Piccadilly

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View of Piccadilly by the Meriden Hotel looking towards Piccadilly Circus A4 Piccadilly - DSC04251.JPG
View of Piccadilly by the Meriden Hotel looking towards Piccadilly Circus

Piccadilly ( /ˌpɪkəˈdɪli/ ) is a road in the City of Westminster, London to the south of Mayfair, between Hyde Park Corner in the west and Piccadilly Circus in the east. It is part of the A4 road that connects central London to Hammersmith, Earl's Court, Heathrow Airport and the M4 motorway westward. St James's is to the south of the eastern section, while the western section is built up only on the northern side. Piccadilly is just under 1 mile (1.6 km) in length, and is one of the widest and straightest streets in central London.

City of Westminster City and borough in London

The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough that also holds city status. It occupies much of the central area of Greater London including most of the West End. Historically in Middlesex, it is to the west of the ancient City of London, directly to the east of the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, and its southern boundary is the River Thames. The London borough was created with the 1965 establishment of Greater London. Upon its creation, it inherited the city status previously held by the smaller Metropolitan Borough of Westminster from 1900, which was first awarded to Westminster in 1540.

Mayfair area of central London, England

Mayfair is an affluent area in the West End of London towards the eastern edge of Hyde Park, in the City of Westminster, between Oxford Street, Regent Street, Piccadilly and Park Lane. It is one of the most expensive districts in London and the world.

Hyde Park Corner place in London

Hyde Park Corner is an area in London, England, located around a major road junction at the southeastern corner of Hyde Park, that was designed by Decimus Burton. Six streets converge at the junction: Park Lane, Piccadilly (northeast), Constitution Hill (southeast), Grosvenor Place (south), Grosvenor Crescent (southwest) and Knightsbridge (west). Hyde Park Corner tube station, a London Underground station served by the Piccadilly line, is located at the junction, as are a number of notable monuments. Immediately to the north of the junction is Apsley House, the home of the first Duke of Wellington; several monuments to the Duke were erected in the vicinity, both in his lifetime and subsequently.

Contents

The street has been a main thoroughfare since at least medieval times, and in the Middle Ages was known as "the road to Reading" or "the way from Colnbrook". Around 1611 or 1612, a Robert Baker acquired land in the area, and prospered by making and selling piccadills. [nb 1] Shortly after purchasing the land, he enclosed it and erected several dwellings, including his home, Pikadilly Hall. What is now Piccadilly was named Portugal Street in 1663 after Catherine of Braganza, wife of Charles II, and grew in importance after the road from Charing Cross to Hyde Park Corner was closed to allow the creation of Green Park in 1668. Some of the most notable stately homes in London were built on the northern side of the street during this period, including Clarendon House and Burlington House in 1664. Berkeley House, constructed around the same time as Clarendon House, was destroyed by a fire in 1733 and rebuilt as Devonshire House in 1737 by William Cavendish, 3rd Duke of Devonshire. It was later used as the main headquarters for the Whig party. Burlington House has since been home to several noted societies, including the Royal Academy of Arts, the Geological Society of London and the Royal Astronomical Society. Several members of the Rothschild family had mansions at the western end of the street. St James's Church was consecrated in 1684 and the surrounding area became St James Parish.

Middle Ages Period of European history from the 5th to the 15th century

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages.

Reading, Berkshire Place in England

Reading is a large minster town in Berkshire, England, of which it is now the county town. It is in the Thames Valley at the confluence of the River Thames and River Kennet, and on both the Great Western Main Line railway and the M4 motorway. Reading is 70 miles (110 km) east of Bristol, 24 miles (39 km) south of Oxford, 40 miles (64 km) west of London, 14 miles (23 km) north of Basingstoke, 12 miles (19 km) south-west of Maidenhead and 15 miles (24 km) east of Newbury as the crow flies.

Colnbrook farm village in the United Kingdom

Colnbrook is a village in the unitary authority of Slough in Berkshire, England. It lies within the historic boundaries of Buckinghamshire, and straddles two distributaries of the Colne, the Colne Brook and Wraysbury River. These two streams have their confluence just to the southeast of the village. Colnbrook is centred 3 miles (4.8 km) southeast of Slough, 3.5 miles (5.6 km) east of Windsor, and 18 miles (29 km) west of central London.

