This article needs additional citations for verification . (December 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|1st Prime Minister of Siam|
28 June 1932 –20 June 1933
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Phraya Phahonphonphayuhasena|
|Finance Minister of Thailand|
10 December 1932 –24 June 1933
|Preceded by||Phraya Manopakorn Nititada (as Minister of Treasury)|
|Succeeded by||Chao Phraya Srithammatibet|
|Minister of Treasury|
29 June 1932 –10 December 1932
|Preceded by||Suphayok Kasem|
|Succeeded by||Phraya Manopakorn Nititada (as Finance Minister of Thailand)|
|Born||15 July 1884|
|Died||1 October 1948 64) (aged|
Penang, British Malaya
|Political party||Khana Ratsadon|
|Spouse(s)||Nit Sanasen (Deceased)|
Phraya Manopakorn Nititada (Thai : พระยามโนปกรณ์นิติธาดา; IPA: [pʰrá.jaː má.noː.pà.kɔːn ní.tì.tʰaː.daː] ; born Kon Hutasingha (Thai : ก้อน หุตะสิงห์; IPA: [kɔ̂ːn hù.tà.sǐŋ] ); 15 July 1884 – 1 October 1948) was the first Prime Minister of Siam after the Siamese Revolution of 1932 as he was selected by the leader of the People's Party – the party that instigated the revolution. However, in the following year, Manoparkorn was ousted by a coup in 1933 due to the conflicts between members of People's Party.
Thai, Central Thai, is the sole official and national language of Thailand and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority of Thai Chinese. It is a member of the Tai group of the Kra–Dai language family. Over half of Thai vocabulary is derived from or borrowed from Pali, Sanskrit, Mon and Old Khmer. It is a tonal and analytic language, similar to Chinese and Vietnamese.
Khana Ratsadon was a Siamese group of military and civil officers, and later a political party, which staged a bloodless coup against King Prajadhipok and transformed the country's absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy on 24 June 1932.
Kon Hutasingha was born on 15 July 1884 in Bangkok to Huad and Kaew Hutasingha (Thai: นายฮวด กับนางแก้ว หุตะสิงห์), both of whom were of Chinese extraction.He received his primary education at Suankularb Wittayalai School in Bangkok. He pursued his law education at Assumption College and at the Law School of the Ministry of Justice. He then continued his studies abroad; at the Middle Temple, in London, England. After he had finished his education, he began to work for the Ministry of Justice and climbed the traditional career ladder and was eventually granted the title Phraya and received his honorary name: "Manopakorn Nititada". In 1918, he gained a seat in the Privy Council of King Vajiravudh (or Rama VI).
Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of Thailand. It is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or simply Krung Thep. The city occupies 1,568.7 square kilometres (605.7 sq mi) in the Chao Phraya River delta in central Thailand, and has a population of over eight million, or 12.6 percent of the country's population. Over fourteen million people lived within the surrounding Bangkok Metropolitan Region at the 2010 census, making Bangkok the nation's primate city, significantly dwarfing Thailand's other urban centres in terms of importance.
The Thai Chinese, also known as Chinese Thais or Sino-Thais, are an ethnic Chinese community in Thailand. Thai Chinese are the largest minority group in Thailand and the largest overseas Chinese community in the world with a population of approximately 10 million people, accounting for 14% of the total population of the country as of 2012. It is also the oldest and most prominent integrated overseas Chinese community. Slightly more than half of the ethnic Chinese population in Thailand trace their ancestry to eastern Guangdong. This is evidenced by the prevalence of the Southern Min Chaozhou dialect among the Chinese in Thailand. A minority trace their ancestry to Hakka and Hainanese immigrants.
