Philippine Constabulary

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Philippine Constabulary
Hukbóng Pamayapà ng Pilipinas
Constabularia Filipina
Philippine Constabulary Seal (1901-1914).png Insignia of the Philippine Constabulary.svg Philippine Constabulary Seal (1975-1991).svg
Insignia of the Philippine Constabulary. Left (1901–1914), center (1914–1975) and right (1975–1991)
ActiveAugust 18, 1901 – January 29, 1991
Disbanded1991
Country Philippines
AllegianceFlag of the United States (1896-1908).svg  United States (1901-1935)
Flag of the Philippines (navy blue).svg  Commonwealth of the Philippines (1935-1946)
Flag of the Philippines (navy blue).svg  Republic of the Philippines (1946-1991)
Type Constabulary
Motto(s)Always outnumbered but never outfought!
Engagements Philippine–American War
Moro Rebellion
World War II
* Japanese Invasion (1941–1942)
* Allied Liberation (1944–45)
Hukbalahap Rebellion
Cornelius C. Smith (far right), a recipient of the Medal of Honor, as commander of the Philippine Constabulary with Brig. Gen. John J. Pershing and Moro chieftains in 1910. Smith participated in expeditions against the Moro rebels for much of his time in the Philippines. Major Cornelius C. Smith 1910.jpg
Cornelius C. Smith (far right), a recipient of the Medal of Honor, as commander of the Philippine Constabulary with Brig. Gen. John J. Pershing and Moro chieftains in 1910. Smith participated in expeditions against the Moro rebels for much of his time in the Philippines.
"The Philippine constabulary guard with shore party of Hubert A. Paton. Off the Pathfinder", Philippines, 1926 from the Historic Coast & Geodetic Survey (C&GS) Collection, NOAA Photo Library. Theb3327.jpg
"The Philippine constabulary guard with shore party of Hubert A. Paton. Off the Pathfinder", Philippines, 1926 from the Historic Coast & Geodetic Survey (C&GS) Collection, NOAA Photo Library.

The Philippine Constabulary (PC; Filipino: Hukbóng Pamayapà ng Pilipinas, HPP; Spanish: Constabularia Filipina, CF) was a gendarmerie-type police force of the Philippines from 1901 to 1991. It was created by the American colonial government to replace the Spanish colonial Guardia Civil. [1] It was the first of the four service commands of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. On January 29, 1991, it was merged with the Integrated National Police to form the Philippine National Police.

Filipino language official language of the Philippines

Filipino is the national language of the Philippines. Filipino is also designated, along with English, as an official language of the country. It is a standardized variety of the Tagalog language, an Austronesian regional language that is widely spoken in the Philippines. As of 2007, Tagalog is the first language of 28 million people, or about one-third of the Philippine population, while 45 million speak Tagalog as their second language. Tagalog is among the 185 languages of the Philippines identified in the Ethnologue. Officially, Filipino is defined by the Commission on the Filipino Language as "the native dialect, spoken and written, in Metro Manila, the National Capital Region, and in other urban centers of the archipelago."

Spanish language Romance language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Iberian Peninsula and today has over 450 million native speakers in Spain and in the Americas. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.

Gendarmerie military force charged with police duties among civilian populations

A gendarmerie or gendarmery is a military component with jurisdiction in civil law enforcement. The term gendarme is derived from the medieval French expression gens d'armes, which translates to "armed people". In France and some Francophone nations, the gendarmerie is a branch of the armed forces responsible for internal security in parts of the territory with additional duties as a military police for the armed forces. This concept was introduced to several other Western European countries during the Napoleonic conquests. In the mid twentieth century, a number of former French mandates or colonial possessions such as Lebanon, Syria, and the Republic of the Congo adopted a gendarmerie after independence.

