Phragmites

Last updated

Phragmites
Phragmites australis Schilfrohr.jpg
Phragmites australis seed head in winter
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Clade: Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Arundinoideae
Tribe: Molinieae
Subtribe: Moliniinae
Genus: Phragmites
Adans.
Synonyms [1]

Phragmites ( /fræɡˈmtz/ ) is a genus of four species of large perennial reed grasses found in wetlands throughout temperate and tropical regions of the world.

Contents

Taxonomy

The World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, maintained by Kew Garden in London, accepts the following four species: [2] [1]

Three Phragmites australis seedlings: A.) very young, B.) juvenile, C.) the oldest (3-4 months). Roman numerals denote different shoot generations. Sc=scutellum.
(From Om Skudbygning, Overvintring og Foryngelse by Eugen Warming, 1884) Warming-Skudbygning-Fig10-Phragmites-australis.jpg
Three Phragmites australis seedlings: A.) very young, B.) juvenile, C.) the oldest (3-4 months). Roman numerals denote different shoot generations. Sc=scutellum.
(From Om Skudbygning, Overvintring og Foryngelse by Eugen Warming, 1884)

The cosmopolitan common reed has the generally accepted botanical name Phragmites australis. (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. About 130 other synonyms have been proposed. [1] [3] Examples include Phragmites communisTrin., Arundo phragmites L. , and Phragmites vulgaris(Lam.) Crép. (illegitimate name). [1]

Wildlife in reed beds

Common reed is very important (together with other reed-like plants) for wildlife and conservation, particularly in Europe and Asia, where several species of birds are strongly tied to large Phragmites stands. The habitats for reeds in these regions is wetlands and meadows. These include:

In Australia, reedbeds provide cover for grassbirds (Megalurus spp.), reed warblers (Acrocephalus spp.), crakes (Porzana spp.) and bitterns (Ixobrychus spp.) and the Australian bittern (Botaurus poiciloptilus).[ citation needed ]

Uses

Cultivation

P. australis is cultivated as an ornamental plant in aquatic and marginal settings such as pond- and lakesides. Its aggressive colonisation means it must be sited with care. [4]

Phytoremediation water treatment

Phragmites australis is one of the main wetland plant species used for phytoremediation water treatment.

Waste water from lavatories and greywater from kitchens is routed to an underground septic tank-like compartment where the solid waste is allowed to settle out. The water then trickles through a constructed wetland or artificial reed bed, where bioremediation bacterial action on the surface of roots and leaf litter removes some of the nutrients in biotransformation. The water is then suitable for irrigation, groundwater recharge, or release to natural watercourses.

Thatching

Reed is used in many areas for thatching roofs. In the British Isles, common reed used for this purpose is known as Norfolk reed or water reed. However, "wheat reed" and "Devon reed", also used for thatching, are not in fact reed, but long-stemmed wheat straw.[ citation needed ]

Music

Sipsi Sipsi.jpg
Sipsi
The duduk or mey mouthpiece is a flattened piece of giant reed Arundo donax a relative of common reed, which itself is flattened to make the zurna reed Anchededoudouk.jpg
The duduk or mey mouthpiece is a flattened piece of giant reed Arundo donax a relative of common reed, which itself is flattened to make the zurna reed

In Middle East countries Phragmites is used to create a small instrument similar to the clarinet called a sipsi, with either a single, as in the picture, or double pipes as in bagpipes. [5] The reed of the zurna is made from the common reed which is flattened after removing its brittle outer glaze and the loose inner membrane, and after softening it by wetting. [6] The result is a double reed with an elliptical opening that vibrates by closing and opening at a high speed. This is not to be confused with other double reeds like that of the oboe which uses two reeds made from the giant reed leaning against each other.

Food

The leaves, roots, seeds and stems of phragmites are edible. [7] Young shoots can be cooked or eaten raw just like bamboo shoots. The young stems, "while still green and fleshy, can be dried and pounded into a fine powder, which when moistened is roasted [sic] like marshmallows." The seeds and rhizomes "can be ground into flour or made into gruel." [8] In Japan, young leaves are dried, ground, and then mixed with cereal flour to make dumplings. Grazing on phragmites by large-bodied domestic herbivores, such as cows, horses, sheep, and goats, can effectively control the plant and provide a reciprocal positive benefit for humans by generating meat, milk, leather, and wool etc. [9]

Herbal medicine

The rhizomes of reeds, written as 蘆根 or 葦莖 in Chinese, were used in traditional Chinese medicine for illness related to the airways, such as cough with high fever, sticky and white phlegm, etc.[ citation needed ]

