Phraya Manopakorn Nititada

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Manopakorn Nititada
พระยามโนปกรณ์นิติธาดา
Phraya Manopakorn Nititada.jpg
1st Prime Minister of Siam
In office
28 June 1932 20 June 1933
Monarch Prajadhipok
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded by Phraya Phahonphonphayuhasena
Finance Minister of Thailand
In office
10 December 1932 24 June 1933
Prime Ministerhimself
Preceded byPhraya Manopakorn Nititada (as Minister of Treasury)
Succeeded by Chao Phraya Srithammatibet
Minister of Treasury
In office
29 June 1932 10 December 1932
Preceded by Suphayok Kasem
Succeeded byPhraya Manopakorn Nititada (as Finance Minister of Thailand)
Personal details
Born(1884-07-15)15 July 1884
Bangkok, Siam
Died1 October 1948(1948-10-01) (aged 64)
Penang, British Malaya
Nationality Thai
Political party Khana Ratsadon
Spouse(s)Nit Sanasen (Deceased)
Choei Hutasingha
ChildrenTum Hutasingha

Phraya Manopakorn Nititada (Thai : พระยามโนปกรณ์นิติธาดา; IPA:  [pʰrá.jaː má.noː.pà.kɔːn ní.tì.tʰaː.daː] ; born Kon Hutasingha (Thai : ก้อน หุตะสิงห์; IPA:  [kɔ̂ːn hù.tà.sǐŋ] ); 15 July 1884 – 1 October 1948) was the first Prime Minister of Siam after the Siamese Revolution of 1932 as he was selected by the leader of the People's Party – the party that instigated the revolution. However, in the following year, Manoparkorn was ousted by a coup in 1933 due to the conflicts between members of People's Party.

Thai language language spoken in Thailand

Thai, Central Thai, is the sole official and national language of Thailand and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority of Thai Chinese. It is a member of the Tai group of the Kra–Dai language family. Over half of Thai vocabulary is derived from or borrowed from Pali, Sanskrit, Mon and Old Khmer. It is a tonal and analytic language, similar to Chinese and Vietnamese.

Khana Ratsadon political party

Khana Ratsadon was a Siamese group of military and civil officers, and later a political party, which staged a bloodless coup against King Prajadhipok and transformed the country's absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy on 24 June 1932.

Contents

Early life

Phraya Manopakorn Nititada Phraya Mano.jpg
Phraya Manopakorn Nititada

Kon Hutasingha was born on 15 July 1884 in Bangkok to Huad and Kaew Hutasingha (Thai: นายฮวด กับนางแก้ว หุตะสิงห์), both of whom were of Chinese extraction. [1] He received his primary education at Suankularb Wittayalai School in Bangkok. He pursued his law education at Assumption College and at the Law School of the Ministry of Justice. He then continued his studies abroad; at the Middle Temple, in London, England. After he had finished his education, he began to work for the Ministry of Justice and climbed the traditional career ladder and was eventually granted the title Phraya and received his honorary name: "Manopakorn Nititada". In 1918, he gained a seat in the Privy Council of King Vajiravudh (or Rama VI).

Bangkok Special administrative area in Thailand

Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of Thailand. It is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or simply Krung Thep. The city occupies 1,568.7 square kilometres (605.7 sq mi) in the Chao Phraya River delta in central Thailand, and has a population of over eight million, or 12.6 percent of the country's population. Over fourteen million people lived within the surrounding Bangkok Metropolitan Region at the 2010 census, making Bangkok the nation's primate city, significantly dwarfing Thailand's other urban centres in terms of importance.

Thai Chinese Ethnic group

The Thai Chinese, also known as Chinese Thais or Sino-Thais, are an ethnic Chinese community in Thailand. Thai Chinese are the largest minority group in Thailand and the largest overseas Chinese community in the world with a population of approximately 10 million people, accounting for 14% of the total population of the country as of 2012. It is also the oldest and most prominent integrated overseas Chinese community. Slightly more than half of the ethnic Chinese population in Thailand trace their ancestry to eastern Guangdong. This is evidenced by the prevalence of the Southern Min Chaozhou dialect among the Chinese in Thailand. A minority trace their ancestry to Hakka and Hainanese immigrants.