Suankularb Wittayalai School is an all-boys secondary school for grades 7 through 12 in Bangkok, Thailand. Founded by King Chulalongkorn in 1882, Suankularb is the oldest public secondary school in the country. Suankularb alumni include eight Prime Ministers of Thailand, nine Supreme Court Chief Justices, five attorneys general, two Fortune Global 500 chief executives, scholars, as well as a number of prominent politicians and businessmen. Suankularb is a member of Jaturamitr group of the four oldest boys' schools in Thailand.
Following the Revolution of 1932, King Prajadhipok (or Rama VII) consented to a Provisional Constitution on 27 June 1932. The first People's Assembly of Siam, composed entirely of appointed members, met for the first time on 28 June. The revolutionary Khana Ratsadon not wanting to seem like had instigated the revolution for themselves decided to choose Phraya Manopakorn as President of the Committee. He was considered a largely neutral and clean figure, but at the same time respected enough to take the position.
The Siamese revolution of 1932 or the Siamese coup d'état of 1932 was a crucial turning point in 20th-century Thai history. The revolution, in reality a coup d'état, was a nearly bloodless transition on 24 June 1932, which changed the system of government in Siam from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy. The "revolution" was brought about by a comparatively small group of military and civilians, who formed Siam's first political party, the Khana Ratsadon. It ended 150 years of absolutism under the Chakri Dynasty and almost 800 years of absolute rule of kings over Thai history. It was a product of global historical change as well as domestic social and political changes. It also resulted in the people of Siam being granted their first constitution.
Prajadhipok, also Rama VII, was the seventh monarch of Siam of the Chakri dynasty. He was the last absolute monarch and the first constitutional monarch of the country. His reign was a turbulent time for Siam due to political and social changes during the Revolution of 1932. He is to date the only Siamese monarch of the Chakri Dynasty to abdicate.
The National Assembly of Thailand is the bicameral legislative branch of the government of Thailand. It convenes in the Parliament House, Dusit District, Bangkok.
As a result, the Assembly with the advice of Pridi Panomyong, one of the leaders of the Khana Ratsadon offered Manopakorn the post of "President of the People's Committee" - an early version of the post of Prime Minister.
The first mission of Phraya Manopakorn's Cabinet was to draft a permanent constitution. King Prajadhipok made an observation that the term "President of the People's Committee" sounded like a communist or republican post. After a debate, the office was eventually changed to "Prime Minister". The first constitution of Siam was promulgated under Phraya Manopakorn's watch on 10 December 1932 - now celebrated as the Thai Constitution Day.
Public holidays in Thailand are regulated by the government, and most are observed by both the public and private sectors. There are usually sixteen public holidays in a year, but more may be declared by the cabinet. Other observances, both official and non-official, local and international, are observed to varying degrees throughout the country.
Soon after Phraya Manopakorn became the Head of the first constitutional government of Siam. However the Manopakorn Cabinet or People's Committee was composed members; half from the People's Party and half from senior civil servants and military officers appointed under the guidance of the party. Phraya Manopakorn in essence became the Khana Ratsadon's puppet, and the country- a single party state.
The Government of Thailand, or formally the Royal Thai Government (RTG), is the unitary government of the Kingdom of Thailand. The country emerged as a modern nation state after the foundation of the Chakri Dynasty and the city of Bangkok in 1782. The Revolution of 1932 brought an end to absolute monarchy and replaced it with a constitutional monarchy.
A Cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials, typically consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch. Members of a cabinet are usually called Cabinet ministers or secretaries. The function of a Cabinet varies: in some countries it is a collegiate decision-making body with collective responsibility, while in others it may function either as a purely advisory body or an assisting institution to a decision making head of state or head of government. Cabinets are typically the body responsible for the day-to-day management of the government and response to sudden events, whereas the legislative and judicial branches work in a measured pace, in sessions according to lengthy procedures.
In 1933, Pridi Panomyong, by then a Minister of State, presented his Draft Economic Plan or Yellow Cover Dossier to King Prajadhipok. The dossier was an economic plan, which advocated socialist solutions to the country's many financial and economic problem. Prajadhipok even branded the dossier "communist" and attacked Pridi publicly about it. After Pridi got his dossier rejected, his status fell and caused a major disruption among the members of People's Party and the People's Committee itself.
