Pim Fortuyn

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Pim Fortuyn
Pim Fortuyn - May 4.jpg
Pim Fortuyn on 4 May 2002, two days before his assassination (Photo: Roy Beusker)
Born
Wilhelmus Simon Petrus Fortuijn

(1948-02-19)19 February 1948
Driehuis, Netherlands
Died6 May 2002(2002-05-06) (aged 54)
Hilversum, Netherlands
Cause of death Assassinated
Resting place San Giorgio della Richinvelda, Italy
Residence Rotterdam, Netherlands
Nationality Dutch
Other namesPim Fortuijn
Alma mater VU University Amsterdam (Bachelor of Social Science, Master of Social Science)
University of Groningen (Doctor of Philosophy)
Occupation Politician · Civil servant · Sociologist
Corporate director · Political consultant · Political pundit · Author · Columnist · Publisher · Teacher · Professor
Political party Labour Party (1974–1989)
People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (mid 1990s)
Livable Netherlands (2001–2002)
Livable Rotterdam (2001–2002)
Pim Fortuyn List (2002)

Wilhelmus Simon Petrus Fortuijn, known as Pim Fortuyn (Dutch:  [ˈpɪm fɔrˈtœyn] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); 19 February 1948 – 6 May 2002), was a Dutch politician who formed his own party, Pim Fortuyn List (Lijst Pim Fortuyn or LPF) in 2002. [1]

The Pim Fortuyn List was a right-wing populist political party in the Netherlands. The eponymous founder of the party was Pim Fortuyn, a charismatic former university professor and political columnist who initially had planned to contest the 2002 general election as leader of the Livable Netherlands (LN) party. He was however dismissed as party leader in February 2002 due to controversial remarks he made in a newspaper interview on immigration-related issues, and instead founded LPF a few days later. After gaining support in opinion polls, Fortuyn was assassinated on 6 May 2002, nine days before the election. The party held onto its support, and went on to become the second-largest party in the election.

Contents

Fortuyn had controversial views on multiculturalism, immigration and Islam in the Netherlands. He called Islam "a backward culture", and was quoted as saying that if it were legally possible, he would close the borders for Muslim immigrants. [2] Fortuyn also supported tougher measures against crime and opposed state bureaucracy, [3] wanting to reduce Dutch financial contribution to the European Union. [4] He was labelled a far-right populist by his opponents and in the media, but he fiercely rejected this label. [5] Fortuyn was openly homosexual and was a supporter of gay rights. [6]

Multiculturalism in the Netherlands began with major increases in immigration during the 1950s and 1960s. As a consequence, an official national policy of multiculturalism was adopted in the early 1980s. This policy subsequently gave way to more assimilationist policies in the 1990s. Following the murders of Pim Fortuyn and Theo van Gogh the political debate on the role of multiculturalism in the Netherlands reached new heights.

Islam in the Netherlands

Islam is the second largest religion in the Netherlands, practiced by 4% of the population according to 2010–11 estimates. The majority of Muslims in the Netherlands belong to the Sunni denomination. Most reside in the nation's four major cities, Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht.

Bureaucracy refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group. Historically, a bureaucracy was a government administration managed by departments staffed with non-elected officials. Today, bureaucracy is the administrative system governing any large institution, whether publicly owned or privately owned. The public administration in many countries is an example of a bureaucracy, but so is the centralized hierarchical structure of a business firm.