Suankularb Wittayalai School school

Suankularb Wittayalai School is an all-boys secondary school for grades 7 through 12 in Bangkok, Thailand. Founded by King Chulalongkorn in 1882, Suankularb is the oldest public secondary school in the country. Suankularb alumni include eight Prime Ministers of Thailand, nine Supreme Court Chief Justices, five attorneys general, two Fortune Global 500 chief executives, scholars, as well as a number of prominent politicians and businessmen. Suankularb is a member of Jaturamitr group of the four oldest boys' schools in Thailand.

Revolution and Premiership

Phraya Manopakorn Nititada addressing the crowd at Ananta Samakhom Throne Hall after the 1932 revolution Siam-tries-a-peoples-party.jpg
Phraya Manopakorn Nititada addressing the crowd at Ananta Samakhom Throne Hall after the 1932 revolution

Following the Revolution of 1932, King Prajadhipok (or Rama VII) consented to a Provisional Constitution on 27 June 1932. The first People's Assembly of Siam, composed entirely of appointed members, met for the first time on 28 June. The revolutionary Khana Ratsadon not wanting to seem like had instigated the revolution for themselves decided to choose Phraya Manopakorn as President of the Committee. He was considered a largely neutral and clean figure, but at the same time respected enough to take the position.

Siamese revolution of 1932

The Siamese revolution of 1932 or the Siamese coup d'état of 1932 was a crucial turning point in 20th-century Thai history. The revolution, in reality a coup d'état, was a nearly bloodless transition on 24 June 1932, which changed the system of government in Siam from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy. The "revolution" was brought about by a comparatively small group of military and civilians, who formed Siam's first political party, the Khana Ratsadon. It ended 150 years of absolutism under the Chakri Dynasty and almost 800 years of absolute rule of kings over Thai history. It was a product of global historical change as well as domestic social and political changes. It also resulted in the people of Siam being granted their first constitution.

Prajadhipok King of Thailand (1925-1935)

Prajadhipok, also Rama VII, was the seventh monarch of Siam of the Chakri dynasty. He was the last absolute monarch and the first constitutional monarch of the country. His reign was a turbulent time for Siam due to political and social changes during the Revolution of 1932. He is to date the only Siamese monarch of the Chakri Dynasty to abdicate.

National Assembly of Thailand Parliament of Thailand

The National Assembly of Thailand is the bicameral legislative branch of the government of Thailand. It convenes in the Parliament House, Dusit District, Bangkok.

As a result, the Assembly with the advice of Pridi Panomyong, one of the leaders of the Khana Ratsadon offered Manopakorn the post of "President of the People's Committee" - an early version of the post of Prime Minister.

The first mission of Phraya Manopakorn's Cabinet was to draft a permanent constitution. King Prajadhipok made an observation that the term "President of the People's Committee" sounded like a communist or republican post. After a debate, the office was eventually changed to "Prime Minister". The first constitution of Siam was promulgated under Phraya Manopakorn's watch on 10 December 1932 - now celebrated as the Thai Constitution Day.

Public holidays in Thailand are regulated by the government, and most are observed by both the public and private sectors. There are usually sixteen public holidays in a year, but more may be declared by the cabinet. Other observances, both official and non-official, local and international, are observed to varying degrees throughout the country.

Soon after Phraya Manopakorn became the Head of the first constitutional government of Siam. However the Manopakorn Cabinet or People's Committee was composed members; half from the People's Party and half from senior civil servants and military officers appointed under the guidance of the party. Phraya Manopakorn in essence became the Khana Ratsadon's puppet, and the country- a single party state.

Government of Thailand government

The Government of Thailand, or formally the Royal Thai Government (RTG), is the unitary government of the Kingdom of Thailand. The country emerged as a modern nation state after the foundation of the Chakri Dynasty and the city of Bangkok in 1782. The Revolution of 1932 brought an end to absolute monarchy and replaced it with a constitutional monarchy.

