|Pierre-Claude Nivelle de La Chaussée|
Nivelle de La Chaussée (1736)
|Born|| 14 February 1692|
|Died|| 14 May 1754 62) (aged|
Pierre-Claude Nivelle de La Chaussée (14 February 1692 in Paris – 14 May 1754 in Paris) was a French dramatist who blurred the lines between comedy and tragedy with his comédie larmoyante .
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts.
Comédie larmoyante was a genre of French drama of the 18th century. In this type of sentimental comedy, the impending tragedy was resolved at the end, amid reconciliations and floods of tears. Plays of this genre that ended unhappily nevertheless allowed the audience to see that a "moral triumph" had been earned for the suffering heroes and heroines.
In 1731 he published an Epître a Clio, a didactic poem in defense of Leriget de la Faye in his dispute with Antoine Houdar de la Motte, who had maintained that verse was useless in tragedy. La Chaussée was forty years old before he produced his first play, La Fausse Antipathic (1734). His second play, Le Prejugée à la mode (1735) turns on the fear of incurring ridicule felt by a man in love with his own wife, a prejudice dispelled in France, according to La Harpe, by La Chaussée's comedy. L'Ecole des amis (1737) followed, and, after an unsuccessful attempt at tragedy in Maximinien, he returned to comedy in Mélanide (1741).
Jean-François Leriget de La Faye was a French diplomat, wealthy landowner and art collector, poet, and member of the Académie française for a single year.
Antoine Houdar de la Motte was a French author.
Tragedy is a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in audiences. While many cultures have developed forms that provoke this paradoxical response, the term tragedy often refers to a specific tradition of drama that has played a unique and important role historically in the self-definition of Western civilisation. That tradition has been multiple and discontinuous, yet the term has often been used to invoke a powerful effect of cultural identity and historical continuity—"the Greeks and the Elizabethans, in one cultural form; Hellenes and Christians, in a common activity," as Raymond Williams puts it.
Mélanide fully develops the type known as comédie larmoyante . Comedy was no longer to provoke laughter, but tears. The innovation consisted in destroying the sharp distinction then existing between tragedy and comedy in French literature. Indications of this change had been already offered in the work of Marivaux, and La Chaussée's plays led naturally to the domestic drama of Diderot and of Sedaine. The new method found bitter enemies. Alexis Piron nicknames the author "le Reverend Père Chaussee," and ridiculed him in one of his most famous epigrams.
French literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the French language, particularly by citizens of France; it may also refer to literature written by people living in France who speak traditional languages of France other than French. Literature written in French language, by citizens of other nations such as Belgium, Switzerland, Canada, Senegal, Algeria, Morocco, etc. is referred to as Francophone literature. France itself ranks first in the list of Nobel Prizes in literature by country.
Denis Diderot was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer, best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor, and contributor to the Encyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert. He was a prominent figure during the Enlightenment.
Michel-Jean Sedaine was a French dramatist and librettist, especially noted for his librettos for opéras comiques, in which he took an important and influential role in the advancement of the genre from the period of Charles-Simon Favart to the beginning of the Revolution.
Voltaire maintained that the comédie larmoyante was a proof of the inability of the author to produce either of the recognized kinds of drama, though he himself produced a play of similar character in L'Enfant prodigue. The hostility of the critics did not prevent the public from shedding tears nightly over the sorrows of La Chaussee's heroine.
François-Marie Arouet, known by his nom de plumeVoltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his criticism of Christianity, especially the Roman Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech, and separation of church and state.
L’École des Mères (1744) and La Gouvernante (1747) form, with those already mentioned, the best of his work. The strict moral aims pursued by La Chaussée in his plays seem hardly consistent with his private preferences. He frequented the same high society as did the comte de Caylus and contributed to the Recueils de ces messieurs. Villemain said of his style that he wrote prosaic verses with purity, while Voltaire, usually an adverse critic of his work, said he was "un des premiers apres ceux qui ont du genie."
For the comédie larmoyante see Gustave Lanson, Ninette de la Chaussée et la comedie larmoyante (1887).
Gustave Lanson was a French historian and literary critic. He taught at the Sorbonne in Paris.
Sablier published the Œuvres de Monsieur Nivelle de La Chaussée (Paris, Prault, 1762, 5 vol. in-12°). Other Œuvres choisies (Paris, 1813, 2 vol. in-18 ; 1825, in-18°) were published including:
Pierre Carlet de Chamblain de Marivaux, commonly referred to as Marivaux, was a French novelist and dramatist.
Jean-François Collin d'Harleville was a French dramatist.
Claude-Henri de Fusée, abbé de Voisenon was a French playwright and writer.
Louis Jean Népomucène Lemercier was a French poet and playwright.
Joseph Méry was a French writer, journalist, novelist, poet, playwright and librettist.
Louis Fuzelier was a French playwright.
Michel, chevalier de Cubières, the brother of Louis Pierre de Cubières, was an 18th-century French writer, known under the pen-names of Palmézaux and Dorat-Cubières, taking the latter name as he had Claude Joseph Dorat as his master.
Louis de Boissy was an 18th-century French poet and playwright. He was elected to seat 6 of the Académie française on 12 August 1754. He wrote satires and several comedies, of which the best is Les Dehors trompeurs ou l'Homme du jour, the great success of the 1740 season, with a cast including Quinault-Dufresne and Jeanne Quinault. Boissy had the concession to print the Mercure de France. His son was Louis Michel de Boissy. The historian Louis Michel de Boissy was his son.
Louis-François Archambault, stage name Dorvigny, was a French novelist, actor and playwright, and the inventor of "janotism".
François-Augustin de Paradis de Moncrif was a French writer and poet, of a family originally of Scots origin. He was appointed historiographer royal to Louis XV of France. His parody of owlishly pedantic scholarship, Histoire des chats, and the protection of the house of Orléans gained him entry to the Académie française. Maurepas records in his memoirs that at the induction ceremony, a member let loose a cat he had secreted in his pocket: the cat miaowed, the Académiciens miaowed and the serious oration dissolved in laughter.
The abbé Simon-Joseph Pellegrin (1663 – 5 September 1745) was a French poet and playwright, a librettist who collaborated with Jean-Philippe Rameau and other composers.
Nicolas Racot de Grandval was a French composer, harpsichordist and playwright. He was born and died in Paris and was also named „Le Père Grandval“.
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Pierre-Nicolas André called de Murville, was an 18th–19th-century French poet and playwright.
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Charles Palissot de Montenoy was an 18th-century French playwright, admirer and disciple of Voltaire and Antoine de Rivarol. Paradoxically, he was often denounced as a Counter-Enlightenment opponent to the parti philosophique, especially for his critic of Diderot and the Encyclopédistes. He is the author of the comedy, Les Philosophes, which was a huge success and caused a scandal in 1760.