A concoction of reed roots was believed to bring the fever away via increased urination and also help to restore body fluid.[ citation needed ]

Other uses

Some other uses for Phragmites australis and other reeds in various cultures include baskets, mats, reed pen tips (qalam), and paper. [10] Beekeepers can utilize the reeds to make nesting. [11]

In the Philippines, Phragmites is known by the local name tambo. Reed stands flower in December, and the blooms are harvested and bundled into whisk brooms called "walis". Hence the common name of household brooms is walis tambo. [12]

Reeds have been used to make arrows [13] and weapons such as spears for hunting game. [14]

Invasivity and control

Some Phragmites, when introduced by accident or intent, spread rapidly. In the United States, prior to 1910, only a few areas in the Northeast contained non-native haplotypes of Phragmites australis. [15] However, by 1960 non-native haplotypes were found in samples taken from coast to coast. Today, in some places like Michigan, Phragmites australis (haplotype M) has become the dominant haplotype. [16] [17] The problem is invasive non-native Phragmites australis quickly spread through marshes and wetland areas. They replace native plants, deny fish and wildlife nutrients and space; block access to the water for swimming, fishing and other recreation endeavors; spoil shoreline views; and pose a fire hazard. [18]

Phragmites can drive out competing vegetation in two ways. Their sheer height and density can deprive other plants of sunlight and the chemicals they produce when decaying reduce the germination of competing seeds. [19]

Recognizing the non-native form of Phragmites early in its invasion increases the opportunity for successful eradication dramatically. Once it has become established, removal by hand is nearly impossible. [20] The seeds or rhizomes can quickly lead to a new dense stand. Therefore, the most successful Phragmites control treatments to date have centered around the application of an aquatic herbicide followed by burning of the roots and stalks to prevent regrowth, which can lead to noticeable improvement in pond conditions for indigenous species and migratory birds. [21] It is important to select the proper herbicide for the location. Further, even the proper herbicide can lead to unintended consequences since a large amount of decaying dead plant material can depress oxygen levels in the water and kill all the fish in a pond or small lake. [22] Therefore, in smaller bodies of water the recommendation is to do a quarter of a large stand every two weeks. Some success has also been obtained using goats to graze on Phragmites, [23] controlled burns, and native wild rice crops. [24]

See also

Related Research Articles

<i>Typha</i> Genus of flowering plants in the family Typhaceae

Typha is a genus of about 30 species of monocotyledonous flowering plants in the family Typhaceae. These plants have a variety of common names, in British English as bulrush or reedmace, in American English as reed, cattail, punks, or, in the American Midwest, sausage tails, in Australia as cumbungi or bulrush, in Canada as bulrush or cattail, and in New Zealand as raupo. Other taxa of plants may be known as bulrush, including some sedges in Scirpus and related genera.

Aquatic plant Plant that has adapted to living in an aquatic environment

Aquatic plants are plants that have adapted to living in aquatic environments. They are also referred to as hydrophytes or macrophytes to distinguish them from algae and other microphytes. A macrophyte is a plant that grows in or near water and is either emergent, submergent, or floating. In lakes and rivers macrophytes provide cover for fish, substrate for aquatic invertebrates, produce oxygen, and act as food for some fish and wildlife.

Eurasian bittern Species of bird

The Eurasian bittern or great bittern is a wading bird in the bittern subfamily (Botaurinae) of the heron family Ardeidae. There are two subspecies, the northern race breeding in parts of Europe and across the Palearctic, as well as on the northern coast of Africa, while the southern race is endemic to parts of southern Africa. It is a secretive bird, seldom seen in the open as it prefers to skulk in reed beds and thick vegetation near water bodies. Its presence is apparent in the spring, when the booming call of the male during the breeding season can be heard. It feeds on fish, small mammals, fledgling birds, amphibians, crustaceans and insects.

Reed (plant) List of plants with the same or similar names

Reed is a common name for several tall, grass-like plants of wetlands.

Constructed wetland An artificial wetland to treat municipal or industrial wastewater, greywater or stormwater runoff

A constructed wetland (CW) is an artificial wetland to treat municipal or industrial wastewater, greywater or stormwater runoff. It may also be designed for land reclamation after mining, or as a mitigation step for natural areas lost to land development. Constructed wetlands are engineered systems that use natural functions vegetation, soil, and organisms to treat wastewater. Depending on the type of wastewater the design of the constructed wetland has to be adjusted accordingly. Constructed wetlands have been used to treat both centralized and on-site wastewater. Primary treatment is recommended when there is a large amount of suspended solids or soluble organic matter.