Contents

History

Two Constables posing for a photo in the New York Tribune' in 1905. Filipino Constabulary 1905.jpg
Two Constables posing for a photo in the New York Tribune' in 1905.
Philippine Constabulary in 1910 Review of reviews and world's work (1890) (14779332801).jpg
Philippine Constabulary in 1910

The Philippine Constabulary (PC) was established on August 18, 1901, under the general supervision of the civil Governor-General of the Philippines, by authority of Act. No. 175 of the Second Philippine Commission, for the purpose of maintaining peace, law, and order in the various provinces of the Philippine Islands. [2] By the end of 1901, a total of 180 officers had been commissioned. [3]

The constabulary assisted the United States military in combating the remaining irreconcilable revolutionaries following the March 23 capture of General Emilio Aguinaldo and his 1 April pledge of allegiance to the United States. This phase of the Philippine–American War ended in Luzon by 1906, with the surrender and execution of one of its last remaining generals, Macario Sakay.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City. Most of the country is located contiguously in North America between Canada and Mexico.

Emilio Aguinaldo First president of the Philippines, revolutionary leader

Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy was a Filipino revolutionary, politician and military leader who is officially recognized as the first and the youngest President of the Philippines (1899–1901) and first president of a constitutional republic in Asia. He led Philippine forces first against Spain in the latter part of the Philippine Revolution (1896–1898), and then in the Spanish–American War (1898), and finally against the United States during the Philippine–American War (1899–1901).

Philippine–American War Armed conflict between the First Philippine Republic and the United States

The Philippine–American War, also referred to as the Filipino–American War, the Philippine War, the Philippine Insurrection or the Tagalog Insurgency, was an armed conflict between the First Philippine Republic and the United States that lasted from February 4, 1899, to July 2, 1902. While Filipino nationalists viewed the conflict as a continuation of the struggle for independence that began in 1896 with the Philippine Revolution, the U.S. government regarded it as an insurrection. The conflict arose when the First Philippine Republic objected to the terms of the Treaty of Paris under which the United States took possession of the Philippines from Spain, ending the short Spanish–American War.

Continued disorder and brigandry prompted Governor-General William Howard Taft to maintain the PC to combat insurgents. Captain Henry T. Allen of the 6th U.S. Cavalry, a Kentucky-born graduate of West Point (Class 1882), was named as the chief of the force, and was later dubbed as the "Father of the Philippine Constabulary". With the help of four other army officers, Captains David Baker, W. Goldsborough, H. Atkinson, and J.S. Garwood, Captain Allen organized the force, trained, equipped and armed the men as best as could be done at the time. Although the bulk of the officers were recruited from among U.S. commissioned and non-commissioned officers, two Filipinos qualified for appointment as 3rd Lieutenants during the first month of the PC: Jose Velasquez of Nueva Ecija and Felix Llorente of Manila. Llorente retired as a Colonel in 1921 while Velasquez retired as Major in 1927.

William Howard Taft 27th president of the United States

William Howard Taft was the 27th president of the United States (1909–1913) and the tenth chief justice of the United States (1921–1930), the only person to have held both offices. Taft was elected president in 1908, the chosen successor of Theodore Roosevelt, but was defeated for re-election by Woodrow Wilson in 1912 after Roosevelt split the Republican vote by running as a third-party candidate. In 1921, President Warren G. Harding appointed Taft to be chief justice, a position in which he served until a month before his death.

Nueva Ecija Province in Central Luzon, Philippines

Nueva Ecija is a landlocked province in the Philippines located in the Central Luzon region. Its capital is the city of Palayan. Nueva Ecija borders, from the south clockwise, Bulacan, Pampanga, Tarlac, Pangasinan, Nueva Vizcaya and Aurora. The province is nationally known as the Rice Granary of the Philippines, producing the largest rice yield in the country.

Manila Capital and Highly Urbanized City in National Capital Region, Philippines

Manila, officially the City of Manila, is the capital of the Philippines and highly urbanized city. It is the most densely populated city proper in the world as of 2018. It was the first chartered city by virtue of the Philippine Commission Act 183 on July 31, 1901 and gained autonomy with the passage of Republic Act No. 409 or the "Revised Charter of the City of Manila" on June 18, 1949. Manila, alongside Mexico City and Madrid are considered the world's original set of Global Cities due to Manila's commercial networks being the first to traverse the Pacific Ocean, thus connecting Asia with the Spanish Americas, marking the first time in world history when an uninterrupted chain of trade routes circled the planet. Manila has been damaged by and rebuilt from wars more times than the famed city of Troy and it is also the second most natural disaster-afflicted capital city in the world next to Tokyo, yet it is simultaneously among the most populous and wealthiest cities in Southeast Asia.

