Philipp III, Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg

Last updated
Philipp III, Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg
Born(1482-10-18)18 October 1482
Died15 May 1538(1538-05-15) (aged 55)
Bouxwiller
BuriedSt. Nikolaus Church in Babenhausen
Noble family House of Hanau
Spouse(s) Sibylle of Baden
Father Philipp II, Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg
Mother Anna of Isenburg-Büdingen

Philipp III of Hanau-Lichtenberg (18 October 1482 15 May 1538, [1] Bouxwiller (German : Buchsweiler)) was the third Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg.

Contents

Childhood and youth

Philipp III was the eldest son of Count Philipp II of Hanau-Lichtenberg and his wife Anna of Isenburg-Büdingen.

During the War of the Succession of Landshut (1503–1505) between Bavaria and the Electorate of the Palatinate, Philipp's father had remained neutral. Philipp, however, had sided with the Palatinate and against his father. The Palatinate side lost the war and an imperial ban was issued by the King of the Romans and later Emperor, Maximilian I, against their leaders, who were accused of breaching the peace. Wilhelm II, Landgrave of Hesse was tasked with enforcing this ban. He destroyed the rural district of Babenhausen before Philipp II managed, with Maximilian I's help, and the fact that Babenhausen, as a Bohemian fief, indirectly belonged to the Habsburg family, to curb the campaign against his possessions. Nevertheless, Maximilian I resented Philipp III for having fought on the losing side.

Government

Due to his siding with the Palatinate during the Landshut War of Succession, Count Philipp III was under an imperial ban when he succeeded his father in 1504. The final settlement of the war at the Diet of Cologne in 1505 required him to assign his half share in the condominium of Groß-Umstadt and Otzberg Castle to the Landgraviate of Hesse, as compensation for Hesse's war costs. After this settlement, the situation calmed down and the imperial ban was lifted. In 1506, he was again enfeoffed with the district of Babenhausen by King Maximilian I of Bohemia and he was even appointed as an imperial councillor. Nearly two decades later, in 1521, he was partly compensated by Hesse and the Palatinate for his losses after the Landshut War of Succession, with Kleestadt and Langstadt and cash payment of 16000florins. So in the end, his losses were not that big.

Philipp III had to share his inheritance with his younger brothers Ludwig and Reinhard. They decided not to divide the county. In 1513, Ludwig received the district of Buchsweiler, but he later swapped it for an annual pension of 500 florins plus the right to use the Hanau-Lichtenberg residence in Strasbourg. Some territory was assigned to Reinhard, but this fell back to Philipp III when Reinhard died.

After long negotiations, Philipp reached an agreement with his relatives of the House of Zweibrücken-Bitsch. The condominia of Willstätt and Brumath were divided, with Hanau-Lichtenberg receiving Willstätt and Zweibrücken-Bitsch receiving Brumath.

The German Peasants' War also happened during Philipp's reign. On behalf of the Palatinate, he fought against farmers in the Hettgau region, including his own subjects. At the same time, he took advantage of the unrest and invaded the monastery at Neuwiller-lès-Saverne and plundered it. The situation slipped out of his control and on 6 May 1525, farmers looted his castle in Bouxwiller. He had to call in Duke Antoine of Lorraine for help. Antoine defeated the peasants and the 18 municipalities of the Buchsweiler district submitted themselves to Philipp III again. They were sentenced to heavy fines and had to swear a new oath of allegiance. They also had to abandon their weapons and gatherings were banned.

Philipp III was not squeamish. For example, Albrecht von Berwangen, one of his officials, had gone on strike, because his salary had not been paid. Philipp had killed Albrecht and had to answer to murder charges before both the Aulic Council and the Reichskammergericht. He pleaded self-defense not very credible because of the mangled condition of the corpse. Philipp was sentenced to a fine of 500 florins. The victim's brother felt that that was not enough. He declared a feud on Philipp and allied himself with Franz von Sickingen. Together, they looted the Hanau-Lichtenberg village of Duntzenheim.

Philipp also had a never-ending series of disputes with the City of Strasbourg, due to their conflicting economic, religious and political interests.

He participated in the diets of Worms in 1521, [2] Speyer in 1526 and Regensburg in 1532. He was imperial councillor under Maximilian I and Karl V and also Councillor to Archduke Ferdinand I, the Elector Palatine and the Duke of Württemberg.