Phraya Mano rallied those who opposed the socialist plan of Pridi including Phraya Songsuradet and dissolve his own cabinet to try and oust Pridi, who had great support within the People's Party. To regain some stability and silence domestic critics, Phraya Manopakorn had some articles within the constitution suspended. Manopakorn barred the People's Assembly from any further meetings and the judiciary was shut down. Pridi was forced to flee to France. It was said that Manopakorn led the coup with his pen, this event is known in Thailand as the April 1933 Coup (or the Silent Coup) (Thai: รัฐประหารในประเทศไทย เมษายน พ.ศ. 2476). Phraya Manopakorn then approved the Anti-Communist Act, which allowed him powers to arrest those in society suspected of having communist sentiments (the entire Central Committee of the Communist Party of Siam was arrested and imprisoned).
After the Yellow Dossier Incident, the degree of political freedom was greatly reduced by Phraya Manopakorn's policies. He censored many leftist activities including shutting down of many newspapers and publications. However the People's Party which gave him the Premiership, will eventually be his downfall. On 16 June, Phraya Pahol Polpayuhasena (the county's most powerful military leader and member of the People's party) together with three other senior officers retired themselves from the People's Committee, for 'health reasons'.
The coup d'état happened on 20 June, led by Phraya Pahol and other military leaders. Phraya Manopakorn was immediately removed as Prime Minister. Phraya Phahol appointed himself the country's second Prime Minister and took over the Government, King Pradhipok duly accepted his appointment. Manopakorn was then exiled to Penang, British Malaya, by train and spent the rest of his life there until his death in 1948, aged 64.
Not only was Phraya Manopakorn, Siam's first Prime Minister, he was also the first Siamese Prime Minister to be ousted by a coup. Especially significant is the fact that it was the military who removed him. Although he was the first, he would not be the last civilian Prime Minister to be ousted in a military coup. His legacy is debatable; on the one hand he took over the reins of government in an extremely difficult time (Wall Street Crash of 1929), but on the other he exceeded his powers and was not able to counter the powers of the Khana Ratsadon who became increasingly dictatorial.
The Thai people, who originally lived in southwestern China, migrated into mainland Southeast Asia over a period of many centuries. The word Siam may have originated from Pali or Sanskrit श्याम or Mon ရာမည, probably the same root as Shan and Ahom. Chinese: 暹羅; pinyin: Xiānluó was the name for the northern kingdom centred on Sukhothai and Sawankhalok, but to the Thai themselves, the name of the country has always been Mueang Thai.
The Prime Minister of Thailand is the head of government of Thailand. The prime minister is also the chair of the Cabinet of Thailand. The post has existed since the Revolution of 1932, when the country became a constitutional monarchy.
The history of Thailand from 1932 to 1973 was dominated by military dictatorships which were in power for much of the period. The main personalities of the period were the dictator Luang Phibunsongkhram, who allied the country with Japan during the Second World War, and the civilian politician Pridi Phanomyong, who founded Thammasat University and was briefly prime minister after the war.
Major-General Luang Wichitwathakan was a Thai politician, diplomat, historian, novelist, and playwright. He was the originator and prime mover responsible for changing the name of the country from Siam to Thailand.
Phraya Phahonphonphayuhasena, 29 March 1887 – 14 February 1947), short Phraya Phahon, born as Phot Phahonyothin, was a Thai military leader and politician. He became the second prime minister of Siam in 1933 after ousting his predecessor in a coup d'état. He retired in 1938 after serving five years as prime minister.
