Piast dynasty

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Piast
COA Piast dynasty.svg
Country
Foundedc. 960
Founder Mieszko I of Poland
Final ruler Casimir the Great, in the Kingdom of Poland, and George IV William of Legnica, in the Silesian duchies
Titles
Dissolution1370, in the Kingdom of Poland, and 1675, in the Duchies of Silesia
Branches

The House of Piast was the first historical ruling dynasty of Poland. [3] The first documented Polish monarch was Duke Mieszko I (c. 930–992). [4] The Piasts' royal rule in Poland ended in 1370 with the death of king Casimir III the Great.

Contents

Branches of the Piast dynasty continued to rule in the Duchy of Masovia and in the Duchies of Silesia until the last male Silesian Piast died in 1675. The Piasts intermarried with several noble lines of Europe, and possessed numerous titles, some within the Holy Roman Empire. The Jagiellonian kings after John I Albert were also descended in the female line from Casimir III's daughter.

Origin of the name

The early dukes and kings of Poland are said to have regarded themselves as descendants of the semi-legendary Piast the Wheelwright (Piast Kołodziej), [5] first mentioned in the Cronicae et gesta ducum sive principum Polonorum (Chronicles and deeds of the dukes or princes of the Poles), written c. 1113 by Gallus Anonymus. However, the term "Piast Dynasty" was not applied until the 17th century. [6] [7] In a historical work the expression Piast dynasty was introduced by the Polish historian Adam Naruszewicz, it is not documented in contemporary sources. [8] [9]

History

Deeds of the Princes of the Poles Ms zanoyskich intro.jpg
Deeds of the Princes of the Poles

The first "Piasts", probably of Polan descent, appeared around 940 in the territory of Greater Poland at the stronghold of Giecz. [10] Shortly afterwards they relocated their residence to Gniezno, where Prince Mieszko I ruled over the Civitas Schinesghe from about 960. The Piasts temporarily also ruled over Pomerania, Bohemia and the Lusatias, as well as Ruthenia, and the Hungarian Spiš region in present-day Slovakia. The ruler bore the title of a duke or a king, depending on their position of power.

The Polish monarchy had to deal with the expansionist policies of the Holy Roman Empire in the west, resulting in a chequered co-existence, with Piast rulers like Mieszko I, Casimir I the Restorer or Władysław I Herman trying to protect the Polish state by treaties, oath of allegiances and marriage alliances with the Imperial Ottonian and Salian dynasties. The Bohemian Přemyslid dynasty, the Hungarian Arpads and their Anjou successors, the Kievan Rus', later also the State of the Teutonic Order and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania were mighty neighbours.

Lands held by the Piast dynasty (992-1025), with a shaded area corresponding to the territory of present-day Poland Poland1020-c.png
Lands held by the Piast dynasty (992–1025), with a shaded area corresponding to the territory of present-day Poland

The Piast position was decisively enfeebled by an era of fragmentation following the 1138 Testament of Bolesław III Wrymouth. For nearly 150 years, the Polish state shattered into several duchies, with the Piast duke against the formally valid principle of agnatic seniority fighting for the throne at Kraków, the capital of the Lesser Polish Seniorate Province. Numerous dukes like Mieszko III the Old, Władysław III Spindleshanks or Leszek I the White were crowned, only to be overthrown shortly afterwards. The senior branch of the Silesian Piasts, descendants of Bolesław III Wrymouth's eldest son Duke Władysław II the Exile, went separate ways and since the 14th century were vassals of the Bohemian Crown.

After the Polish royal line and Piast junior branch had died out in 1370, the Polish crown fell to the Anjou king Louis I of Hungary, son of late King Casimir's sister Elizabeth Piast. The Masovian branch of the Piasts became extinct with the death of Duke Janusz III in 1526. The last ruling duke of the Silesian Piasts was George William of Legnica who died in 1675. His uncle Count August of Legnica, the last male Piast, died in 1679. The last legitimate heir, Duchess Karolina of Legnica-Brieg died in 1707 and is buried in Trzebnica Abbey. Nevertheless, numerous families, like the illegitimate descendants of the Silesian duke Adam Wenceslaus of Cieszyn (1574–1617), link their genealogy to the dynasty.