Fortuyn explicitly distanced himself from "far-right" politicians such as the Belgian Filip Dewinter, the Austrian Jörg Haider, or Frenchman Jean-Marie Le Pen whenever compared to them. While he compared his own politics to centre-right politicians such as Silvio Berlusconi of Italy and Edmund Stoiber of Germany, he also admired former Dutch Prime Minister Joop den Uyl, a social democrat, and Democratic U.S. president John F. Kennedy. Fortuyn also criticised the polder model and the policies of the outgoing government of Wim Kok and repeatedly described himself and LPF's ideology as pragmatic and not populistic. [7] In March 2002, his newly created LPF in the Dutch municipal elections became the largest party in Fortuyn's hometown Rotterdam. [8]

Filip Dewinter Flemish politician

Philip Michel Frans "Filip" Dewinter is a Belgian politician. He is one of the leading members of Vlaams Belang, a right-wing Flemish nationalist and secessionist political party. Together with Hugo Coveliers of the VLOTT party, Dewinter formed a list cartel for the city elections of Antwerp on 8 October 2006.

Jörg Haider Austrian politician

Jörg Haider was an Austrian politician. He was Governor of Carinthia on two occasions, the long-time leader of the Austrian Freedom Party (FPÖ) and later Chairman of the Alliance for the Future of Austria, a breakaway party from the FPÖ.

Jean-Marie Le Pen French right-wing and nationalist politician

Jean-Marie Le Pen is a French politician who served as President of the National Front from 1972 to 2011. He has served as a Member of the European Parliament (MEP) since 2004 and had previously been elected to the same position between 1984 and 2003. He also served as Honorary President of the National Front from 2011 to 2018.

Fortuyn was assassinated during the 2002 Dutch national election campaign [9] [10] [11] by Volkert van der Graaf, a left-wing environmentalist and animal rights activist. [12] In court at his trial, van der Graaf said he murdered Fortuyn to stop him from exploiting Muslims as "scapegoats" and targeting "the weak members of society" in seeking political power. [13] [14] [15]

Assassination of Pim Fortuyn Assassination of politician Pim Fortuyn

Pim Fortuyn, a Dutch politician, was assassinated by Volkert van der Graaf in Hilversum, North Holland on 6 May 2002, nine days before the Dutch general election of 2002.

Volkert van der Graaf is a Dutch convicted murderer who assassinated politician Pim Fortuyn, the leader of the Pim Fortuyn List (LPF), on 6 May 2002. This occurred during the political campaign for the Dutch general elections of 2002. An environmental and animal rights activist, he said at his trial that he murdered Fortuyn to stop him from exploiting Muslims as "scapegoats" and targeting "the vulnerable sections of society" in seeking political power.

Animal rights idea in which some, or all, non-human animals are entitled to the possession of their own lives and that their most basic interests—such as the need to avoid suffering—should be afforded the same consideration as similar interests of human beings

Animal rights is the idea in which some, or all, non-human animals are entitled to the possession of their own existence and that their most basic interests—such as the need to avoid suffering—should be afforded the same consideration as similar interests of human beings.

Early life and education

Fortuyn was born on 19 February 1948 in Driehuis, as the third child to a Catholic family. In 1967 he began to study sociology at the University of Amsterdam but transferred after a few months to the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. In 1971 he ended his study with the Academic degree Doctorandus. In 1981 he received a doctorate in sociology at the University of Groningen as a Doctor of Philosophy.

Driehuis Unincorporated town in North Holland, Netherlands

Driehuis is a town in the Dutch province of North Holland. It is a part of the municipality of Velsen, and lies about 8 km north of Haarlem.

Sociology Scientific study of human society and its origins, development, organizations, and institutions

Sociology is the study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction and culture of everyday life. It is a social science that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about social order, acceptance, and change or social evolution. While some sociologists conduct research that may be applied directly to social policy and welfare, others focus primarily on refining the theoretical understanding of social processes. Subject matter ranges from the micro-sociology level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and the social structure.

University of Amsterdam university in Amsterdam

The University of Amsterdam is a public university located in Amsterdam, Netherlands. The UvA is one of two large, publicly funded research universities in the city, the other being the VU University Amsterdam (VU). Established in 1632 by municipal authorities and later renamed for the city of Amsterdam, the University of Amsterdam is the third-oldest university in the Netherlands. It is one of the largest research universities in Europe with 31,186 students, 4,794 staff, 1,340 PhD students and an annual budget of €600 million. It is the largest university in the Netherlands by enrollment. The main campus is located in central Amsterdam, with a few faculties located in adjacent boroughs. The university is organised into seven faculties: Humanities, Social and Behavioural Sciences, Economics and Business, Science, Law, Medicine, and Dentistry.