Cabinet (government) group of high ranking officials, usually representing the executive branch of government

A Cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials, typically consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch. Members of a cabinet are usually called Cabinet ministers or secretaries. The function of a Cabinet varies: in some countries it is a collegiate decision-making body with collective responsibility, while in others it may function either as a purely advisory body or an assisting institution to a decision making head of state or head of government. Cabinets are typically the body responsible for the day-to-day management of the government and response to sudden events, whereas the legislative and judicial branches work in a measured pace, in sessions according to lengthy procedures.

Yellow Cover Dossier incident and Coup

In 1933, Pridi Panomyong, by then a Minister of State, presented his Draft Economic Plan or Yellow Cover Dossier to King Prajadhipok. The dossier was an economic plan, which advocated socialist solutions to the country's many financial and economic problem. Prajadhipok even branded the dossier "communist" and attacked Pridi publicly about it. After Pridi got his dossier rejected, his status fell and caused a major disruption among the members of People's Party and the People's Committee itself.

Phraya Mano rallied those who opposed the socialist plan of Pridi including Phraya Songsuradet and dissolve his own cabinet to try and oust Pridi, who had great support within the People's Party. To regain some stability and silence domestic critics, Phraya Manopakorn had some articles within the constitution suspended. Manopakorn barred the People's Assembly from any further meetings and the judiciary was shut down. Pridi was forced to flee to France. It was said that Manopakorn led the coup with his pen, this event is known in Thailand as the April 1933 Coup (or the Silent Coup) (Thai: รัฐประหารในประเทศไทย เมษายน พ.ศ. 2476). Phraya Manopakorn then approved the Anti-Communist Act, which allowed him powers to arrest those in society suspected of having communist sentiments (the entire Central Committee of the Communist Party of Siam was arrested and imprisoned).

After the Yellow Dossier Incident, the degree of political freedom was greatly reduced by Phraya Manopakorn's policies. He censored many leftist activities including shutting down of many newspapers and publications. However the People's Party which gave him the Premiership, will eventually be his downfall. On 16 June, Phraya Pahol Polpayuhasena (the county's most powerful military leader and member of the People's party) together with three other senior officers retired themselves from the People's Committee, for 'health reasons'.

Death and legacy

Phraya Manopakorn Nititada's memorial in Wat Pathum Wanaram, Bangkok, Thailand wadpthumwnaaraamraachwrwihaar Wat Pathumwanaram Ratchaworawiharn (18).jpg
Phraya Manopakorn Nititada's memorial in Wat Pathum Wanaram, Bangkok, Thailand

The coup d'état happened on 20 June, led by Phraya Pahol and other military leaders. Phraya Manopakorn was immediately removed as Prime Minister. Phraya Phahol appointed himself the country's second Prime Minister and took over the Government, King Pradhipok duly accepted his appointment. Manopakorn was then exiled to Penang, British Malaya, by train and spent the rest of his life there until his death in 1948, aged 64.

Not only was Phraya Manopakorn, Siam's first Prime Minister, he was also the first Siamese Prime Minister to be ousted by a coup. Especially significant is the fact that it was the military who removed him. Although he was the first, he would not be the last civilian Prime Minister to be ousted in a military coup. His legacy is debatable; on the one hand he took over the reins of government in an extremely difficult time (Wall Street Crash of 1929), but on the other he exceeded his powers and was not able to counter the powers of the Khana Ratsadon who became increasingly dictatorial.

See also

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References

  1. Preston et al. (1997), p. 464; 51. Phya Manopakarana Nitidhada. He spoke perfect English and was always very friendly to England. Is three parts Chinese. His wife, who was a favourite lady-in-waiting to the ex-Queen, was killed in a motor accident in 1929 when on an official visit to Indo-China.

Bibliography

Political offices
New creation Prime Minister of Thailand
1932-1933
Succeeded by
Phraya Phahol Pholphayuhasena