Coat of arms

About 1295, Przemysł II used a coat of arms with a white eagle [11] – a symbol later referred to as the Piast coat of arms or as the Piast Eagle. [12] The Silesian Piasts in the 14th century used an eagle modified by a crescent, which became the coat of arms of the Duchy of Silesia.

Piast rulers

Piast kings and rulers of Poland appear in list form in the following table. For a list of all rulers, see List of Polish monarchs.

Legendary dukes of the Polans

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Chościsko (Popiel)
  • Latin: Semovit filius Past Ckosisconis, Pazt filius Chosisconisu
  • Duke
9th century9th century9th centuryA legendary ruler of the Polans Polans (Tribe) Monarch-emp.png
Piast the Wheelwright
  • Polish: Piast Kołodziej
    Latin: Past Ckosisconis, Pazt filius Chosisconisu
  • Duke
9th century9th century9th centuryA legendary ruler of the Polans
Son of Chościsko, father of Siemowit
Founder of the Piast dynasty
Piast Piast.PNG
Siemowit
  • Ziemowit
  • Duke
9th century9th century9th centuryA semi-legendary ruler of the Polans, son of Piast the Wheelwright and Rzepicha Piast Siemowit.PNG
Lestek
  • Leszek, Lestko
  • Duke
9th / 10th centuries9th / 10th centuries9th / 10th centuriesA semi-legendary ruler of the Polans, son of Siemowit Piast Lestek.PNG
Siemomysł
  • Ziemomysł
  • Duke
10th century10th century10th centuryA semi-legendary ruler of the Polans, son of Lestek Piast Siemomysl.PNG

Dukes and Kings of Poland

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Mieszko I of Poland
  • Duke
ca. 940 – 25 May 992ca. 960992Son of Siemomysł
First Christian monarch
Misico, dux Wandalorum
Piast MieszkoDagome.jpg
Bolesław I the Brave
  • Bolesław I the Great
    Polish: Bolesław I Chrobry (Wielki)
  • King of Poland Koronamala.png
    King of Poland
    King
967 – 17 June 1025Duke: 992
King: 18 April 1025
Duke: 18 April 1025
King: 17 June 1025
Son of Mieszko I and Dobrawa of Bohemia
First to be crowned King
Regnum Sclavorum, Gothorum sive Polonorum
Piast Chrobry1.jpg
Mieszko II Lambert
  • King of Poland Koronamala.png
    King of Poland
    King
ca. 990 – 10/11 May 103410251031Son of Bolesław I and Emnilda of Lusatia Piast Mieszko II.jpg
Bezprym
  • Duke
ca. 986 – 103210311032Son of Bolesław I and Judith of Hungary (disputed) Piast Bezprym.jpeg
Otto Bolesławowic
  • Duke
1000 – 103310321032Son of Bolesław I and Emnilda Piast Monarch-emp.png
Theodorick
  • Dytryk
  • Duke
after 992 - after 103210321032 /1033Grandson of Mieszko I and Oda of Haldensleben Piast Monarch-emp.png
Mieszko II Lambert
  • Duke
ca. 990 – 10/11 May 103410321034Restored Piast Mieszko II.jpg
Bolesław the Forgotten
  • Polish: Bolesław Zapomniany
  • Duke
before 1016 – 1038 or 103910341038 /1039Semi-legendary, existence disputed Piast Monarch-emp.png
Casimir I the Restorer
  • Polish: Kazimierz I Odnowiciel
  • Duke
(1016-06-25)25 June 1016 – 28 November 1058(1058-11-28) (aged 42)10391058Son of Mieszko II and Richeza of Lotharingia Piast Odnowiciel.jpg
Bolesław II the Bold
  • Polish: Bolesław II Szczodry / Śmiały
  • King of Poland Koronamala.png
    King of Poland
    King
ca. 1041 or 1042 – 2 or 3 April 1081 or 1082Duke: 1058
King: 1076
Duke: 1076
King: 1079
Son of Kazimierz I and Maria Dobroniega of Kiev Piast Boleslaw II Smialy by Aleksander Lesser.PNG
Władysław I Herman
  • Duke
ca. 1044 – 4 June 110210791102Son of Kazimierz I and Maria Dobroniega Piast Jan Matejko, Wladyslaw I Herman.jpg
Zbigniew
  • Zbygniew
  • Duke
ca. 1073 – 8 July 111311021107Son of Władysław I and Przecława of Prawdzic coat of arms (disputed)
First jointly with Władysław I 1098-1102
Piast Zbigniew.JPG
Bolesław III Wrymouth
  • Polish: Bolesław III Krzywousty
  • Duke
(1086-08-20)20 August 1086 – 28 October 1138(1138-10-28) (aged 52)11071138Son of Władysław I and Judith of Bohemia
First jointly with Władysław 1098-1102
Introduced senioral principle
Piast Krzywousty1.jpg