Career

Fortuyn worked as a lecturer at the Nyenrode Business Universiteit and as an associate professor at the University of Groningen, where he taught Marxist sociology. He was a Marxist at the time. Later, he joined the Labour Party.

University of Groningen university in the Netherlands

The University of Groningen is a public research university in the city of Groningen in the Netherlands. The university was founded in 1614. Since its founding more than 200,000 students have graduated.

The Labour Party is a social-democratic political party in the Netherlands.

In 1989 Fortuyn became director of a government organisation administering student transport cards. In 1990 he moved to Rotterdam. From 1991 to 1995, he was an extraordinary professor at the Erasmus University Rotterdam, appointed to the Albeda-chair in "employment conditions in public service".

When his contract ended, he made a career of public speaking and writing books and press columns, gradually becoming involved in politics. Fortuyn was openly gay, and said in a 2002 interview that he was Catholic. [16]

Political career

Pim Fortuyn in 1991 Pim Fortuyn 1991.jpg
Pim Fortuyn in 1991

In 1992 Fortuyn wrote "Aan het volk van Nederland" (To the people of the Netherlands), declaring he was the successor to the charismatic but controversial 18th-century Dutch politician Joan Derk van der Capellen tot den Pol. A one-time communist and former member of the social-democratic Labour Party, Fortuyn was elected "lijsttrekker" of the newly formed Livable Netherlands party by a large majority on 26 November 2001, prior to the Dutch general election of 2002.

On 9 February 2002, he was interviewed by the Volkskrant , a Dutch newspaper (see below). His statements were considered so controversial that the party dismissed him as lijsttrekker the next day. Fortuyn had said that he favoured putting an end to Muslim immigration, if possible and wanted to abolish the "peculiar article" of the Dutch constitution forbidding discrimination (at the time it was generally assumed that he referred to Article 1, the equality before the law; it has been argued, however, that he had confused this with Article 137 of the Penal Code, incitement to hatred) [17] . Having been rejected by Livable Netherlands, Fortuyn founded his own party Pim Fortuyn List (LPF) on 11 February 2002. Many Livable Netherlands supporters transferred their support to the new party.

Heading the list of the Livable Rotterdam party, a local issues party, he achieved a major victory in the Rotterdam municipal council elections in early March 2002. The new party won about 36% of the seats, making it the largest party in the council. For the first time since the Second World War, the Labour Party was out of power in Rotterdam.

Fortuyn's victory made him the subject of hundreds of interviews during the next three months, and he made many statements about his political ideology. In March he released his book The Mess of Eight Purple Years ( De puinhopen van acht jaar Paars ), which he used as his political agenda for the upcoming general election. Purple is the colour to indicate a coalition government consisting of left parties (red) and conservative-liberal parties (blue). The Netherlands had been governed by such a coalition for eight years at that time.

On 14 March 2002, Fortuyn was pied by a left-wing activist from the Biotic Baking Brigade in The Hague. [18]

Assassination

Fortuyn's house in Rotterdam where he lived from 1998 until his death Palazzo di Pietro Rotterdam.jpg
Fortuyn's house in Rotterdam where he lived from 1998 until his death

On 6 May 2002, at age 54, Fortuyn was assassinated by gunshot in Hilversum, North Holland, by Volkert van der Graaf. The attack took place in a parking lot outside a radio studio where Fortuyn had just given an interview. This was nine days before the general election, for which he was running. The attacker was pursued by Hans Smolders, Fortuyn's driver, and was arrested by the police shortly afterward, still in possession of a handgun. [19] Months later, Van der Graaf confessed in court to the first notable political assassination in the Netherlands since 1672 (excluding World War II), [20] and on 15 April 2003, he was convicted of assassinating Fortuyn and sentenced to 18 years in prison. [21] He was released on parole in May 2014 after serving two thirds of his sentence, the standard procedure under the Dutch penal system. [22]