The Old White Horse Cellar, at No. 155, was one of the most famous coaching inns in England by the late 18th century, by which time the street had become a favoured location for booksellers. The Bath Hotel emerged around 1790, and Walsingham House was built in 1887. Both the Bath and the Walsingham were purchased and demolished, and the prestigious Ritz Hotel built on their site in 1906. Piccadilly Circus station, at the east end of the street, was opened in 1906 and rebuilt to designs by Charles Holden between 1925 and 1928. The clothing store Simpson's was established at Nos. 203–206 Piccadilly by Alec Simpson in 1936. During the 20th century, Piccadilly became known as a place to acquire heroin, and was notorious in the 1960s as the centre of London's illegal drug trade. Today, it is regarded as one of London's principal shopping streets. Its landmarks include the Ritz, Park Lane, Athenaeum and Intercontinental hotels, Fortnum & Mason, the Royal Academy, the RAF Club, Hatchards, the Embassy of Japan and the High Commission of Malta.

Old White Horse Cellar historic inn in London, England

The Old White Horse Cellar also known as Hatchetts White Horse Cellar at No. 155 Piccadilly, was one of the best known coaching inns in England during the 18th and 19th centuries. The first mention of the White Horse Cellar is in 1720. It was originally located on the corner of Arlington Street, where the Ritz Hotel is now located. The first landlord, a man named Williams, named it in honor of the newly established House of Hanover, whose heraldic emblem featured a white horse. The White Horse rose to prominence under Abraham Hatchett who later moved it to the opposite side of the road on the corner of Albemarle Street, where it was known as "Hatchett’s Hotel and White Horse Cellar". The precise date of the move is not known, but was precipitated by the construction of the Bath Hotel, which was located on the corner of Piccadilly and Arlington as early as 1798. It was torn down in 1884 to make room for the Albemarle.

The Bath Hotel was located at 155 Piccadilly on the site of what is now The Ritz Hotel, London and was adjacent to the Walsingham House. The Ritz' financial backers began negotiations in 1901 and purchased the Bath in 1902 simultaneously with the acquisition of the Walsingham. One of the considerations that made the transaction appealing to the city was that they would be able to widen Piccadilly when the Walsingham and Bath Hotels were demolished.

Walsingham House

The Walsingham House or Walsingham House Hotel was located at 150-4 Piccadilly on the site of what is now The Ritz Hotel, London and was adjacent to the Bath Hotel. The Ritz's financial backers began negotiations in 1901 and purchased the Walsingham simultaneously with the Bath Hotel. Though the Walsingham was of fairly new construction, they determined it was too "inelegant" and demolished the building. One of the considerations that made the transaction appealing to the city was that they would be able to widen Piccadilly when the Walsingham and Bath Hotels were demolished.

Piccadilly has inspired several works of fiction, including Oscar Wilde's The Importance of Being Earnest and the work of P. G. Wodehouse. It is one of a group of squares on the London Monopoly board.

Oscar Wilde 19th-century Irish poet, playwright and aesthete

Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde was an Irish poet and playwright. After writing in different forms throughout the 1880s, he became one of London's most popular playwrights in the early 1890s. He is best remembered for his epigrams and plays, his novel The Picture of Dorian Gray, and the circumstances of his criminal conviction for homosexuality, imprisonment, and early death at age 46.

<i>The Importance of Being Earnest</i> Literary work by Oscar Wilde

The Importance of Being Earnest, A Trivial Comedy for Serious People is a play by Oscar Wilde. First performed on 14 February 1895 at the St James's Theatre in London, it is a farcical comedy in which the protagonists maintain fictitious personæ to escape burdensome social obligations. Working within the social conventions of late Victorian London, the play's major themes are the triviality with which it treats institutions as serious as marriage, and the resulting satire of Victorian ways. Some contemporary reviews praised the play's humour and the culmination of Wilde's artistic career, while others were cautious about its lack of social messages. Its high farce and witty dialogue have helped make The Importance of Being Earnest Wilde's most enduringly popular play.

P. G. Wodehouse English author

Sir Pelham Grenville Wodehouse was an English author and one of the most widely read humorists of the 20th century. Born in Guildford, the third son of a British magistrate based in Hong Kong, Wodehouse spent happy teenage years at Dulwich College, to which he remained devoted all his life. After leaving school, he was employed by a bank but disliked the work and turned to writing in his spare time. His early novels were mostly school stories, but he later switched to comic fiction, creating several regular characters who became familiar to the public over the years. They include the jolly gentleman of leisure Bertie Wooster and his sagacious valet Jeeves; the immaculate and loquacious Psmith; Lord Emsworth and the Blandings Castle set; the Oldest Member, with stories about golf; and Mr Mulliner, with tall tales on subjects ranging from bibulous bishops to megalomaniac movie moguls.