High Dukes of Poland (Fragmentation of the Kingdom)

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Władysław II the Exile
  • Polish: Władysław II Wygnaniec
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
1105 – 30 May 115911381146Son of Bolesław III and Zbyslava of Kiev
Also Duke of Silesia
Exiled by his brothers
Piast Jan Matejko, Wladyslaw II Wygnaniec.jpg
Bolesław IV the Curly
  • Polish: Bolesław Kędzierzawy
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1125 – 5 January 117311461173Son of Bolesław III and Salomea of Berg
Also Duke of Masovia
Piast Jan Matejko, Boleslaw IV Kedzierzawy.jpg
Mieszko III the Old
  • Polish: Mieszko III Stary
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1127 – 13 March 120211731177Son of Bolesław III and Salomea
Also Duke of Greater Poland
Piast Mieszko stary.jpg
Casimir II the Just
  • Polish: Kazimierz II Sprawiedliwy
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1138 – 5 May 119411771190Son of Bolesław III and Salomea
Also Duke of Wiślica and Sandomierz
Piast Kazimierz II Sprawiedliwy 2.jpg
Mieszko III the Old
  • Polish: Mieszko III Stary
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1127 – 13 March 120211901190Restored Piast Mieszko stary.jpg
Casimir II the Just
  • Polish: Kazimierz II Sprawiedliwy
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1138 – 5 May 119411901194Restored Piast Kazimierz II Sprawiedliwy 2.jpg
Leszek I the White
  • Polish: Leszek Biały
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1186 – 24 November 122711941198Son of Casimir II and Helen of Znojmo
Also Duke of Sandomierz
Piast Jan Matejko, Leszek Bialy.jpg
Mieszko III the Old
  • Polish: Mieszko III Stary
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1127 – 13 March 120211981199Restored Piast Mieszko stary.jpg
Leszek I the White
  • Polish: Leszek Biały
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1186 – 24 November 122711991199Restored Piast Jan Matejko, Leszek Bialy.jpg
Mieszko III the Old
  • Polish: Mieszko III Stary
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1127 – 13 March 120211991202Restored Piast Mieszko stary.jpg
Władysław III Spindleshanks
  • Polish: Władysław III Laskonogi
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1161/66 – 3 November 123112021202Son of Mieszko III and Eudoxia of Kiev
Also Duke of Greater Poland
Piast Jan Matejko, Wladyslaw Laskonogi.jpg
Leszek I the White
  • Polish: Leszek Biały
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1186 – 24 November 122712021210Restored Piast Jan Matejko, Leszek Bialy.jpg
Mieszko IV Tanglefoot
  • Polish: Mieszko I Plątonogi
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1130 – 16 May 121112101211Son of Władysław II and Agnes of Babenberg
Also Duke of Silesia
Piast Mieszko IV.JPG
Leszek I the White
  • Polish: Leszek Biały
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1186 – 24 November 122712111225Restored Piast Jan Matejko, Leszek Bialy.jpg
Henryk I the Bearded
  • Polish: Henryk I Brodaty
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1165 – 19 March 123812251225Grandson of Władysław II, son of Bolesław I the Tall and Krystyna
Also Duke of Silesia
