Pierre Paul Royer-Collard

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Pierre Paul Royer-Collard
Pierre-Paul Royer-Collard.jpg
President of the French Chamber of Deputies
In office
25 May 1828 16 May 1830
Preceded by Auguste Ravez
Succeeded by Casimir Perier
Member of the French Chamber of Deputies
In office
25 August 1815 5 July 1831
Constituency Marne
Member of the Council of Five Hundred
In office
21 March 1797 4 September 1797
Constituency Marne
Councillor of the Paris Commune
for the 4th arrondissement
In office
20 July 1789 10 August 1792
Personal details
Born(1763-06-21)21 June 1763
Sompuis, Champagne, France
Died2 September 1845(1845-09-02) (aged 82)
Châteauvieux, Loir-et-Cher, France
Nationality French
Political party Girondin (1791–1793)
Clichyen (1794–1797)
Legitimist (1797–1815)
Doctrinaire (1815–1831)
Spouse(s)Augustine de Forges de Chateaubrun
Children4 children
Alma mater Saint-Omer College
Profession Lawyer, teacher, philosopher

Pierre Paul Royer-Collard (21 June 1763 – 2 September 1845) was a French statesman and philosopher, leader of the Doctrinaires group during the Bourbon Restoration (1814–1830).

France Republic with mainland in Europe and numerous oversea territories

France, officially the French Republic, is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.0 million. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.

Philosopher person with an extensive knowledge of philosophy

A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term "philosopher" comes from the Ancient Greek, φιλόσοφος (philosophos), meaning "lover of wisdom". The coining of the term has been attributed to the Greek thinker Pythagoras.

The Doctrinals was the name given during the Bourbon Restoration (1814–1830) and the July Monarchy (1830–1848) to the group of French royalists who hoped to reconcile the monarchy with the French Revolution and power with liberty. Headed by Royer-Collard, these liberal royalists were in favor of a constitutional monarchy, but with a heavily restricted census suffrage—Louis XVIII, who had been restored to the throne, had granted a Charter to the French with a Chamber of Peers and a Chamber of Deputies elected under tight electoral laws.

Contents

Biography

Early life

He was born at Sompuis, near Vitry-le-François (in modern-day Marne), the son of Anthony Royer, a small businessman. His mother, Angélique Perpétue Collard, had a reputation for strong character and great piety. [1] His younger brother, Antoine-Athanase Royer-Collard, was a physician and pioneer in the field of psychiatry, at one point serving as chief physician at Charenton Asylum. [2]

Sompuis Commune in Grand Est, France

Sompuis is a commune in the Marne department in north-eastern France.

Vitry-le-François Subprefecture and commune in Grand Est, France

Vitry-le-François is a commune in the Marne department in north-eastern France. It is located on the Marne River and is the western terminus of the Marne–Rhine Canal.

Marne (department) Department of France

Marne is a department in north-eastern France named after the river Marne which flows through the department. The prefecture (capital) of Marne is Châlons-en-Champagne. The subprefectures are Épernay, Reims, and Vitry-le-François.

Royer-Collard was sent at 12 to the college of Chaumont of which his uncle, Father Paul Collard, was director. He subsequently followed his uncle to Saint-Omer, where he studied mathematics.

Saint-Omer Subprefecture and commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Saint-Omer is a commune in France.

Mathematics Field of study concerning quantity, patterns and change

Mathematics includes the study of such topics as quantity, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and change. It has no generally accepted definition.

Career

At the outbreak of the French Revolution, to which he was passionately sympathetic, [3] he was practising at the Parisian bar. He was returned by his section, the Island of Saint-Louis, to the Commune, of which he was secretary from 1790 to 1792. After the revolution of 10 August in that year he was replaced by Jean-Lambert Tallien.

French Revolution Revolution in France, 1789 to 1798

The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history.

Jean-Lambert Tallien French political figure of the revolutionary period

Jean-Lambert Tallien was a French political figure of the revolutionary period.

His sympathies were now with the Gironde, and after the insurrection of the 12th Prairial (31 May 1793) his life was in danger. He returned to Sompuis, and was saved from arrest possibly by the protection of Georges Danton and in some degree by his mother's influence on the local commissary of the Convention. In 1797 he was returned by his départment (Marne) to the Council of the Five Hundred, where he allied himself especially with Camille Jordan. He made a well-regarded speech in the council in defence of the principles of religious liberty, but the coup d'état of Fructidor (4 September 1797) drove him back into private life. [4]

Gironde Department of France

Gironde is a department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwest France. It is named after the Gironde estuary, a major waterway. The Bordeaux wine region is in the Gironde.

Georges Danton French revolutionary

Georges Jacques Danton was a leading figure in the early stages of the French Revolution, in particular as the first president of the Committee of Public Safety. Danton's role in the onset of the Revolution has been disputed; many historians describe him as "the chief force in the overthrow of the French monarchy and the establishment of the First French Republic".

Camille Jordan (politician) French politician

Camille Jordan was a French politician born in Lyon of a well-to-do mercantile family.