The Philippine Constabulary Band was formed on October 15, 1902 by Colonel Walter Loving upon the instructions of Governor-General Taft, who was known as a music lover. The 86-piece band toured the United States to great acclaim, leading the parade in Washington, D.C. to celebrate Taft's 1909 presidential inauguration, and performing at the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition and the 1915 World's Fair. Before the First World War, the PC Band would serve as a source of national pride.

Philippine Constabulary Band

The Philippine Constabulary Band was the principal military band of the Philippine Constabulary, and later, as the Philippine Army Orchestra, of the Army of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. Between its establishment in 1901 and dissolution during World War II, it registered a reputation for musical excellence both in the Philippines and the United States, and is credited with being the first band other than the United States Marine Band to provide the musical escort to the President of the United States during a U.S. presidential inauguration. The Philippine Army Band considers itself the successor to the Philippine Constabulary Band.

Washington, D.C. Capital of the United States

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, the first president of the United States and a Founding Father. As the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city, located on the Potomac River bordering Maryland and Virginia, is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually.

United States presidential inauguration Swearing in ceremony commencing a Presidents 4 year term

The inauguration of the president of the United States is a ceremony to mark the commencement of a new four-year term of the president of the United States. This ceremony takes place for each new presidential term, even if the president is continuing in office for a second term. Since 1937, it has taken place on January 20, which is 72 to 78 days after the November presidential election. The term of a president commences at noon on that day, when the chief justice of the United States administers the oath of office to the president. However, when January 20 falls on a Sunday, the chief justice administers the oath to the president on that day privately and then again in a public ceremony the next day, on Monday, January 21. The most recent presidential inauguration ceremony was the swearing in of Donald Trump to a four-year term of office on Friday, January 20, 2017.

Philippine Military Academy

A school for the constabulary was established on February 17, 1905 at the Santa Lucia barracks in Intramuros. In 1908, the school was transferred to Baguio. In 1916 the school was renamed Academy for Officers of the Philippine Constabulary. In 1926, the school was renamed the Philippine Constabulary Academy.

Intramuros Place in National Capital Region, Philippines

Intramuros is the 0.67 square kilometres (0.26 sq mi) historic walled area within the modern city of Manila, the capital of the Philippines. It is administered by the Intramuros Administration (IA) with the help of the Local Government of Manila. IA was created through the Presidential Decree No. 1616 signed on April 10, 1979. IA is tasked to rebuild, redevelop, administer and preserve the remaining pre-war buildings, structures and fortifications of Intramuros.

Baguio City of the Philippines

Baguio, officially the City of Baguio and popularly referred to as Baguio City, is a city in the mountainous area of the Northern Luzon, Philippines. It is known as the Summer Capital of the Philippines, owing to its cool climate since the city is located approximately 4,810 feet above mean sea level, often cited as 1,540 meters in the Luzon tropical pine forests ecoregion, which also makes it conducive for the growth of mossy plants, orchids and pine trees, to which it attributes its other moniker as the "City of Pines".

When the Philippine Army was created in 1936, as the Philippine Commonwealth Army, the institution became the Philippine Military Academy. The school is the main source of regular officers of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP), which prior to 1991 included those of the Philippine Constabulary.

Camp Crame

In 1935, a large tract of land was acquired in New Manila Heights, now part of Quezon City. It was given by the City of Manila government in exchange for the old Gagalangin barracks compound in Tondo. Part of this tract became Camp Crame, named after Brigadier General Rafael Cramé of Rizal Province who became the first Filipino appointed Chief of the Constabulary on December 17, 1917. Other parts of the tract became Camp Murphy (now Camp Aguinaldo), and Zablan Field, site the Philippine Constabulary Air Corps (PCAC).

Reorganized as a military organization

Under the National Defense Act of 1935, the PC became the backbone of the Philippine Army, later re-established after World War II and was known as both the Philippine Constabulary and as the Military Police Command. It consisted of soldiers trained in military police duties with nationwide jurisdiction.

