with Margaret II & III
Margaret II & III
as sole ruler
| Count of Rethel |