It was at this period that he developed his legitimist opinions and entered into communication with the comte de Provence (later Louis XVIII of France). He was the ruling spirit in the small committee formed in Paris to help forward a Restoration independent of the comte d'Artois and his party; but with the establishment of the Consulate he saw the prospects of the monarchy were temporarily hopeless, and the members of the committee resigned. From that time until the Restoration Royer-Collard devoted himself exclusively to the study of philosophy. He derived his opposition to the philosophy of Étienne Bonnot de Condillac chiefly from the study of René Descartes and his followers, and from his early veneration for the fathers of Port-Royal. He was occupied with developing a system to provide a moral and political education consonant with his view of the needs of France. From 1811 to 1814 he lectured at the Sorbonne.

Louis XVIII of France Bourbon King of France and of Navarre

Louis XVIII, known as "the Desired", was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1814 to 1824, except for a period in 1815 known as the Hundred Days. He spent twenty-three years in exile, from 1791 to 1814, during the French Revolution and the First French Empire, and again in 1815, during the period of the Hundred Days, upon the return of Napoleon I from Elba.

Philosophy Study of general and fundamental questions

Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental questions about existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Such questions are often posed as problems to be studied or resolved. The term was probably coined by Pythagoras. Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, and systematic presentation. Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it? What is most real? Philosophers also pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust? Do humans have free will?

Étienne Bonnot de Condillac French academic

Étienne Bonnot de Condillac was a French philosopher and epistemologist, who studied in such areas as psychology and the philosophy of the mind.

From this time dates his long association with François Guizot. Royer-Collard himself was supervisor of the press under the first restoration. From 1815 onwards he sat as deputy for Marne in the chamber. As president of the commission of public instruction from 1815 to 1820 he checked the pretensions of the clerical party, the immediate cause of his retirement being an attempt to infringe the rights of the University of Paris by awarding diplomas, independent of university examinations, to the teaching fraternity of the Christian Brothers. Royer-Collard's acceptance of the legitimist principle did not prevent a faithful adhesion to the social revolution effected in 1789, and he protested in 1815, in 1820, and again under the monarchy of July against laws of exception.

He was the moving spirit of the "Doctrinaires", as they were called, who met at the house of the comte de Ste Aulaire and in the salon of Madame de Staël's daughter, the duchesse de Broglie. The leaders of the party, beside Royer-Collard, were Guizot, PFH de Serre, Camille Jordan and Charles de Rémusat. In 1820 Royer-Collard was excluded from the council of state by a decree signed by his former ally Serre. In 1827 he was elected for seven constituencies, but remained faithful to his native department. Next year he became president of the chamber, and fought against the reactionary policy which precipitated the Revolution of July. It was Royer-Collard who in March 1830 presented the address of the 221. From that time he took no active part in politics, although he retained his seat in the chamber until 1839. Whilst during the first half of the nineteenth century the word "liberal" was generally synonymous with Voltaireanism and hostility to the Jesuits, certain speeches of Royer-Collard quoted by Barante show that he professed a deferential attachment for the Church. "If Christianity", he wrote, "has been a degradation, a corruption, Voltaire in attacking it has been a benefactor of the human race; but if the contrary be true, then the passing of Voltaire over the Christian earth has been a great calamity." [5] In a letter to Père de Ravignan he comments upon the institution of the Jesuits as a "wonderful creation". [6]

Personal life

Royer-Collard married Augustine Marie Rosalie de Forges de Chãtaeubrun on 20 October 1800. They had four children, two of whom predeceased them. [7]

He died at his estate of Châteauvieux in the Berry, south of Blois.

Further reading

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References

  1. Gifford, William; Taylor Coleridge, John; Lockhart, John Gibson, eds. (1891). "The Later Jansenists". The Quarterly Review . London, England: John Murray. 173: 216.
  2. Goldstein, Jan E. (2001). "The Transformation of Charlatanism". Console and Classify: The French Psychiatric Profession in the Nineteenth Century. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. p. 116. ISBN   9780226301617.
  3. Craiutu, Aurelian (Autumn 1999). "Tocqueville and the Political Thought of the French Doctrinaires (Guizot, Royer-Collard, Remusat)". History of Political Thought. Exeter, England: Imprint Academic Ltd. 20 (3): 456–493.
  4. Laski, Harold J. (2000). "The Political Theory of Royer-Collard". Authority in the Modern State. Kitchener, Ontario, Canada: Batoche Books. pp. 141–155. ISBN   1-55273-011-5.
  5. Herbermann, Charles George; Pace, Edward Aloysius; Pallen, Condé Bénoist; Shahan, Thomas Joseph; Wynne, John Joseph, eds. (1911). The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church. 13. New York City: Robert Appleton Company. p. 212.
  6. Herbermann, et.al., pg. 214
  7. Phillippe, Adrienne (1857). Royer-Collard, sa vie publique, sa vie privée, sa famille (in French). Paris, France: Michel Lévy Frères. p. 41.