The move to abolish the national police force and to make it a nucleus of a Philippine Army got underway when the Army of the Philippines was created in 1936. Thus, the transfer of the PC to the regular force of the new military organization was effected under the provisions of Sec. 18 of the National Defense Act, and pursuant to Executive Order No. 11 of President Manuel L. Quezon dated January 11, 1936. The Constabulary was inactivated on this date and was known as the Constabulary Division, Philippine Army. The PC was not gone but got submerged in a bigger organization. Thereafter, the insular police duties, formally reposed in the PC, was discharged by a "State Police" created by Commonwealth Act No. 88 dated October 26, 1936.

After turning over the former Constabulary duties to a State Police, which proved to be short-lived and unsuccessful, the Constabulary was revived as a military police force on June 23, 1938 by Commonwealth Act No. 343. By operation of the CA 343, the State Police was abolished and its military police duties reverted to the PC. President Quezon himself recommended to the National Assembly that the State Police be abolished and in its place the PC was to be reconstituted into a separate organization, distinct and divorced from the Philippine Army, which was for "national defense".

The PC once again existed as an independent force retaining all duties in maintaining peace and order and protection of life and property. One of the most significant provisions of the law re-creating it was that which provided that officers and enlisted men detached from the army and transferred to the PC shall retain their identity and legal rights and obligations as officers and enlisted men of the army; that the President may, at his discretion, transfer at any time any officer or enlisted man to and from the army to the Constabulary, respectively; and that all services performed in the Constabulary shall count for all legal purposes as military service. Thus, began the linear roster of officers for both the Constabulary and the Armed forces up until the PC was merged with the Integrated National Police in 1991.

World War II

Members of the First Regiment swearing to the U.S. Flag and to the cause of the United Nations. February or March 1942. PH constabulary pledge to US and UN.jpg
Members of the First Regiment swearing to the U.S. Flag and to the cause of the United Nations. February or March 1942.

In May 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaimed a state of emergency in the continental United States and all American overseas possessions including the Philippines. With the organisation of the United States Army Forces in the Far East in July, the Philippine Commonwealth Army and the Constabulary prepared their combat units. The PC was inducted to the USAFFE and was formed into three infantry regiments for participation in national defence.

On October 15, the 1st PC Regt. was inducted into the USAFFE by Brig, Gen. George M. Parker in Camp Crame, after which it was moved to the Balara cantonment area in Quezon City, where the men were trained as a combat team on the regimental level.

The 2nd and 3rd Regts. were inducted into the USAFFE on November 17 and December 12, respectively. The 1st and the 2nd were assigned to safeguard public utilities vital to the survival of the growing population of the City of Greater Manila.

War broke out on December 8, 1941. The two PC regiments less the 2nd Battalion of the 1st which was ordered to proceed to Bataan immediately, were assigned in Manila to arrest all aliens believed to be sympathetic with the enemy. In additions, these units were ordered to safeguard centers of communication and all public utilities in the city and of securing the metropolitan area against subversive elements. Soon, a protective cordon around Manila was formed by units of the two PC regiments.

By January 1942, most of the "constables" were in Bataan peninsula with other Fil-American troops. "On Bataan and Corregidor, in Aparri, Lingayen and Atimonan, everywhere in the islands were the invaders dread to set foot, Constabulary troops distinguished themselves in action against overwhelming odds."

On December 29, the 4th PC Regiment was activated and constituted by PC units from the provinces of Bataan, Bulacan, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Tarlac, and Zambales. Two days later, the regiment was ordered to Bataan.

To prevent the unnecessary slaughter of his war-weary troops, Maj. General Edward P. King Jr., the Commanding Officer of the Southern Luzon Force, negotiated with the Japanese High Command the surrender of the Bataan-based Filipino American troops. Bataan fell on the 9 April 1942 and thousands of Filipino-American servicemen who had defended it became prisoners of war. A large number of Constabulary men died in the battle and in the infamous Bataan Death March. Many more died at the concentration camp in Capas, Tarlac.