Piast Jan Matejko, Henryk I Brodaty.jpg
Leszek I the White
  • Polish: Leszek Biały
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1186 – 24 November 122712251227Restored
Assassinated
Piast Jan Matejko, Leszek Bialy.jpg
Władysław III Spindleshanks
  • Polish: Władysław III Laskonogi
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1161/66 – 3 November 123112271229Restored Piast Jan Matejko, Wladyslaw Laskonogi.jpg
Konrad I of Masovia
  • Polish: Konrad I Mazowiecki
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1187/88 – 31 August 124712291232Son of Kazimierz II and Helen of Znojmo
Also Duke of Masovia
Piast Konrad I Mazowiecki.jpg
Henryk I the Bearded
  • Polish: Henryk I Brodaty
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1165 – 19 March 123812321238Restored Piast Jan Matejko, Henryk I Brodaty.jpg
Henryk II the Pious
  • Polish: Henryk II Pobożny
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1196 – 9 April 124112381241Son of Henry I and Saint Hedwig of Andechs (Saint Hedwig of Silesia)
Also Duke of Wroclaw and Greater Poland
Fell at Battle of Legnica
Piast Henryk II Pobozny tomb effigy.PNG
Bolesław II Rogatka
  • Bolesław II the Horned
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1220 – 122512411241Son of Henry II and Anne of Bohemia
Also Duke of Silesia
Piast Monarch-emp.png
Konrad I of Masovia
  • Polish: Konrad I Mazowiecki
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1187/88 – 31 August 124712411243Restored Piast Konrad I Mazowiecki.jpg
Bolesław V the Chaste
  • Polish: Bolesław Wstydliwy
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
21 June 1226 – 7 December 127912431279Son of Leszek the White and Grzymislawa of Luck Piast Jan Matejko, Boleslaw Wstydliwy.jpg
Leszek II the Black
  • Polish: Leszek Czarny
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1241 – 30 September 128812791288Paternal grandson of Konrad I of Masovia
Maternal grandson of Henry II
Son of Casimir I of Kuyavia and Constance of Wrocław
Piast Jan Matejko, Leszek Czarny.jpg
Bolesław II of Masovia
  • Boleslaw II of Płock
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1251 – 20 April 131312881288Grandson of Konrad I of Masovia
Duke of Masovia
Piast Boleslaw II.jpg
Henryk IV Probus
  • Polish: Henryk IV Prawy
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1257/58 – 23 June 129012881289Paternal grandson of Henryk II
Maternal grandson of Konrad I
Son of Henry III the White and Judyta of Masovia
Duke of Lower Silesia
Piast Henryk IV Probus tomb effigy.PNG
Bolesław II of Masovia
  • Boleslaw II of Płock
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1251 – 20 April 131312891289Restored Piast Boleslaw II.jpg
Władysław I the Elbow-high
  • Polish: Władysław I Łokietek
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
1261 – 2 March 133312891289Grandson of Konrad I of Masovia
Son of Kazimierz I of Kujawia and Euphrosyne of Opole
Piast Wladislaus I of Poland.PNG
Henryk IV Probus
  • Polish: Henryk IV Prawy
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1257/58 – 23 June 129012891290Restored Piast Henryk IV Probus tomb effigy.PNG

Kings of Poland (Reunification attempts)