History

Early history

Apsley House on an 1869 map. The neighbouring houses were demolished in the early 1960s to allow Park Lane to be widened. The Wellington Arch has been moved since this time. Apsley house on an 1869 Ordnance Survey Map.JPG
Apsley House on an 1869 map. The neighbouring houses were demolished in the early 1960s to allow Park Lane to be widened. The Wellington Arch has been moved since this time.

The street has been part of a main road for centuries, although there is no evidence that it was part of a Roman road, unlike Oxford Street further north. [2] In the Middle Ages it was known as "the road to Reading" or "the way from Colnbrook". [3] During the Tudor period, relatively settled conditions made expansion beyond London's city walls a safer venture. Property speculation became a lucrative enterprise, and developments grew so rapidly that the threat of disease and disorder prompted the government to ban developments. Owing to the momentum of growth, the laws had little real effect. [4]

Oxford Street major road in the City of Westminster in London

Oxford Street is a major road in the City of Westminster in the West End of London, running from Tottenham Court Road to Marble Arch via Oxford Circus. It is Europe's busiest shopping street, with around half a million daily visitors, and as of 2012 had approximately 300 shops. It is designated as part of the A40, a major road between London and Fishguard, though it is not signed as such, and traffic is regularly restricted to buses and taxis.

Tudor period historical era in England coinciding with the rule of the Tudor dynasty

The Tudor period is the period between 1485 and 1603 in England and Wales and includes the Elizabethan period during the reign of Elizabeth I until 1603. The Tudor period coincides with the dynasty of the House of Tudor in England whose first monarch was Henry VII. In terms of the entire span, the historian John Guy (1988) argues that "England was economically healthier, more expansive, and more optimistic under the Tudors" than at any time in a thousand years.

A plot of land bounded by Coventry, Sherwood, Glasshouse and Rupert streets and the line of Smith's Court was granted by Elizabeth I to William Dodington, a gentleman of London, in 1559–60. A year or so later it was owned by a brewer, Thomas Wilson of St Botolph-without-Aldgate. The grant did not include a small parcel of land, 1 38 acres in area, on the east of what is now Great Windmill Street. That plot may have never belonged to the Crown, and was owned by Anthony Cotton in the reign of Henry VIII. John Cotton granted it to John Golightly in 1547, and his descendants sold it to a tailor, Robert Baker, in c. 1611–12. Six or seven years later, Baker bought 22 acres of Wilson's land, thanks largely to money from his second marriage. [4] [nb 2]

Coventry Street London street, within the City of Westminster

Coventry Street is a short street in the West End of London, connecting Piccadilly Circus to Leicester Square. Part of the street is a section of the A4, a major road through London. It is named after the politician Henry Coventry, secretary of state to Charles II.

Elizabeth I of England Queen regnant of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until 24 March 1603

Elizabeth I was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the last of the five monarchs of the House of Tudor.

Great Windmill Street street in City of Westminster, United Kingdom

Great Windmill Street is a thoroughfare running north-south in Soho, London. It is crossed by Shaftesbury Avenue. The street has had a long association with music and entertainment, most notably the Windmill Theatre, and is now home to the Ripley's Believe It or Not! museum and the Trocadero shopping centre.

Baker became financially successful by making and selling fashionable piccadills. [1] Shortly after purchasing the land, he enclosed it (the parishioners had Lammas grazing rights) and erected several dwellings, including a residence and shop for himself; within two years his house was known as Pickadilly Hall. [4] [5] [6] [nb 3] A map published by Faithorne in 1658 describes the street as "the way from Knightsbridge to Piccadilly Hall". [8] A nearby gaming house, known as Shaver's Hall and nicknamed "Tart Hall" or "Pickadell Hall", was popular with the gentry of London. Lord Dell lost £3000 gambling at cards there in 1641. [9]

