Pierre Hector Chanut (February 22, 1601 in Riom – July 3, 1662 in Livry-sur-Seine) was a civil servant in the Auvergne, a French ambassador in Sweden and the Dutch Republic, and state counsellor.
Riom is a commune town in the Puy-de-Dôme department in Auvergne in central France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department.
Livry-sur-Seine is a commune in the Seine-et-Marne department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France.
The Dutch Republic, or the United Provinces, was a confederal republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces—seceded from Spanish rule—until the Batavian Revolution of 1795. It was a predecessor state of the Netherlands and the first Dutch nation state.
In 1626 Chanut married Marguerite Clerselier and had eight children.Charged by Jules Mazarin he resided from 1646 to 1649 at the Swedish court and in Osnabrück, where he negotiated the Peace of Westfalia. His companion Antoine de Courtin became Christina's secretary.
In 1646 Chanut met and corresponded with the philosopher René Descartes, asking him for a copy of his Meditations . Upon showing Christina of Sweden some of the letters, the queen became interested in beginning a correspondence with Descartes. She invited him to Sweden, but Descartes was reluctant until she asked him to organize a scientific academy. He resided with Chanut, and finished his Passions of the Soul. Chanut lived at Västerlånggatan, 450 meters from Tre Kronor (castle) on Gamla Stan. There, Chanut and Descartes made observations with a Torricellian barometer, a tube with mercury. Chanut was criticized when he organized a private mass in his house.Descartes died of pneumonia according to Chanut. Over time there have been speculations regarding the death of the philosopher. Theodor Ebert claimed that Descartes did not meet his end by being exposed to the harsh Swedish winter climate, as philosophers have been fond of repeating, but by arsenic poisoning.
René Descartes was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist. A native of the Kingdom of France, he spent about 20 years (1629–1649) of his life in the Dutch Republic after serving for a while in the Dutch States Army of Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange and the Stadtholder of the United Provinces. He is generally considered one of the most notable intellectual figures of the Dutch Golden Age.
Meditations on First Philosophy in which the existence of God and the immortality of the soul are demonstrated is a philosophical treatise by René Descartes first published in Latin in 1641. The French translation was published in 1647 as Méditations Métaphysiques. The title may contain a misreading by the printer, mistaking animae immortalitas for animae immaterialitas, as suspected by A. Baillet.
Christina, the only surviving legitimate child of King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden and his wife Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg, reigned as Queen of Sweden from 1632 until her abdication in 1654. At the age of six, Christina succeeded her father upon his death at the Battle of Lützen, but began ruling the Swedish Empire when she reached the age of 18 in 1644.
In 1651, during Second Northern War, Chanut departed to Lübeck to a Congress which had to mediate peace between Sweden and Poland. Peace talks failed, however, and in 1653 Chanut returned to Stockholm. He probably invited Pierre Bourdelot and Gabriel Naudé, but departed to The Hague, where he was appointed as ambassador. In 1655, back in Paris, he became Conseiller d'Etat.
The Second Northern War was fought between Sweden and its adversaries the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1655–60), the Moscow Tsardom (1656–58), Brandenburg-Prussia (1657–60), the Habsburg Monarchy (1657–60) and Denmark–Norway. The Dutch Republic often intervened against Sweden.
Lübeck is a city in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany, and one of the major ports of Germany. On the river Trave, it was the leading city of the Hanseatic League, and because of its extensive Brick Gothic architecture, it is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. In 2015, it had a population of 218,523.
Pierre Michon Bourdelot was a French physician, anatomist, libertine and freethinker.
In the summer of 1654, Christina left Sweden and settled in Rome. In August 1656 Christina traveled to Paris. In October, apartments were assigned to her at the Palace of Fontainebleau, where she committed an action which stained her memory – the execution of marchese Gian Rinaldo Monaldeschi, her master of the horse.After the murder of Gian Rinaldo Monaldeschi Christina promised Chanut Ludivico Santinelli and his two helpers would have to leave her court.