The assassination shocked many residents of the Netherlands and highlighted the cultural clashes within the country. Various conspiracy theories arose after Pim Fortuyn's murder and deeply affected Dutch politics and society. [23] Politicians from all parties suspended campaigning. After consultation with LPF, the government decided not to postpone the elections. As Dutch law did not permit modifying the ballots, Fortuyn became a posthumous candidate. The LPF made an unprecedented debut in the House of Representatives by winning 26 seats (17% of the 150 seats in the house). The LPF joined a cabinet with the Christian Democratic Appeal and the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy, but conflicts in the rudderless LPF quickly collapsed the cabinet, forcing new elections. By the following year, the party had lost support, winning only eight seats in the 2003 elections. It won no seats in the 2006 elections, by which time the Party for Freedom, led by Geert Wilders, had emerged as a successor.

During the last months of his life, Fortuyn had become closer to the Catholic Church. To the surprise of many commentators and Dutch TV hosts, Fortuyn insisted on Fr. Louis Berger, a parish priest from The Hague, accompanying him in some of his last TV appearances. According to the New York Times , Berger had become his "friend and confessor" during the last weeks of his life. [24]

Fortuyn was initially buried in Driehuis in the Netherlands. He was re-interred on 20 July 2002, at San Giorgio della Richinvelda, in the province of Pordenone in Italy, where he had owned a house.

Views on Islam and immigration

When asked about his opposition to Muslim immigration, Fortuyn explained that, "I have no desire to go through the emancipation of women and homosexuals all over again." [25] In August 2001, Fortuyn was quoted in the Rotterdams Dagblad newspaper saying, "I am also in favour of a cold war with Islam. I see Islam as an extraordinary threat, as a hostile religion." [26] In the TV program Business class, Fortuyn said that Muslims in the Netherlands did not accept Dutch society; he believed that the religion of Islam was fundamentally intolerant and incompatible with Western values. [27] He said that Muslims in the Netherlands needed to accept living together with the Dutch, and that if this was unacceptable for them, then they were free to leave. His concluding words in the TV program were "... I want to live together with the Muslim people, but it takes two to tango."

After his death a statue was placed at his home in Rotterdam Rotterdam kunstwerk beeld Pim Fortuyn.jpg
After his death a statue was placed at his home in Rotterdam

On 9 February 2002, additional statements made by him were carried in the Volkskrant . [2] He said that the Netherlands, with a population of 16 million, had enough inhabitants, and the practice of allowing as many as 40,000 asylum-seekers into the country each year had to be stopped. The actual number for 2001 was 27,000, down slightly on the previous year. [28] He claimed that if he became part of the next government, he would pursue a restrictive immigration policy while also granting citizenship to a large group of illegal immigrants.

He said that he did not intend to "unload our Moroccan hooligans" onto the Moroccan King Hassan. [29] [30] Hassan had died three years earlier. [31] He considered Article 7 of the constitution, which asserts freedom of speech, of more importance than Article 1, which forbids discrimination on the basis of religion, life principles, political inclination, race, or sexual preference. Fortuyn distanced himself from Hans Janmaat of the Centrum Democraten, who in the 1980s wanted to remove all foreigners from the country and was repeatedly convicted for discrimination and hate speech.

Fortuyn proposed that all people who already resided in the Netherlands would be able to stay, but he emphasized the need of the immigrants to adopt Dutch society's consensus on human rights as their own. [29] He said "If it were legally possible, I'd say no more Muslims will get in here", claiming that the influx of Muslims would threaten freedoms in the liberal Dutch society. He thought Muslim culture had never undergone a process of modernisation and therefore still lacked acceptance of democracy and women's, gays', lesbians' and minorities' rights.