In 1528 he founded a hospital in Buchsweiler. He also created an "endowment fund" to finance the hospital. This fund developed over the years in the largest bank in the county.

Reformation

Under the reign of Count Philipp III, the Reformation slowly took hold in the County of Hanau-Lichtenberg from 1525 onwards. For example, the practice of Seelenamt was banned. On the other hand, Johannes Anglicus, who spread the new doctrine in the county, was sent into exile. Philipp III proceeded very carefully on this matter, because of the political consequences. Factors he was taking into account included the revolutionary ideas that had been spread among the peasants, his foreign policy, in particular with regard to the neighbouring Archbishopric of Mainz, his aversion to the bourgeois, Protestant Strasbourg and his wife, who was devoted uncompromisingly to the Roman-Catholic faith.

Death

Grave slab of Philipp III of Hanau-Lichtenberg in the St. Nikolaus Church in Babenhausen Bh Stadtkirche PhIIIHuL.jpg
Grave slab of Philipp III of Hanau-Lichtenberg in the St. Nikolaus Church in Babenhausen

A few years before his death, Philipp III became ill and handed the reins of government to his son and successor, Philipp IV.

Philipp III died on 15 May 1538 in Buchsweiler and was buried in the family crypt in the St. Nikolaus Church in Babenhausen. His grave stone can still be seen in the church [3] and his funeral shield is on display in the Palace Museum Darmstadt. [4]

Marriage and issue

Philipp III married on 24 . January 1504 in Baden-Baden with Margravine Sibylle of Baden (born: 26 April 1485; died: 10 July 1518), daughter of the Margrave Christoph I of Baden-Sponheim. She brought a dowry of 5000 florins into the marriage. They had six children:

  1. Johanna (born: 1507; [5] died: 27 January 1572 at Eberstein Castle in Gernsbach), married on 6 November 1522 Count Wilhelm IV of Eberstein (born: 3 May 1497; died: 1 July 1562).
  2. Christophora (born: 1509, died: 7 March 1582), a nun from November 1526 and later the last nun abbess of Marienborn Abbey, reverted to secular status in 1559, after the dissolution of the monastery.
  3. Amalia (born: 1512, died: 5 February 1578), nun in Marienborn Abbey from November 1526, secular after dissolution of the monastery in 1559, buried on 7 February 1578 in the St. Nikolaus church in Babenhausen.
  4. Felicitas (born: 5 March 1513; died: November 1513). [6]
  5. Philipp IV (born: 20 October 1514; died: 19 February 1590).
  6. Felicitas (born: 1516; died: 27 August 1551? [7] at Babenhausen or, according to other sources, after 1559), [8] nun in Marienborn Abbey from November 1526.

Ancestors

References and sources

Footnotes

  1. The certificate D7:1/1 in the State Archive in Darmstadt says it was on 14 February 1538
  2. Cf. Zimmern Chronicle, vol. 2, p. 230 Online
  3. Scholz, inscriptions, p. 168
  4. Scholz, inscriptions, p. 169
  5. Goltz, p. 65
  6. see Suchier, notes 92 and 93
  7. see Suchier, p. 20
  8. She is mentioned as having received severance pay when the monastery was dissolved in 1559
Philipp III, Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg
House of Hanau
Born: 18 October 1482 Died: 15 May 1538
Preceded by
Philipp II
Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg
1504–1538
Succeeded by
Philipp IV

Related Research Articles

Johann Reinhard III, Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg and Count of Hanau-Münzenberg

Johann Reinhard III of Hanau-Lichtenberg was the last of the counts of Hanau-Lichtenberg. He reigned from 1680 to 1736. From 1712 to 1736, he also reigned the County of Hanau-Münzenberg.

Johann Reinhard II, Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg German aristocrat

Count Johann Reinhard II of Hanau-Lichtenberg was a younger son of Count Philipp Wolfgang of Hanau-Lichtenberg (1595–1641) and Countess Johanna of Oettingen-Oettingen.