The Privy Council of Thailand is a body of appointed advisors to the Monarch of Thailand. The council, as the Constitution of Thailand stipulates, must be composed of no more than eighteen members. The council is led by the president of the Privy Council of Thailand; currently former Prime Minister, "national statesman", and Army General Prem Tinsulanonda. The king alone appoints all members of the council. The council's offices are in the Privy Council Chambers, Phra Nakhon District, Bangkok.
The cabinet of Thailand or, formally, the Council of Ministers of Thailand is a body composed of thirty-five of the most senior members of the government of the Kingdom of Thailand. The cabinet is the primary organ of the executive branch of the Thai government. Members of the cabinet are nominated by the prime minister and formally appointed by the King of Thailand. Most members are governmental department heads with the title of "minister of state". The cabinet is chaired by the Prime Minister of Thailand. The cabinet is often collectively called "the government" or "the Royal Thai Government".
The Boworadet rebellion was a Thai rebellion led by royalist Prince Boworadet (1877-1947) in 1933, in consequence of the conflicts between the previous royalist regime and the succeeding constitutional regime led by Khana Ratsadon, following the Revolution in 1932. The Boworadet revolt was eventually defeated by the Siamese Government.
The Siamese Coup d’état of June 1933 was considered the first time in Thai history that the military successfully overthrew the constitutional government. The coup took place peacefully on 20 June 1933 in Bangkok. The coup was led by Colonel Phraya Phahol Pholphayuhasena against the premiership of the Premier Phraya Manopakorn Nititada. The coup was in effect a counter-coup against the dictatorial policies of Phraya Mano stemming from the Yellow cover dossier crisis.
The Songsuradet rebellion also known as the Rebellion of 18 corpses was an important Thai historical event in 1939. Phraya Songsuradet actually did not instigate the rebellion or coup in any way yet it was named after him. The coup was in truth carried out by Luang Phibulsonggram or "Phibul" on 29 January 1939 to purge the country of his political enemies and former rivals.
The People's Committee of Siam, was the first constitutional Cabinet of Siam or. After the Revolution of 1932, and promulgation of the 'Temporary' Constitution, Phraya Manopakorn Nititada was appointed the first President of the People's Committee - in essence Prime Minister. However he was not allowed to appoint the members of the Cabinet as the Khana Ratsadon, the revolutionary party, has already decided to do that themselves.
The Supreme Council of State of Siam was an advisory and legislative council established by His Majesty King Prajadhipok of Siam that existed from 1925 to 1932. The Eton and Sandhurst educated monarch wished to create a council similar to a cabinet, where the most important government officials could meet to decide on state affairs. The Council was founded on 28 November 1925 by Royal Command. Prajadhipok only succeeded to the throne three days earlier, after the death of his brother Vajiravudh on the 25 November 1925.
Paruskavan Palace is a historic site in Bangkok. King Rama the Fifth' s son, Prince Chakrabongse, upon returning from his studies in Russia with his wife, was appointed Commandant of the Military College. For his residence, he was given Paruskavan Palace near Amphorn Sathan Residential Hall, where the King lived. According to "Katya & The Prince of Siam" "the construction of Paruskavan Palace had in fact been begun in 1903 with 22,075 baht being paid for walls of 275 metres in length on 30th December. On 19th April 1904, 61,173 baht was paid upon completion of the walls excluding the roof. Originally three architects were involved but two became ill during the course of work. This left Beyrolepi in charge until the work was finished at the end of 1905."
The year 1932 was the 151st year of the Rattanakosin Kingdom of Siam. It was the eighth year in the reign of King Prajadhipok, and is reckoned as year 2474 and 2475 in the Buddhist Era. The year is most notable in the history of Thailand as the year in which the abolition of absolute monarchy by the Khana Ratsadon took place, on 24 June.
Lieutenant General Prayoon Pamornmontri is a former Thai soldier, politician, and member of Khana Ratsadon. He participated in the Siamese Revolution of 1932 to promote democracy by overthrowing the absolute monarchy.
|New creation|| Prime Minister of Thailand |
Phraya Phahol Pholphayuhasena