When asked by the Dutch newspaper Volkskrant whether he hated Islam, he replied:

I don't hate Islam. I consider it a backward culture. I have travelled much in the world. And wherever Islam rules, it's just terrible. All the hypocrisy. It's a bit like those old Reformed Protestants. The Reformed lie all the time. And why is that? Because they have standards and values that are so high that you can't humanly maintain them. You also see that in that Muslim culture. Then look at the Netherlands. In what country could an electoral leader of such a large movement as mine be openly homosexual? How wonderful that that's possible. That's something that one can be proud of. And I'd like to keep it that way, thank you very much. [32]

Fortuyn used the word achterlijk, literally meaning "backward", but commonly used as an insult in the sense of "retarded". After his use of "achterlijk" caused an uproar, Fortuyn said he had used the word with its literal meaning of "backward". [27]

Fortuyn wrote Against the Islamization of Our Culture (1997) (in Dutch). [33]

Fortuynism

The ideology or political style that is derived from Pim Fortuyn, and in turn the LPF, is often called Fortuynism. Observers variously saw him as a political protest targeting the alleged elitism and bureaucratic style of the Dutch purple coalitions or as offering an appealing political style. The style was characterized variously as one "of openness, directness and clearness", populism or simply as charisma. Another school holds Fortuynism as a distinct ideology, with an alternative vision of society. Some argued that Fortuynism was not just one ideology, but contained liberalism, populism and nationalism. [34]

During the 2002 campaign, Fortuyn was accused of being on the "extreme right", although others saw only certain similarities. [35] While he employed anti-immigration rhetoric, he was neither a radical nationalist nor a defender of traditional authoritarian values. On the contrary, Fortuyn wanted to protect the socio-culturally liberal values of the Netherlands, women's rights and sexual minorities (he was openly homosexual himself), from the "backward" Islamic culture. [36] He held liberal views favouring the drug policy of the Netherlands, same-sex marriage, euthanasia, and related positions.

The LPF also won support from some ethnic minorities; one of Fortuyn's closest associates was of Cape Verdean origin, and one of the party's MPs was a young woman of Turkish descent.

His ideology can be comprised in the following positions: [37]

Criticism

Anti-Fortuyn poster of the International Socialists with the slogan "Stop de Hollandse Haider" (English: "Stop the Dutch Haider") near Fortuyn's house in Rotterdam on 6 May 2002 RotterdamGWBurgerPlein060502.png
Anti-Fortuyn poster of the International Socialists with the slogan "Stop de Hollandse Haider" (English: "Stop the Dutch Haider") near Fortuyn's house in Rotterdam on 6 May 2002

Fortuyn was compared with the politicians Jörg Haider and Jean-Marie Le Pen in the foreign press. These comparisons were often referred to by Dutch reporters and politicians. An explicit comparison with Le Pen was made by Ad Melkert, then lijsttrekker of the Labour Party, who said in Emmen on 24 April 2002: "If you flirt with Fortuyn, then in the Netherlands the same thing will happen as happened in France. There they woke up with Le Pen, soon we will wake up with Fortuyn." [38]

On 5 May, the day before the assassination, Fortuyn debated with Melkert in a debate organized by the Algemeen Dagblad newspaper about demonization of himself. In it he said that he often had to tell journalists that the image created of him in the media was incorrect. [39]

Columnist Jan Blokker wrote "After reading (...) I realized once again that Professor Pim may really be called the Jean-Marie Le Pen, the Filip Dewinter, the Jörg Haider and the new Hans Janmaat of the Netherlands." [40]

Prime Minister Wim Kok accused Fortuyn of stirring up fear and stimulating xenophobia among the Dutch people. [41]

Legacy

Pim Fortuyn monument in Rotterdam Beeld Pim Fortuyn Rotterdam.jpg
Pim Fortuyn monument in Rotterdam