The Philippines was liberated late in 1944 and early in 1945. Thereafter, the problem of restoring peace and order from the general chaos and disorder arising from the war came up. The Constabulary went on active service with the Philippine Commonwealth Army by virtue of President Sergio Osmeña's Executive Order 21, dated Oct. 28, 1944. In the reorganization, that followed, the Military Police Command, USAFFE, was created pursuant to USAFFE General Orders No. 50 Another Order, General Orders No. 51 dated July 7, 1945 redesignated the organization as MPC, AFWESPAC.

Bureau of Constabulary

According to Robert Lapham, an American officer who had headed to the jungles to fight instead of obeying General MacArthur's order to surrender and had become a guerrilla commander, constabulary chief Gen. Guillermo Francisco had been "de-Americanized" by the Japanese after the surrender of Bataan, after which, they "half trusted him to do their will". [4] Francisco and his men pursued "bandits and cut-throats, which was good in itself and which allowed them to look good to their Japanese overlords, but it was known among many of his officers and some outsiders as well that he and most of his men were just waiting for an opportune time to change sides." [5]

During the Japanese occupation, the enemy, through the use of force and threats, organized their own version of the Philippine Constabulary which they called the Bureau of Constabulary; it was later renamed to match the pre-war Constabulary with the creation of the Second Republic. [6] A handful of former PC officers and men were rounded up and forced to work with this outfit, [7] with the threat that their loved ones would be harmed; majority of the men who escaped managed to find their way into the hills where they joined the resistance movement until liberation came in 1944. [7]

It is a fact that much of the stigma that haunted the PC was the result of the establishment by the Japanese of their version of the Constabulary. Many had the wrong impression that the occupation Constabulary was the same force as that of the pre-war organization.[ citation needed ]

Post war

A major revamp in the Armed Forces was effected on March 30, 1950 when President Elpidio Quirino issued Executive Order No. 308 which called for the merger of the Philippine Constabulary with the Armed Forces, making it one more major service command. This was the second time the PC returned to a military force. Due to the unstable peace and order conditions existing in the countrysides brought about by the resurgence of the Hukbalahap (Huk) which require more personnel strength, the Philippine Army was called upon to assist in the pacification drive with the employment of its combat arms – the Battalion Combat Teams or BCTs, with PC men absorbed by the BCTs. It was by virtue of E.O. 308 and pursuant to Administrative Order No. 113, dated April 1, 1950, the PC was formally merged with the Armed Forces of the Philippines; the merger was completed on July 27, the same year. [8] Under the E.O., the power of executive supervision and all authority and duties exercised by the Secretary of Interior in relation to the PC or its individual members were transferred to and exercised by the Secretary of National Defense. With the appointment, on American advice, of former USAFFE guerilla Rep. Ramon Magsaysay as Secretary of National Defense in September 1950 and the subsequent appropriation by Congress of more funds for the drive against the Communist movement in the Philippines, more BCTs were formed. [9]

The delineation of the missions of the then four major services – Philippine Army, Philippine Constabulary, Philippine Navy, and Philippine Air Force – were underlined by EO No. 389 dated December 23, 1950, which abolished the Philippine Service Command and the Philippine Ground Force. Headquarters Armed Forces of the Philippines became known as "General Headquarters, Armed Forces of the Philippines"; while General Headquarters, Philippine Constabulary became known as "Headquarters, Philippine Constabulary", the nomenclature it had in the prewar years. Also, the major commands were abolished and in their places were activated the four major services. As defined in Executive Order (E.O.) No. 389, the main function of the PC was maintaining peace and order within the country and to be the country's national police force even though it was a branch then of the military.

In the reorganization that followed, the four Military areas created pursuant to EO No. 94, series 1947, were not altered substantially, but were nevertheless placed under the administrative and operational control of the AFP General Headquarters.

By 1975, the PC officially integrated the nation's municipal and city police, fire and penitentiary services, which from 1974 onward formed the Integrated National Police, into the service, thus the PC became the Philippine Constabulary-Integrated National Police (PC-INP), (Spanish: Constabularia Filipina - Policía Nacional Conjunto) as per the provisions of Presidential Decree 765, enacted on August 8 the same year, that formally fused the two services into one joint service, with joint command resting with the Chief of the PC.