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Przemysł II
  • Premyslas, Premislaus
  • King of Poland Koronamala.png
    King of Poland
    King
(1257-10-14)14 October 1257 – 8 February 1296(1296-02-08) (aged 38)High Duke: 1290
King: 1295
High Duke: 1291
King: 1296
Grandson of Henryk II
Son of Przemysł I and Elisabeth of Wrocław
Also Duke of Poznań, Greater Poland and Pomerania
Piast Przemysl II by Aleksander Lesser.PNG

Kings of Poland (Reunited Kingdom)

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Władysław I the Elbow-high
  • Polish: Władysław I Łokietek
  • King of Poland Koronamala.png
    King of Poland
    King
1261 – 2 March 133313201333Restored
Re-united the Kingdom of Poland
Piast Wladislaus I of Poland.PNG
Casimir III the Great
  • Polish: Kazimierz III Wielki
  • King of Poland Koronamala.png
    King of Poland
    King
(1310-04-30)30 April 1310 – 5 November 1370(1370-11-05) (aged 60)13331370Son of Władysław I the Elbow-high and Jadwiga of Kalisz
Regarded as one of the greatest Polish monarchs
Piast Casimir the Great by Leopold Loffler.PNG

Female Piasts

Queen consorts

Denar Princes Polonie, 11th century (in the times of Boleslaw I the Brave), one of the most recognizable coins in the history of Polish coinage. Denar rys chrobry1.png
Denar Princes Polonie, 11th century (in the times of Bolesław I the Brave), one of the most recognizable coins in the history of Polish coinage.

Priesthood

Archbishops

Bishops

Family tree of Piasts

Chościsko
Piast the Wheelwright
HOUSE OF PIAST
Siemowit
duke of Polans
Lestek
duke of Polans
Siemomysł
duke of Polans
Mieszko I of Poland
duke of Poland
Czcibor
prince
Koronamala.png
Bolesław I the Brave
king of Poland
Vladivoj
duke of Bohemia
Mieszko I
prince
Świętopełk
prince
Lambert
prince
Bezprym
duke of Poland
Koronamala.png
Mieszko II Lambert
king of Poland
Otto
prince
Dytryk
prince
Bolesław the Forgotten
duke of Poland
Casimir I the Restorer
duke of Poland
Koronamala.png
Bolesław II the Generous
king of Poland
Władysław I Herman
duke of Poland
Mieszko
prince
Mieszko
prince of Cracow
Zbigniew
prince
Bolesław III Wrymouth
duke of Poland
Władysław II the Exile
duke of Silesia
BRANCH OF SILESIA
Bolesław IV the Curly
high duke of Poland
Mieszko III the Old
duke of Greater Poland
BRANCH OF
GREATER POLAND
Henry
duke of Sandomierz
Casimir II the Just
duke of Masovia
BRANCH OF LESSER POLAND
Leszek
duke of Masovia
Odon
duke of Greater Poland
Stephen
prince
Mieszko the Younger
duke of Kalisz
Władysław III Spindleshanks
duke of Greater Poland
Leszek the White
duke of Sandomierz
Konrad I
duke of Masovia
Władysław
duke of Greater Poland
Bolesław V the Chaste
duke of Sandomierz
Bolesław I
duke of Masovia
Casimir I
duke of Kuyavia
Siemowit I
duke of Masovia
BRANCH OF MASOVIA
Przemysl I
duke of Greater Poland
Bolesław the Pious
duke of Greater Poland
Leszek II the Black
duke of Sieradz
Ziemomysł
duke of Inowrocław
Koronamala.png
Władysław I the Elbow-high
king of Poland
Casimir II
duke of Łęczyca
Siemowit
duke of Dobrzyń
Konrad II
duke of Masovia
Bolesław II
duke of Masovia
Koronamala.png
Przemysł II
king of Poland
Leszek
duke of Inowrocław
Przemysł
duke of Inowrocław
Kazimierz III
duke of Inowrocław
Koronamala.png
Casimir III the Great
king of Poland
Leszek
duke of Dobrzyń
Władysław the Hunchback
duke of Dobrzyń
Bolesław
duke of Dobrzyń
Siemowit II
duke of Warsaw
Trojden I
duke of East Masovia
Wenceslaus
duke of Plock
Anna of Poland
William, Count of Celje
Bolesław-Jerzy II
king of Galicia-Volhynia
Siemowit III, Duke of Masovia
duke of Masovia
Casimir I
duke of Warsaw
Anna of Cilli
Koronamala.png
Władysław II Jagiełło
king of Poland
Janusz I
duke of Warsaw
Siemowit IV
duke of Plock
BRANCH OF PLOCK
Henry
bishop of Plock
Janusz the Younger
heir
Bolesław
heir
Konrad Januszowic
prince
Siemovit V
duke of Plock
Alexander
bishop of Trento
Casimir III
duke of Plock
Trojden II
duke of Plock
Wladysław I
duke of Plock
Boleslaw IV
duke of Warsaw
Siemovit VI
duke of Plock
Wladysław II
duke of Plock
Konrad III Rudy
duke of Warsaw
Casimir IIi
bishop of Plock
Bolesław V
duke of Plock
Janusz II
duke of Plock
Stanisław
duke of Warsaw
Janusz III
duke of Warsaw