The Palace of Fontainebleau or Château de Fontainebleau, located 55 kilometres southeast of the center of Paris, in the commune of Fontainebleau, is one of the largest French royal châteaux. The medieval castle and subsequent palace served as a residence for the French monarchs from Louis VII to Napoleon III. Francis I and Napoleon were the monarchs who had the most influence on the Palace as it stands today.. It is now a national museum and a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Monaldeschi were one of the powerful noble families of Orvieto, central Italy, members of the Guelph party who contested with murders and violence the Ghibelline Filippeschi for control of the commune of Orvieto and the castelli of Umbria.
His friend and brother-in-law Claude Clerselier, an editor, inherited all the manuscripts by Descartes in 1662 and published them.His Mémoires et Négociations (Memoirs and Negotiations) were published posthumously (1676); his correspondence is preserved in Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris.
Claude Clerselier was a French editor and translator.
Jean de la Vallée was a French-born, Swedish architect.
Elisabeth of the Palatinate, also known as Elisabeth of Bohemia, Princess Elisabeth of the Palatinate, or Princess-Abbess of Herford Abbey, was the eldest daughter of Frederick V, Elector Palatine, and Elizabeth Stuart. Elisabeth of the Palatinate is a philosopher best known for her correspondence with René Descartes. She was critical of Descartes' dualistic metaphysics and her work anticipated the metaphysical concerns of later philosophers.
Samuel Bochart was a French Protestant biblical scholar, a student of Thomas Erpenius and the teacher of Pierre Daniel Huet. His two-volume Geographia Sacra seu Phaleg et Canaan exerted a profound influence on seventeenth-century Biblical exegesis.
David Beck, was a Dutch Golden Age portrait painter.
Francesco I d'Este was Duke of Modena and Reggio from 1629 until his death. The eldest son of Alfonso III d'Este, he became reigning duke after his father's abdication.
Anne Chabanceau de La Barre (1628–1688) was a French soprano of the baroque era.
Henri Louis Habert de Montmor was a French scholar and man of letters.
Johan Fredrik Höckert was a well-known Swedish artist from Jönköping known for his colorful, dramatic oil paintings depicting historical events. He is one of the most famous nineteenth-century painters in Sweden, and one of the painters most often associated with Swedish national romanticism.
Countess Palatine Christina Magdalena of Kleeburg of the House of Wittelsbach, Margravine of Baden-Durlach. She was the daughter of John Casimir, Count Palatine of Kleeburg and Princess Catherine of Sweden. Christina Magdalena was a sister of Charles X of Sweden, and grew up in Sweden.
Francesco Maria Santinelli (1627-1697) was an Italian marquis, count, Marinist poet, librettist, freemason and alchemist. In Senigallia, Christina, Queen of Sweden was welcomed in verse by the handsome Santinelli and his brother, Ludovico, an acrobat and dancer. Both seem to have been accomplished scoundrels. A year later Ludovico was witness and participant at the murder of Gian Rinaldo Monaldeschi at Fontainebleau. After the scandal, she promised Pierre Chanut that Ludivico and his two helpers would have to leave her court.
Carl Gustaf Wrangel was a high-ranking Swedish noble, statesman and military commander in the Thirty Years', Torstenson, Bremen, Second Northern and Scanian Wars.
This is a timeline of philosophy in the 17th century.
Antonio Pimentel de Prado y lo Bianco (Palermo, 1604 - Antwerp was a Spanish officer, a governor of Nieuwpoort, ambassador in Stockholm, Knight of the Order of Santiago, representative in Paris, governor of Cadiz, and at the end of his life counsel and chief of the army in Antwerp.
The Order of Amarante, or Amarante Order, was a fraternal order of Swedish knights, founded in 1653 by Christina, Queen of Sweden at Epiphany. The Order was established in honor and memory of her meetings with the Spanish ambassador Don Antonio Pimentel, who originated from Amarante, Portugal. He was also the first to receive the award. The Order was limited to 15 knights, who had to remain unmarried.
The Girl King is 2015 biographical drama about Christina, Queen of Sweden. It was directed by Mika Kaurismäki and written by Michel Marc Bouchard who, following writing the screenplay for the film, wrote his stage play Christine, La Reine-Garçon which enjoyed a successful run in 2012 at Montreal’s Théâtre du Nouveau Monde and then in English at the Stratford Festival in 2014. The film premiered at the Montreal World Film Festival.