After Robert Baker's death in 1623 and the death of his eldest son Samuel shortly afterward, his widow and her father purchased the wardship of their surviving children; the death of the next eldest son, Robert, in 1630, allowed them to effectively control the estate. [4] Their only daughter died, and her widower Sir Henry Oxenden retained an interest in the land. Several relatives claimed it, [nb 4] but after Mary Baker's death in about 1665, the estate reverted to the Crown. [4] A great-nephew, John Baker, obtained possession of part of it, but squabbled over the lands with his cousin, James Baker; trying to play one another off, they paid or granted rights to Oxenden and a speculator, Colonel Thomas Panton, eventually losing out to them. By the 1670s, Panton was developing the lands; despite the claims of some distantly-related Bakers, he steadily built them up. [4]

Later 17th century

St James's Church has stood on Piccadilly since 1684, and was designed by Sir Christopher Wren St James's South and east fronts 1814 edited.jpg
St James's Church has stood on Piccadilly since 1684, and was designed by Sir Christopher Wren

Piccadilly was named Portugal Street in 1663 after Catherine of Braganza, wife of Charles II. [8] Its importance to traffic increased after an earlier road from Charing Cross to Hyde Park Corner was closed to allow the creation of Green Park in 1668. [2] After the restoration of the English monarchy in 1660, Charles II encouraged the development of Portugal Street and the area to the north (Mayfair), and they became fashionable residential localities. [10] Some of the grandest mansions in London were built on the northern side of the street. Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon and close political adviser to the king, purchased land for a house; Clarendon House (now the location of Albemarle Street) was built in 1664, [11] and the earl sold the surplus land partly to Sir John Denham, who built what later became Burlington House. Denham chose the location because it was on the outskirts of London surrounded by fields. The house was first used to house the poor, before being reconstructed by the third Earl of Burlington in 1718. [12] Berkeley House was constructed around the same time as Clarendon House. [12] It was destroyed by a fire in 1733, and rebuilt as Devonshire House in 1737 by William Cavendish, 3rd Duke of Devonshire, and was subsequently used as the headquarters for the Whig party. [13] Devonshire House survived until 1921, before being sold for redevelopment by Edward Cavendish, 10th Duke of Devonshire for £1 million. [14] Burlington House has since been home to the Royal Academy of Arts, the Geological Society of London, the Linnean Society of London, the Royal Astronomical Society, the British Astronomical Association, the Society of Antiquaries of London and the Royal Society of Chemistry. [15]

Burlington House, home to several learned societies Burlington House (5125727595).jpg
Burlington House, home to several learned societies

The land to the south of Piccadilly was leased to trustees of the Earl of St Albans in 1661 for a thirty-year term, subsequently extended to 1740. Nos. 162–165 were granted freehold by the king to Sir Edward Villiers in 1674. [2] The White Bear Inn had been established between what is now No. 221 Piccadilly and the parallel Jermyn Street since 1685. It remained in use throughout the 18th century before being demolished in 1870 to make way for a restaurant. [2]

St James's Church was first proposed in 1664, when residents wanted the area to become a separate parish from St Martin in the Fields. After several Bill readings, construction began in 1676. The building was designed by Christopher Wren and cost around £5,000. It was consecrated in 1684, when the surrounding area became St James Parish. [16]

By 1680, most of the original residential properties along Portugal Street had been demolished or built over. [17] The name Piccadilly was applied to part of the street east of Swallow Street by 1673, and eventually became the de facto name for the entire length of Portugal Street. [8] A plan of the area around St James Parish in 1720 describes the road as "Portugal Street aka Piccadilly". [18] John Rocque's Map of London, published in 1746, refers to the entire street as Piccadilly. [8] [nb 5]

18th–19th centuries

The view of Piccadilly from Hyde Park Corner in 1810 Piccadilly from Hyde Park Corner Turnpike, from Ackermann's Repository, 1810.jpg
The view of Piccadilly from Hyde Park Corner in 1810

Piccadilly was increasingly developed, and by the middle of the 18th century it was continuously built on as far as Hyde Park Corner. [20] The development of St James's and Mayfair, in particular, made Piccadilly one of the busiest roads in London. [21] Hugh Mason and William Fortnum started the Fortnum & Mason partnership on Piccadilly in 1705, selling recycled candles from Buckingham Palace. [22] By 1788, the store sold poultry, potted meats, lobsters and prawns, savoury patties, Scotch eggs, and fresh and dried fruits. [23]

The street acquired a reputation for numerous inns and bars during this period. [24] The Old White Horse Cellar, at No. 155, was one of the most famous coaching inns in England but was later destroyed. [23] The Black Bear and White Bear (originally the Fleece) public houses were nearly opposite each other, although the former was demolished in about 1820. Also of note were the Hercules' Pillars, just west of Hamilton Place, the Triumphant Car, which was popular with soldiers, and the White Horse and Half Moon. [24] The Bath Hotel emerged around 1790 [25] and Walsingham House was built in 1887. [26] The Bath and the Walsingham were demolished when the Ritz Hotel opened on the site in 1906. [27]