Reed bed Habitats formed by reed colonies in floodplains and estuaries

Reed beds are natural habitats found in floodplains, waterlogged depressions, and estuaries. Reed beds are part of a succession from young reeds colonising open water or wet ground through a gradation of increasingly dry ground. As reed beds age, they build up a considerable litter layer that eventually rises above the water level and that ultimately provides opportunities for scrub or woodland invasion. Artificial reed beds are used to remove pollutants from grey water.

<i>Cynodon</i> Genus of flowering plants

Cynodon is a genus of plants in the grass family. It is native to warm temperate to tropical regions of the Old World, as well as being cultivated and naturalized in the New World and on many oceanic islands.

<i>Schoenoplectus acutus</i> Species of plant

Schoenoplectus acutus, called tule, common tule, hardstem tule, tule rush, hardstem bulrush, or viscid bulrush, is a giant species of sedge in the plant family Cyperaceae, native to freshwater marshes all over North America. The common name derives from the Nāhuatl word tōllin[ˈtoːlːin], and was first applied by the early settlers from New Spain who recognized the marsh plants in the Central Valley of California as similar to those in the marshes around Mexico City.

Hydrosere

A hydrosere is a plant succession which occurs in an area of fresh water such as in oxbow lakes and kettle lakes. In time, an area of open freshwater will naturally dry out, ultimately becoming woodland. During this change, a range of different landtypes such as swamp and marsh will succeed each other.

<i>Arundo donax</i> Species of plant

Arundo donax is a tall perennial cane. It is one of several so-called reed species. It has several common names including giant cane, elephant grass, carrizo, arundo, Spanish cane, Colorado river reed, wild cane, and giant reed.

The Titarisios is a river in Thessaly, Greece. It is a major tributary of the Pineios. The river begins at the western slopes of Mount Olympus and flows southwest, then south. It leaves the mountains near the village Sykia, and turns east near the village Vlachogianni. It passes along the town Tyrnavos and flows into the Pineios near the village Rodia. The confluence is at 65 m above sea level. Its total length is 70 km, and for most of its length it contains water throughout the year.

<i>Phragmites australis</i> Species of grass

Phragmites australis, known as common reed, is a broadly distributed wetland grass growing nearly 20 ft (6 m) tall.

<i>Ficinia nodosa</i> Species of plant

Ficinia nodosa, the knotted club-rush or knobby club-rush, is a rhizomatous perennial in the family Cyperaceae, native to South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. Widespread in the Southern Hemisphere, Ficinia nodosa grows to between 15 and 220 cm in height. Although F. nodosa grows best in sandy, salty soil, the plant grows in a wide variety of environments from coastal sand dunes to alpine regions. F. nodosa’s appearance is characterised by dense clusters of long green stems topped with small, rounded flowers often remaining throughout the year.

Cape Lowland Freshwater Wetland Vegetation type endemic to the Western Cape, South Africa

Cape Lowland Freshwater Wetland is a critically endangered vegetation type of the Western Cape, South Africa.

<i>Juncus roemerianus</i> Species of plant

Juncus roemerianus is a species of flowering plant in the rush family known by the common names black rush, needlerush, and black needlerush. It is native to North America, where its main distribution lies along the coastline of the southeastern United States, including the Gulf Coast. It occurs from New Jersey to Texas, with outlying populations in Connecticut, New York, Mexico, and certain Caribbean islands.

Gosforth Nature Reserve

Gosforth Nature Reserve is a wildlife haven in Tyne and Wear, England. It includes extensive woodland and wetland habitats and is managed by the Natural History Society of Northumbria. Access to the reserve is restricted to NHSN members and those in possession of a valid day pass. Dog walking and other recreational activities are not permitted on site. The reserve is part of Gosforth Park, the old estate of Gosforth House.

<i>Salvinia minima</i> Species of aquatic plant

Salvinia minima is a species of aquatic, floating fern that grows on the surface of still waterways. It is usually referred to as common salvinia or water spangles. Salvinia minima is native to South America, Mesoamerica, and the West Indies and was introduced to the United States in the 1920s-1930s. It is classified as an invasive species internationally and can be detrimental to native habitats. This species is similar to but should not be confused with giant salvinia, Salvinia molesta.

Eastern Anatolian montane steppe

The Eastern Anatolian montane steppe is a temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands ecoregion. It is located in high plateau of Eastern Anatolia, covering parts of eastern Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, southern Georgia, and northwestern Iran.