Countess Palatine Anna Magdalena of Birkenfeld-Bischweiler Countess of Hanau-Lichtenberg

Countess Palatine Anna Magdalena of Birkenfeld-Bischweiler was a daughter of Christian I, Count Palatine of Birkenfeld-Bischweiler (1598–1654) and his first wife, Countess Palatine Magdalene Catherine of Zweibrücken (1606–1648).

Philipp Wolfgang, Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg was a count of Hanau-Lichtenberg. He ruled the county from 1625 until his death.

Johann Reinhard I, Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg

Count Johann Reinhard I of Hanau-Lichtenberg ruled the county of Hanau-Lichtenberg from 1599 to 1625.

Philipp Reinhard, Count of Hanau-Münzenberg Count of Hanau-Münzenberg

Philipp Reinhard of Hanau-Münzenberg from 1680 to 1712 in the County of Hanau-Münzenberg.

Philipp III, Count of Hanau-Münzenberg Count of Hanau-Münzenberg

Count Phillip III of Hanau-Münzenberg ruled the County of Hanau-Münzenberg from 1529 until his death.

Philipp V, Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg from 1590 to 1599

Philipp V of Hanau-Lichtenberg was Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg from 1590 until his death.

Ludowika Margaretha of Zweibrücken-Bitsch, was the only child and heiress of Count James of Zweibrücken-Bitsch by his wife Catherine, born Countess of Honstein zu Klettenberg. She was buried in Ingwiller.

Philipp IV of Hanau-Lichtenberg was from 1538 to 1590 the reigning Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg. Before his accession he had already conducted government business on behalf of his father, Count Philipp III. He was very interested in alchemy.

Philipp II of Hanau-Lichtenberg ruled the County of Hanau-Lichtenberg from 1480 until his death.

Philipp I, Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg

Philipp I, Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg was Count of Hanau. The county was divided between him and his nephew, Count Philipp I "the Younger". Philipp the Elder's part of the county was later called Hanau-Lichtenberg; Philipp the Younger's part is known as Hanau-Münzenberg.

Eleonore of Fürstenberg was a daughter of Count Frederick III of Fürstenberg. Eleanore was a convinced Protestant. However, she had little influence on the change of denomination in Hanau-Lichtenberg, due to her untimely death.

Count Johann Philipp of Hanau-Lichtenberg was a son of Count Philipp Wolfgang (1595–1641) and his wife, Countess Johanna of Oettingen-Oettingen (1602–1639).

Sibylle of Baden Countess consort of Hanau-Lichtenberg

Sibylle of Baden was a Margravine of Baden by birth and by marriage, Countess of Hanau-Lichtenberg. She was a daughter of Margrave Christoph I of Baden and his wife, Countess Ottilie of Katzenelnbogen, the daughter of Philip the Younger of Katzenelnbogen and thus a granddaughter of Philipp I, Count of Katzenelnbogen.

Princess Charlotte Wilhelmine of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Countess of Hanau-Münzenberg

Princess Charlotte Wilhelmine of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld was a German princess by birth and Countess of Hanau-Münzenberg by marriage.

Wilhelm IV of Eberstein Count of Eberstein and President of the Reichskammergericht

Count Wilhelm IV of Eberstein was a member of the Swabian noble Eberstein family. His father, Bernhard III (1459–1526) was president of the Reichskammergericht from 1510 to 1520. His mother was Countess Kunigunde of Sonnenberg (1472–1538).

Johanna of Hanau-Lichtenberg, Countess of Eberstein Countess of Hanau by birth, and Countess of Eberstein by marriage

Johanna of Hanau-Lichtenberg, Countess of Eberstein was a German noblewoman, the eldest daughter of Philipp III, Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg and Margravine Sibylle of Baden.

The County of Hanau-Lichtenberg was a territory in the Holy Roman Empire. It emerged between 1456–80 from a part of the County of Hanau and one half of the Barony of Lichtenberg. Following the extinction of the counts of Hanau-Lichtenberg in 1736 it went to Hesse-Darmstadt, minor parts of it to the Hesse-Cassel. Its centre was in the lower Alsace, the capital first Babenhausen, later Buchsweiler.

Anna of Isenburg-Büdingen German noblewoman

Anna of Isenburg-Büdingen was a German noblewoman. She was a daughter of Count Louis II of Isenburg-Büdingen and Countess Maria of Nassau-Wiesbaden-Idstein.