No. 106, on the corner of Piccadilly and Brick Street, was built for Hugh Hunlock in 1761. It was subsequently owned by the 6th Earl of Coventry who remodelled it around 1765; most of the architecture from this renovation has survived. In 1869, it became home to the St James's Club, a gentleman's club that remained there until 1978. [28] The building is now the London campus of the Limkokwing University of Creative Technology. [29]

Several members of the Rothschild family had mansions at the western end of the street. Nathan Mayer Rothschild moved his banking premises to No. 107 in 1825, and the construction of other large buildings, complete with ballrooms and marble staircases, led to the street being colloquially referred to as Rothschild Row. [30] Ferdinand James von Rothschild lived at No. 143 with his wife Evelina while Lionel de Rothschild lived at No. 148. [31] Melbourne House was designed by William Chambers for Peniston Lamb, 1st Viscount Melbourne and built between 1770 and 1774. It was converted to apartments in 1802, and is now the Albany. [32] The house has been the residence for the British Prime Ministers William Ewart Gladstone and Edward Heath. [32] St James's Hall was designed by Owen Jones and built between 1857–8. Charles Dickens gave several readings of his novels in the hall, including Great Expectations and Oliver Twist . The hall hosted performances from Antonín Dvořák, Edvard Grieg and Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. It was demolished in 1905, and replaced by the Piccadilly Hotel. [33]

The bookseller Hatchards has been based on Piccadilly since 1797, occupying the current premises at what is now No. 187 in 1801 Hatchards2.jpg
The bookseller Hatchards has been based on Piccadilly since 1797, occupying the current premises at what is now No. 187 in 1801

In the late 18th century, Piccadilly was a favoured place for booksellers. In 1765, John Almon opened a shop in No. 178, which was frequented by Lord Temple and other Whigs. John Stockdale opened a shop on No. 181 in 1781. The business continued after his death in 1810, and was run by his family until 1835. Hatchards, now the oldest surviving bookshop in Britain, was started by John Hatchard at No. 173 in 1797; it moved to the current location at No. 189-90 (now No. 187) in 1801. Aldine Press moved to Piccadilly from Chancery Lane in 1842, and remained there until 1894. [2]

The Egyptian Hall at No. 170, designed in 1812 by P. F. Robinson for W. Bullock of Liverpool, was modelled on Ancient Egyptian architecture, particularly the Great Temple of Dendera (Tentyra). [34] One author described it as "one of the strangest places Piccadilly ever knew". [35] It was a venue for exhibitions by the Society of Painters in Water Colours and the Society of Female Artists during the 19th century. [36] It contained numerous Egyptian antiquaries; at an auction in June 1822, two "imperfect" Sekhmet statues were sold for £380, and a flawless one went for £300. [37]

The premises at 190–195, built in 1881–1883, housing the Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colours and known as the "Royal Institute Galleries", are grade II listed. [38] [39] Number 195 is now home to BAFTA, [40]

20th–21st centuries

The Ritz hotel opened in Piccadilly in 1906 The Ritz (6902790412).jpg
The Ritz hotel opened in Piccadilly in 1906

By the 1920s, most old buildings on the street had been demolished or were in institutional use; traffic noise had driven away residents, but a few residential properties remained. Albert, Duke of York lived at No. 145 at the time of his accession as King George VI in 1936. [20]

Simpsons of Piccadilly, now the Waterstones flagship store Simpsons of Piccadilly 2005.jpg
Simpsons of Piccadilly, now the Waterstones flagship store

The clothing store Simpson's was established at 203 - 206 Piccadilly by Alec Simpson in 1936, providing factory-made men's clothing. The premises were designed by the architect Joseph Amberton in a style that mixed art deco and Bauhaus school design and an influence from Louis Sullivan. On opening, it claimed to be the largest menswear store in London. It closed in January 1999; its premises are currently the flagship shop of the booksellers Waterstones. [41]