Fortuyn changed the Dutch political landscape and political culture. [42] The 2002 elections, only weeks after Fortuyn's death, were marked by large losses for the liberal People's Party for Freedom and Democracy and especially the social democratic Labour Party (whose parliamentary group was halved in size); both parties replaced their leaders shortly after their losses. The election winners were the Pim Fortuyn List, and the Christian democratic Christian Democratic Appeal. Some commentators in the mainstream political class speculated that Fortuyn's perceived martyrdom created greater support for the LPF, hence that party's brief surge to 17% of the electoral vote and 26 of the 150 seats in the Dutch Parliament. [43] Although the LPF was able to form a coalition with the Christian Democratic Appeal and the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy, it was bereft with internal strife and quickly lost steam. [43] The coalition cabinet of Jan Peter Balkenende fell within three months, due to infighting within the LPF. In the following elections, the LPF was left with only eight seats in parliament (out of 150) and was not included in the new government. Political commentators speculated that discontented voters might vote for a non-traditional party, if a viable alternative was at hand. Later, the right-wing Party for Freedom, which has a strong stance on immigration, proposing to deport criminal, unemployed or not assimilated non-western immigrants, won nine (out of 150) seats in the 2006 elections and peaked at 24 in 2010.

The temporary grave of Pim Fortuyn in Driehuis Grave of Pim Fortuyn.jpg
The temporary grave of Pim Fortuyn in Driehuis

The Netherlands has made its asylum policy more strict. Opponents of Fortuynism—like Paul Rosenmöller, Thom de Graaf, and Ad Melkert, (all labelling Fortuyn as a right-wing extremist) [41] —have objected to what they think is a harsher political and social climate, especially towards immigrants and Muslims. [44]

Contemporary Dutch politics is more polarized than it has been in recent years, especially on the issues for which Fortuyn was best known. People debate the success of their multicultural society, and whether they need to better assimilate newcomers. The government's decision to expel numerous asylum seekers whose applications had failed was controversial. [45] Fortuyn had advocated for an amnesty for asylum seekers already residing in the Netherlands.

In 2004, in a TV show, Fortuyn was chosen as De Grootste Nederlander ("Greatest Dutchman of all-time"), followed closely by William of Orange, the leader of the independence war that established the precursor to the present-day Netherlands. [46] The election was not considered representative, as it was held by viewers' voting through the internet and by phoning in. Theo van Gogh had been murdered a few days before by a Muslim, which likely affected people's voting in the TV contest for Fortuyn. The program later revealed that William of Orange had received the most votes, but many could not be counted until after the official closing time of the television show (and the proclamation of the winner), due to technical problems. The official rules of the show said that votes counted before the end of the show would be decisive, but it was suggested that all votes correctly cast before the closing of the vote would be counted. Following the official rules, the outcome was not changed. [47]

Car park in Hilversum where Fortuyn was assassinated Plek moord Pim Fortuyn.jpg
Car park in Hilversum where Fortuyn was assassinated
Plaque at the location of his murder Monument Pim Fortuyn.jpg
Plaque at the location of his murder

Right-wing politicians gained power after Fortuyn's death, such as former Minister for Integration & Immigration Rita Verdonk and the prominent critic of Islam, Member of the House of Representatives Geert Wilders who in 2006 formed the Party for Freedom which became, by 2017, the second largest party in the House of Representatives. These politicians often focused on the debate over cultural assimilation and integration.