See also

Silesian Piasts Coat of Arms POL wojewodztwo dolnoslaskie COA 2000 - 2009.svg
Silesian Piasts Coat of Arms

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Władysław of Salzburg, also known as Władysław of Wrocław/Breslau or Władysław of Silesia, a member of the Silesian Piasts, was co-ruler in the Duchy of Wroclaw since 1248. He served as chancellor of King Ottokar II of Bohemia from 1255 and was elected Bishop of Bamberg in 1257 and Bishop of Passau in 1265. Władysław became Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg in the same year, and from 1268 also served as administrator of the Wrocław diocese.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Anne of Bohemia, Duchess of Silesia</span> High Duchess consort of Poland

Anne of Bohemia, a member of the Přemyslid dynasty, was Duchess of Silesia and High Duchess of Poland from 1238 to 1241, by her marriage to the Piast ruler Henry II the Pious. She was celebrated by the community of Franciscan nuns at St Clara of Prague Abbey in Wrocław as their founder and patron.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Henry the Bearded</span> High Duke of Poland from 1232 to 1238

Henry the Bearded was a Polish duke from the Piast dynasty.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Duchies of Silesia</span> Divisions of the region of Silesia

The Duchies of Silesia were the more than twenty divisions of the region of Silesia formed between the 12th and 14th centuries by the breakup of the Duchy of Silesia, then part of the Kingdom of Poland. In 1335, the duchies were ceded to the Kingdom of Bohemia under the Treaty of Trentschin. Thereafter until 1742, Silesia was one of the Bohemian crown lands and lay within the Holy Roman Empire. Most of Silesia was annexed by the King of Prussia under the Treaty of Berlin in 1742. Only the Duchy of Teschen, the Duchy of Troppau and the Duchy of Nysa remained under the control of the Bohemian crown and as such were known as the Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia until 1918.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Silesian Piasts</span> Elder of four lines of the Polish Piast dynasty

The Silesian Piasts were the elder of four lines of the Polish Piast dynasty beginning with Władysław II the Exile (1105–1159), eldest son of Duke Bolesław III of Poland. By Bolesław's testament, Władysław was granted Silesia as his hereditary province and also the Lesser Polish Seniorate Province at Kraków according to the principle of agnatic seniority.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Seniorate Province</span> 1138–1227 district principality in Duchy of Poland

Seniorate Province, also known as the Senioral Province,, was a district principality in the Duchy of Poland that was formed in 1138, following the fragmentation of the state. Its ruler held the title of the High Duke, ruling all duchies within Poland. In 1227, following the abolition of the High Duke title, the province was transformed into the Duchy of Kraków.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Duchy of Opole</span> Silesian duchy (1172–1202; 1281–1532)