During the 20th century, Piccadilly became known as a place to acquire heroin. Jazz trumpeter Dizzy Reece recalled people queuing outside Piccadilly's branch of Boots for heroin pills in the late 1940s. [42] By the 1960s, the street and surrounding area were notorious as the centre of London's illegal drug trade, where heroin and cocaine could be purchased on the black market from unscrupulous chemists. [43] By 1982, up to 20 people could be seen queueing at a chemist dealing in illegal drugs in nearby Shaftesbury Avenue. [44] No. 144 was occupied by squatters in 1968, taking advantage of a law that allowed disused buildings to be used for emergency shelter for the homeless. The radical squatting movement that resulted foundered soon afterward, owing to the rise of drug dealers and Hell's Angels occupying the site. An eviction took place on 21 September 1969; the events resulted in the licencing of squatting organisations that could take over empty premises to use as homeless shelters. [45] In 1983, A. Burr of the British Journal of Addiction published an article on "The Piccadilly Drug Scene", in which the author discussed the regular presence of known dealers and easy accessibility of drugs. [46] [47]

Today, Piccadilly is regarded as one of London's principal shopping streets, hosting several famous shops. The Ritz Hotel, Park Lane Hotel, Athenaeum Hotel and Intercontinental Hotel are located on the street, along with other luxury hotels and offices. During the 20th century, it had been an established area for gentlemen's clubs; this usage has sharply declined, and only the Cavalry and Guards Club and the Royal Air Force Club remain. [20]

Transport

Piccadilly near Green Park station in 2009. A4 Piccadilly, near Green Park - DSC04259.JPG
Piccadilly near Green Park station in 2009.

Piccadilly is a major thoroughfare in the West End of London and has several major road junctions. To the east, Piccadilly Circus opened in 1819 connecting it to Regent Street. It has become one of the most recognised landmarks in London, particularly after a statue of Eros was constructed on the junction in 1893, and the erection of large electric billboards in 1923. [48] At the western end of Piccadilly is Hyde Park Corner, and the street has a major road junction with St James's Street and other significant junctions at Albemarle Street, Bond Street and Dover Street. [49]

The road is part of the A4 connecting central London to Hammersmith, Earl's Court, Heathrow Airport and the M4 motorway. Congestion along the road has been reported since the mid-19th century, leading to its progressive widening and removing the northern portions of Green Park. [50] [51] Traffic signals were installed in the 1930s. [52] In the late 1950s, the Ministry of Transport remodelled Hyde Park Corner at the western end to form a major traffic gyratory system, including enlargement of Park Lane. It opened on 17 October 1962 at a cost of £5 million. [53] [54]

The London bus routes 9, 14, 19, 22, 38, C2, N9, N19, N22, N38 and N97 all run along Piccadilly. [49] Part of the Piccadilly line on the London Underground travels under the street. [55] Green Park, Hyde Park Corner, and Piccadilly Circus stations (which are all on the Piccadilly line) have entrances in or near Piccadilly. [49] Down Street station also served the western end of the street from 1907 until it closed in 1932 because of low usage. [56]

Cultural references

The music hall song "It's a Long Way to Tipperary" mentions Piccadilly and Leicester Square in its lyrics. It was written in 1912 about an Irishman living in London, but became popular after being adopted by the mostly Irish Connaught Rangers during World War I. [57] The street is mentioned in Gilbert and Sullivan's 1881 operetta Patience , in the lyrics of the song "If You're Anxious For To Shine". [58] One of the major hit songs of the Edwardian musical play The Arcadians (1909) which enjoyed long runs in the West End of London and on New York's Broadway is "All down Piccadilly" (Simplicitas and Chorus, Act III, revised version), with music by Lionel Monckton who also co-wrote the words with Arthur Wimperis. [59]

Piccadilly is mentioned in several works of fiction. E. W. Hornung's "gentleman thief" Raffles lives at the Albany, as does Jack Worthing from Oscar Wilde's The Importance of Being Earnest . [60] According to author Mary C King, Wilde chose the street because of its resemblance to the Spanish word peccadillo, meaning "slashed" or "pierced". [61]

In Evelyn Waugh's novel Brideshead Revisited , the mansion Marchmain House, supposedly located in a cul-de-sac off St James's near Piccadilly, is demolished and replaced with flats. In the 1981 Granada Television dramatisation, Bridgewater House in Cleveland Row was used as the exterior of Marchmain House. [62]

In Arthur Machen's 1894 novella The Great God Pan , Helen Vaughan, the satanic villainess and offspring of Pan, lives off Piccadilly in the pseudonymous Ashley Street. [61] Margery Allingham's fictional detective Albert Campion has a flat at 17A Bottle Street, Piccadilly, over a police station, although Bottle Street is equally fictitious. [63]