Selected publications

See also

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References

  1. Margry, Peter Jan: The Murder of Pim Fortuyn and Collective Emotions. Hype, Hysteria, and Holiness in the Netherlands? published in the Dutch magazine Etnofoor: Antropologisch tijdschrift nr. 16 pages 106–131, 2003,English version available online
  2. 1 2 "Volkskrant newspaper interview (summary)" (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 12 February 2002. Retrieved 12 February 2002.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  3. Oliver, Mark (7 May 2002). "The shooting of Pym Fortuyn". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 May 2019.
  4. Osborn, Andrew (14 April 2002). "Dutch fall for gay Mr Right". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
  5. "Cf. this BBC interview". 4 May 2002. Archived from the original on 20 October 2002. Retrieved 21 July 2007.
  6. Goldstein, Richard (15 May 2002). "Queering the pitch". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
  7. "Interview with Belgium news agency".
  8. The Guardian (7 May 2002). "Dutch election to go ahead". London. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
  9. Simons, Marlise (7 May 2002). "Rightist Candidate in Netherlands Is Slain, and the Nation Is Stunned". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  10. James, Barry (7 May 2002). "Assailant shoots gay who railed against Muslim immigrants: Rightist in Dutch election is murdered". The New York Times . Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  11. Simons, Marlise (8 May 2002). "Elections to Proceed in the Netherlands, Despite Killing". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 June 2010.
  12. The Daily Telegraph (29 March 2003). "Killer tells court Fortuyn was dangerous" . Retrieved 5 June 2019.
  13. Fortuyn killed 'to protect Muslims', The Daily Telegraph, 28 March 2003:
    [van der Graaf] said his goal was to stop Mr. Fortuyn exploiting Muslims as "scapegoats" and targeting "the weak parts of society to score points" to try to gain political power.
  14. Fortuyn killer 'acted for Muslims', CNN, 27 March 2003:
    Van der Graaf, 33, said during his first court appearance in Amsterdam on Thursday that Fortuyn was using "the weakest parts of society to score points" and gain political power.
  15. "Jihad Vegan". Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 6 December 2008.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link), Dr Janet Parker 20 June 2005, New Criminologist.
  16. Eyck, Mark (15 February 2002). "Interview: Pim Fortuyn". Katholiek Nieuwsblad (Catholic Newspaper). Archived from the original on 6 March 2002.
    " Question: U beschouwt zichzelf nog wel als katholiek? Answer: Ja, daar ontkom je niet aan. [..] Question: Toch noemt u zich ondanks uw homoseksualiteit nog steeds katholiek. Answer: Ik bén katholiek! Ik ben nota bene gedoopt! Ik noem me niet zo, ik ben het!" (Question: Do you still consider yourself a Catholic? Answer: Yes, you can't escape from that. [..] Question: But in spite of your homosexuality you still call yourself a Catholic. Answer: I am a Catholic. I have, after all, been baptised! I don't call myself one, I am one!)
  17. https://www.volkskrant.nl/nieuws-achtergrond/strafbare-belediging~b4919d81/
  18. https://www.expatica.com/nl/news/country-news/Fortuyn-smeared-with-cake_125856.html
  19. Conway, Isobel (7 May 2002). "Dutch far-right leader shot dead". The Independent. London. Retrieved 13 June 2010.
  20. van Sas, N.C.F. (2005). De metamorfose van Nederland:van oude orde naar moderniteit 1750–1900. p. 373. ISBN   90-5356-840-9.
  21. Osborn, Andrew (16 April 2003). "'Light' sentence enrages Fortuyn's followers". The Guardian . Retrieved 6 May 2016.
  22. "Pim Fortuyn: Politician's Killer Is Freed Early". Sky News . 2 May 2014. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