Fishers Brook is a stream that runs for about 4,000 meters at its maximum length in spring. Most of the year, it reaches only 3,000 meters. It is located in Storrs, Connecticut. It feeds several small wetlands, including one small pond, before dropping off into Codfish Falls. It then leads into the Fenton River. Just before the falls, as well as in several other places, it is intersected by small bridges.

Lake George (Hammond, Indiana)

Lake George is a lake in Hammond, Indiana, in the United States.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 "The Plant List: Phragmites" . Retrieved 2018-11-08.
  2. "Search: Phragmites". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Retrieved 22 July 2020.
  3. "Common Reed - Phragmites australis - Synonyms - Encyclopedia of Life". Encyclopedia of Life.
  4. "RHS Plant Selector - Phragmites australis" . Retrieved 26 May 2013.
  5. hitite musician (second millennia B.C.) playing double sips i
  6. "Norwegian food, recipes from Norway, Norwegian news and link directory fromnorway.net". www.fromnorway.net. Archived from the original on 2005-09-12.
  7. "Tambo / Phragmites vulgaris / COMMON REED, Lu gen: Philippine Medicinal Herbs / Philippine Alternative Medicine". www.stuartxchange.com. Retrieved 2021-05-28.
  8. Peterson, Lee, "A Field Guide to Edible Wild Plants of Eastern and Central North America", page 228, Houghton Mifflin Company, New York City, accessed the sixth of September, 2010. ISBN   0-395-20445-3
  9. Silliman, Brian R.; Mozdzer, Thomas; Angelini, Christine; Brundage, Jennifer E.; Esselink, Peter; Bakker, Jan P.; Gedan, Keryn B.; van de Koppel, Johan; Baldwin, Andrew H. (2014-09-23). "Livestock as a potential biological control agent for an invasive wetland plant". PeerJ. 2: e567. doi:10.7717/peerj.567. ISSN   2167-8359. PMC   4178463 . PMID   25276502.
  10. "Phragmites Australis - Plants can be made into Paper". May Babcock, RI Artist. Retrieved 2021-05-28.
  11. masonbeesforsale.com. "Top Nesting Materials for Solitary Bees". masonbeesforsale.com. Retrieved 2021-05-28.
  12. Tagalog Lang. "Tambo". Tagalog Language.
  13. William C. Sturtevant (1978) Handbook of North American Indians: Great Basin, p. 269, Government Printing Office. ISBN   0160045819, 9780160045813.
  14. Unaipon, D. (2001) Legendary Tales of the Australian Aborigines, p. 138, The Miegunyah Press, Melbourne. ISBN   0-522-85246-7.
  15. Saltonstall, Kristin (2002-02-19). "Cryptic invasion by a non-native genotype of the common reed, Phragmites australis, into North America". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 99 (4): 2445–2449. Bibcode:2002PNAS...99.2445S. doi:10.1073/pnas.032477999. ISSN   0027-8424. PMC   122384 . PMID   11854535.
  16. "Great Lakes Phragmites Collaborative | Linking people, information & action". www.greatlakesphragmites.net. Retrieved 2021-05-27.
  17. Gross, Bob. "Groups battle invasive species at St. Johns Marsh". The Detroit News. Retrieved 2021-05-27.
  18. "Invasive Phragmites australis: What is it and why is it a problem?". MSU Extension. Retrieved 2021-05-28.
  19. Uddin, Md N.; Robinson, Randall W.; Caridi, Domenic (2014-01-02). "Phytotoxicity induced by Phragmites australis: an assessment of phenotypic and physiological parameters involved in germination process and growth of receptor plant". Journal of Plant Interactions. 9 (1): 338–353. doi: 10.1080/17429145.2013.835879 . ISSN   1742-9145.
  20. "Invasive Phragmites australis: What is it and why is it a problem?". MSU Extension. Retrieved 2021-05-27.
  21. "Phragmites Control: Easily Kill Phragmites in your Pond or Lake". www.lakerestoration.com. Retrieved 2021-05-28.
  22. "How to Control Common Reed | AquaPlant: Management of Pond Plants & Algae". AquaPlant. Retrieved 2021-05-28.
  23. Network, Crystal Gammon for Yale Environment 360, part of The Guardian Environment (2014-10-22). "Are goats the answer to the reed choking US east coast marshes?". The Guardian. Retrieved 2021-05-28.
  24. "Welcome Surprise: Wild Rice Seems to Deter Phragmites on Harsens Island". WGRT. 2020-10-05. Retrieved 2021-05-28.
  25. "Phragmites in Great Salt Lake". Phragmites in Great Salt Lake.