Several P.G. Wodehouse novels use the setting of Piccadilly as the playground of the rich, idle bachelor in the inter-war period of the 20th century. Notable instances are present in the characters of Bertie Wooster and his Drones Club companions in the Jeeves stories, and the character of James Crocker in the story "Piccadilly Jim". [64]

Dorothy Sayers' fictional detective Lord Peter Wimsey is described as living at 110A Piccadilly in the inter-war period. [65]

The street is a square on the British Monopoly board, forming a set with Leicester Square and Coventry Street. [66] When a European Union version of the game was produced in 1992, Piccadilly was one of three London streets selected, along with Oxford Street and Park Lane. [67]

In 1996, Latvian singer Laima Vaikule released an album titled Ya vyshla na Pikadilli ("I Went Out on Piccadilly"). [68]

See also

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Bond Street street in the West End of London (officially Old Bond Street and New Bond Street)

Bond Street is a major shopping street in the West End of London. It links Piccadilly in the south to Oxford Street in the north and has been popular for retail since the 18th century, being the home of many fashion outlets that sell prestigious or expensive items. The southern section is Old Bond Street and the longer northern section New Bond Street—a distinction not generally made in everyday usage.

The Angel, Islington historic landmark and a series of buildings that have stood on the corner of Islington High Street and Pentonville Road in Islington, London, England

The Angel, Islington is a historic landmark and a series of buildings that have stood on the corner of Islington High Street and Pentonville Road in Islington, London, England. The land originally belonged to the Clerkenwell Priory and has had various properties built on it since the 16th century. The site was bisected by the New Road, which opened in 1756, and properties on the site have been rebuilt several times up to the 20th century. The corner site gave its name to Angel tube station, opened in 1901, and the surrounding Angel area of London.

Pall Mall, London street in London, England

Pall Mall is a street in the St James's area of the City of Westminster, Central London. It connects St James's Street to Trafalgar Square and is a section of the regional A4 road. The street's name is derived from 'pall-mall', a ball game played there during the 17th century.

Devonshire House house in London demolished in 1924

Devonshire House in Piccadilly was the London residence of the Dukes of Devonshire in the 18th and 19th centuries. Following a fire in 1733 it was rebuilt for William Cavendish, 3rd Duke of Devonshire, in the Palladian style, to designs by William Kent. Completed circa 1740, it stood empty after the First World War and was demolished in 1924.

St Jamess Street street in the St Jamess area of the City of Westminster in London

St James's Street is the principal street in the district of St James's, central London. It runs from Piccadilly downhill to St James's Palace and Pall Mall. The main gatehouse of the Palace is at the southern end of the road, and in the 17th century Clarendon House faced down the street across Piccadilly on the site of most of Albemarle Street.

London Buses route 9

London Buses Route 9 is a Transport for London contracted bus route in London, England. Running between Hammersmith bus station and Aldwych, it is operated by London United.

Old Burlington Street

Old Burlington Street is a street in central London that is on land that was once part of the Burlington Estate.

Half Moon Street, London street in City of Westminster, United Kingdom

Half Moon Street is a street in the City of Westminster, London. The street runs from Curzon Street in the north to Piccadilly in the south.

References

Notes

  1. Piccadills were stiff collars with scalloped edges and a broad lace or perforated border then in fashion. [1]
  2. His second wife was Mary, daughter of Samuel Higgins, an apothecary. [4]
  3. Piccadilly has also been described as a variation of the old Dutch word "Pickedillikens", meaning the extreme or utmost part of something. [7]
  4. Edward Hobart, Robert's son-in-law, and a man claiming to be a great-nephew, John Baker, of Wellington, Somerset, or Payhembury, Devon.
  5. The street was officially known as Portugal Street until circa 1750. [19]