    • Jelle van Buuren: Holland's Own Kennedy Affair. Conspiracy Theories on the Murder of Pim Fortuyn. = Historical Social Research , Vol. 38, 1 (2013), pp. 257–85.
  23. Simons, Marlise (7 May 2002). "Rightist politician is slain and the Nation is stunned". The New York Times .
  24. Bedell, Geraldine (28 October 2006). "To face the facts beyond the veil". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 January 2016.
  25. ‹See Tfd› (in Dutch) Original quote in Dutch : Ik ben ook voor een koude oorlog met de islam. De islam zie ik als een buitengewone bedreiging, als een ons vijandige samenleving. ("I also favor a cold war against Islam. I see Islam as being an exceptional threat, as a society hostile to ours".)
  26. 1 2 Murray, Douglas (2017). The Strange Death of Europe: Immigration, Identity, Islam (Kindle ed.). London: Bloomsbury. ISBN   978-1472942241.
  27. Asylum Immigration Statistics and Asylum Requests Statistics, Netherlands Bureau of Statistics Retrieved 21 July 2007
  28. 1 2 "10 years after Pim Fortuyn was murdered: what the papers say". Dutch News. 10 May 2012. Archived from the original on 9 May 2012.
  29. "Volkskrant interview" (in Dutch). 2 February 2002. Archived from the original on 8 July 2007. Retrieved 21 July 2007.
  30. Hassan II of Morocco
  31. Original quote in Dutch: "Ik haat de islam niet. Ik vind het een achterlijke cultuur. Ik heb veel gereisd in de wereld. En overal waar de islam de baas is, is het gewoon verschrikkelijk. Al die dubbelzinnigheid. Het heeft wel iets weg van die oude gereformeerden. Gereformeerden liegen altijd. En hoe komt dat? Omdat ze een normen- en waardenstelsel hebben dat zo hoog ligt dat je dat menselijkerwijs niet kunt handhaven. Dat zie je in die moslimcultuur ook. Kijk dan naar Nederland. In welk land zou een lijsttrekker van een zo grote beweging als de mijne, openlijk homoseksueel kunnen zijn? Wat fantastisch dat dat kan. Daar mag je trots op zijn. En dat wil ik graag effe zo houden".
  32. Tegen de islamisering van onze cultuur: Nederlandse identiteit als fundament , A.W. Bruna, 1997, ISBN   90-229-8338-2
  33. Mudde 2007 , pp. 213214
  34. Rydgren & van Holsteyn 200 , pp. 48–49
  35. Rydgren; van Holsteyn, 2005, p. 49.
  36. Andeweg, R. and G. Irwin Politics and Governance in the Netherlands, Basingstoke (Palgrave) p.49
  37. ‹See Tfd› (in Dutch): "Als je flirt met Fortuyn, dan gebeurt er in Nederland straks hetzelfde als in Frankrijk. Daar zijn ze wakker geworden met Le Pen, straks worden wij wakker met Fortuyn." quote from article in Het Financieele Dagblad, 25 April 2002.
  38. ‹See Tfd› (in Dutch) "Het laatste debat" on YouTube Nova, 18 juni 2002
  39. ‹See Tfd› (in Dutch): "Na lezing (...) was ik er eens te meer van overtuigd dat Professor Pim wel degelijk de Jean-Marie Le Pen, de Filip Dewinter], de Jörg Haider en de nieuwe Hans Janmaat van Nederland mag heten.", de Volkskrant, 25 March 2002
  40. 1 2 [Documentary] "A Democracy in Shock" (2002). RTL Nieuws.
  41. See BBC impression for an early evaluation Retrieved July 2007.
  42. 1 2 Paulus Koenis, Jacques. "A History of Dutch Populism, from the Murder of Pim Fortuyn to the Rise of Geert Wilders". Telesur. Archived from the original on 9 October 2017. Retrieved 20 December 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  43. Coughlan, Geraldine (21 January 2003). "Fortuyn ghost stalks Dutch politics". BBC News.
  44. "Dutch MPs approve asylum exodus". BBC News. 17 February 2004.
  45. "Greatest Dutchman" (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 10 March 2005.
  46. "nu.nl/algemeen | 'Pim Fortuyn toch niet de Grootste Nederlander'". Nu.nl. Retrieved 13 June 2010.
Official
Party political offices
New creation Leader of Livable Netherlands
2001–2002
Succeeded by
Fred Teeven
Leader of the Pim Fortuyn List
2002
Succeeded by
Mat Herben
Chairman of the Pim Fortuyn List
2002
Succeeded by
Peter Langendam