Post Marcos

In 1991, it was determined that a new Philippine National Police was to be formed by merging the Integrated National Police into the Philippine Constabulary, with the PC forming the basis as it had the more developed infrastructure. The PC was then removed from the Ministry of National Defense and eventually civilianized, as part of the Department of the Interior and Local Government, through attrition and recruitment of new personnel.

As of February 2017, The Philippine president Rodrigo Duterte is contemplating whether or not the Constabulary should be revived. [10]

Missions and duties

The PC's missions were as follows:

The PC covered a very extensive range of diversified missions that through the years did not fall under its primary responsibilities. By express provision of law, the PC enforced the motor vehicles law, fishing and games law, the alien law for registration and fingerprinting, and anti-dummy law, and the nationalization of retail trade law. By direction of the President, it enforced the tenancy law, the law on scrap metal, iron and gold, ban on slaughter of carabao, and other laws. By deputation, it enforced the immigration law, customs law, forestry law, quarantine law, election law, public service law, and amusement law and weight and standards on rice and palay. As a civic function, it performed in conjunction with the SWA and the Red Cross disaster relief operations during natural calamities. The security of VIPs was a routine requirement for the constabulary.

Organization

The Chief of the Philippine Constabulary was, from 1975 onward, also the Director-General of the Integrated National Police (the municipal police, fire, and jail force for the larger towns and cities).

The PC was organized on similar lines to the army, and consisted of a General Staff located at its General Headquarters at Camp Crame, Manila, and 12 Regional Commands (under a Regional Director) consisting of 104 Provincial Commands (under a Provincial Commander); these controlled the 450 PC Companies which performed all the day-to-day military police work.

The Regions were based on the country's political regions and directly controlled the various Highway Patrol, Rangers, and investigative groups.

The PC used to have four Field Units or Command Zones (PCZs), each of which was headed by a Zone Commander (provinces are as of 1990):

Ranks of the PC

Ranks of the PC followed those first of the United States Army and later on those used by the Armed Forces of the Philippines.

Headquarters organization

Headquarters Directorates:

The Philippine Constabulary Rangers, or PC Rangers, were independent light infantry companies which served as a counter-insurgency force similar to United States Army Rangers and were organized into 12 large regional companies.

Constabulary Headquarters directly controlled many other services needed at a national level such as the Special Action Force, Central Crime Laboratory, White Collar Crime Group, and Office of Special Investigations (which was a counter intelligence group).

Other units

The Constabulary also maintained the following units:

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The Criminal Investigation and Detection Group (CIDG) is the primary investigation arm of the Philippine National Police.

References

PD-icon.svg This article incorporates  public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/ .

Citations
  1. Worcester, Dean Conant (1921). The Philippines past and present, Volumes 1–2. The Macmillan Co. pp. 380–381. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
  2. Hurley, Vic (2011). Jungle Patrol, the Story of the Philippine Constabulary (1901-1936). Cerberus Books. p.  60. ISBN   978-0-983-47562-0. Section 1. An Insular Constabulary is hereby established under the general supervision of the Civil Governor for the purpose of better maintaining peace, law, and order in the various provinces of the Philippine Islands, organized, officered and governed as hereinafter set forth, which shall be known as the Philippines Constabulary.
  3. Emerson 1996 , p.  295.
  4. Lapham, Robert; Norling, Bernard (1996). Lapham's Raiders: Guerrillas in the Philippines, 1942-1945. University Press of Kentucky. p. 78. ISBN   978-0-8131-1949-6.
  5. Lapham & Norling 1996, pp. 78-79.
  6. Salah Jubair. "The Japanese Invasion". Maranao.Com. Archived from the original on 27 July 2010. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
  7. 1 2 Hunt, Ray C.; Bernard Norling (2000). Behind Japanese Lines: An American Guerrilla in the Philippines. University Press of Kentucky. p. 107. ISBN   978-0-8131-0986-2 . Retrieved 24 February 2011.
  8. Ladwig (2014), pp. 29.
  9. Ladwig (2014), pp. 30-32.
  10. "Why Duterte wants to revive Philippine Constabulary".
Bibliography