Citations

  1. 1 2 Taggart, Caroline (13 June 2012). "The surprising reasons behind London's oldest place names". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 F. H. W. Sheppard, ed. (1960). "Piccadilly, South Side". Survey of London. London: London County Council. 29–30: 251–270. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
  3. Kingsford 1925, p. 97.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 F. H. W. Sheppard, ed. (1963). "The Early History of Piccadilly". Survey of London. London: London County Council. 31–32: 32–40. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
  5. Kingsford 1925, p. 73.
  6. Le Vay 2012, p. 112.
  7. Dasent 1920, p. 8.
  8. 1 2 3 4 Kingsford 1925, p. 98.
  9. Street 1907, pp. 3–4.
  10. Wheatley 1870, p. 2.
  11. Wheatley 1870, p. 83.
  12. 1 2 Kingsford 1925, p. 104.
  13. Walford, Edward (1878). "Mansions in Piccadilly". 4. Old and New London: 273–290. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
  14. Moore 2003, p. 116.
  15. "Burlington House". Royal Society. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  16. "Building History". St James's Church, Piccadilly. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
  17. Kingsford 1925, p. 40.
  18. Wheatley 1870, p. xiv.
  19. Wheatley 1870, p. 15.
  20. 1 2 3 Weinreb et al 2008, p. 639.
  21. McDonald 2004, p. 98.
  22. Fullmann 2012, p. 61.
  23. 1 2 Binney 2006, p. 20.
  24. 1 2 Timbs 1866, p. 221.
  25. "Lost". The Times. London, England. 19 December 1789. p. 1. Retrieved 26 June 2015 via Newspapers.com. Open Access logo PLoS transparent.svg
  26. "Cheshire House 66A Eaton Square, and 52 Eaton Mews West, SW1". Country Life. 196: 105. 2002. Retrieved 26 June 2015.
  27. Macqueen-Pope 1972, p. 119.
  28. Weinreb et al 2008, p. 640.
  29. "Limkokwing University Campuses & Contact Centres". Limkokwing University of Creative Technology. Archived from the original on 31 December 2007. Retrieved 10 January 2008.
  30. Bedoire & Tanner 2004, pp. 129–30.
  31. Morton 2014, p. 155.
  32. 1 2 Weinreb et al 2008, p. 10.
  33. Weinreb et al 2008, p. 766.
  34. Jones 1833, p. 157.
  35. Macqueen-Pope 1972, p. 77.
  36. Nineteenth-century Studies 2004, p. 145.
  37. Starkey & Starkey 2001, p. 48.
  38. London Night and Day, 1951: A Guide to Where the Other Books Don’t Take You. Old House Books. 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  39. Historic England. "Former Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colours premises, now forming part of Prince's House (1265805)". National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  40. "Welcome to BAFTA 195 Piccadilly". BAFTA. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  41. Gillian, Leslie (13 December 1998). "Design: Goodbye, Piccadilly..." The Independent. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
  42. Duffy, Jonathan (25 January 2006). "When heroin was legal". BBC News. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
  43. Burr 1983, p. 883.
  44. Burr 1983, p. 885.
  45. "Police storm squat in Piccadilly". BBC News. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
  46. Berridge 1990, p. 162.
  47. Raistrick & Davidson 1985, p. 110.
  48. "Piccadilly Circus". Encyclopædia Britannica. 5 January 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
  49. 1 2 3 "Central London Bus Map" (PDF). Transport for London. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 July 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
  50. "Metropolitan Improvements – Hyde Park Corner". Hansard. 31 May 1883. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
  51. "The Widening of Piccadilly". Hansard. 15 August 1901. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
  52. "Traffic signals (Piccadilly)". Hansard. 8 February 1932. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
  53. "Building the Hyde Park Corner Underpass". Museum of London. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
  54. "Hyde Park South Carriage Drive". Hansard. 13 November 1962. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
  55. York 2013, p. 19.
  56. Connor 2006, pp. 28–32.
  57. Ciment & Russell 2007, p. 1083.
  58. "Am I Alone – And Unobserved?". Gilbert and Sullivan Archive. Retrieved 17 November 2016..[
  59. "The Arcadians, operetta~Act 3. All down Piccadilly". AllMusic. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
  60. Cook 2013, p. 56.
  61. 1 2 Karschay 2015, p. 109.
  62. Halliday 2013, p. 71.
  63. Panek 1979, p. 131.
  64. McIlvaine, Sherby & Heineman 1990, pp. 30–31.
  65. Dorothy Sayers. "Whose Body" . Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  66. Moore 2003, p. 86.
  67. Moore 2003, p. 113.
  68. "Я вышла на Пикадилли" (in Russian). Laima.com. Retrieved 25 March 2016.
  69. "Location Map – Criterion Theatre". Criterion-Theatre.co.uk. Archived from the original on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2014. Foyer Entrance : 218–223 Piccadilly

Sources

Further reading

Coordinates: 51°30′25″N0°08′32″W / 51.50698°N 0.14235°W / 51.50698; -0.14235