Duchy of Opole was one of the duchies of Silesia ruled by the Piast dynasty. Its capital was Opole in Upper Silesia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Treaty of Trentschin</span> 1335 treaty between Poland and Bohemia

The Treaty of Trentschin was concluded on 24 August 1335 between King Casimir III of Poland and King John of Bohemia as well as his son Margrave Charles IV. The agreement was reached by the agency of Casimir's brother-in-law King Charles I of Hungary and signed at Trencsén Castle in the Kingdom of Hungary. It initiated the transfer of suzerainty over the former Polish province of Silesia to the Kingdom of Bohemia, whereafter the Duchies of Silesia were incorporated into the Bohemian Crown.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Duchy of Kraków</span> 1227–1320 duchy in Lesser Poland

Duchy of Kraków was a duchy in Lesser Poland that existed from 1227 until 1300. Its capital was Kraków. It was formed in 1227 from the Seniorate Province, following the abolishment of the Duchy of Poland. It remained independent until 1300, when it had become a fiefdom within the Kingdom of Poland. In 1320, it was incorporated into the United Kingdom of Poland.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of Poland during the Piast dynasty</span> Period of Polish history from 960 to 1370

The period of rule by the Piast dynasty between the 10th and 14th centuries is the first major stage of the history of the Polish state. The dynasty was founded by a series of dukes listed by the chronicler Gall Anonymous in the early 12th century: Siemowit, Lestek and Siemomysł. It was Mieszko I, the son of Siemomysł, who is now considered the proper founder of the Polish state at about 960 AD. The ruling house then remained in power in the Polish lands until 1370. Mieszko converted to Christianity of the Western Latin Rite in an event known as the Baptism of Poland in 966, which established a major cultural boundary in Europe based on religion. He also completed a unification of the Lechitic tribal lands that was fundamental to the existence of the new country of Poland.

References

  1. A. Małecki, Studya heraldyczne [Heraldic Studies], vol. I, Lwów 1890, pp. 268–285; M. L. Wójcik, Ród Gryfitów do końca XIII wieku. Pochodzenie – genealogia – rozsiedlenie, Historia CVII, Wrocław 1993, p. 39.
  2. Rodowód książąt pomorskich Edward Rymar Książnica Pomorska, 2005, page 53
  3. "FamilyTreeDNA – Genetic Testing for Ancestry, Family History & Genealogy". www.familytreedna.com. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
  4. Ring, Trudy; Watson, Noelle; Schellinger, Paul (28 October 2013). Northern Europe: International Dictionary of Historic Places. Routledge. ISBN   9781136639517.
  5. Ulwencreutz, Lars (2013). Ulwencreutz's the Royal Families in Europe. p. 191. ISBN   9781304581358.
  6. Encyklopedia Powszechna PWN Warsaw 1975 vol. III p. 505
  7. "Piast Dynasty". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 30 March 2011. The name Piast was not applied to the dynasty until the 17th century.
  8. Juliusz Bardach (1957). Historia państwa i prawa Polski do roku 1795: Bardach, J. Historia państwa i prawa Polski do połowy XV wieku. Państwowe Wydawn. Naukowe. p. 68.
  9. Jacek Hertel (1980). Imiennictwo dynastii piastowskiej we wcześniejszym średniowieczu. Państwowe Wydawn. Naukowe. pp. 31, 160. ISBN   978-83-01-01662-3.
  10. "Gniezno czy Giecz, czyli skąd pochodzi dynastia?". Gniezno czy Giecz, czyli skąd pochodzi dynastia? - Gniezno czy Giecz, czyli skąd pochodzi dynastia? - Wydarzenia - Wiedza - HISTORIA: POSZUKAJ. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
  11. Tomaney, William. "Poland Today » White eagle regains its crown". Poland Today » White eagle regains its crown. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
  12. Górczyk, Wojciech, "Półksiężyc, orzeł, lew i smok. Uwagi o godłach napieczętnych Piastów" http://histmag.org/?id=3057&act=ac [ clarification needed ][ year needed ]