Pima Revolt

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A Spanish colonial map of Tubac from 1767, the site of the San Ignacio de Tubac Presidio, constructed as a result of conflicts with the Pima and other natives. Urritiamapoftubac.jpg
A Spanish colonial map of Tubac from 1767, the site of the San Ignacio de Tubac Presidio, constructed as a result of conflicts with the Pima and other natives.

The Pima Revolt, or the O'odham Uprising and the Pima Outbreak, was a revolt of Pima native Americans in 1751 against colonial forces in Spanish Arizona and one of the major northern frontier conflicts in early New Spain.

Pima people Native American peoples

The Pima are a group of Native Americans living in an area consisting of what is now central and southern Arizona. The majority population of the surviving two bands of the Akimel Oʼodham are based in two reservations: the Keli Akimel Oʼotham on the Gila River Indian Community (GRIC) and the On'k Akimel Oʼodham on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (SRPMIC).

Indigenous peoples of the Americas Pre-Columbian inhabitants of North, Central and South America and their descendants

The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the Pre-Columbian peoples of North, Central and South America and their descendants.

Pimería Alta

The Pimería Alta was an area of the 18th century Sonora y Sinaloa Province in the Viceroyalty of New Spain, that encompassed parts of what are today southern Arizona in the United States and northern Sonora in Mexico.

Contents

Background

The revolt culminated from decades of violence by the local Spanish settlers against Indians beginning in 1684. The period was characterized by local Indians' gradual loss of autonomy and territory. Treaties allowing the Spanish to mine and herd on Native lands led to an influx of new settlers; by 1760 Spaniards and Mexicans had become a substantial presence in the present-day American Southwest. However, the colonial province of Sonora was characterized by a larger native population, and more frequent conflict between them and the Spaniards. [1] The Pima Indian Revolt was directly preceded by the Seri Revolt of Seri Indians in Sonora. [2]

Mexicans people of the country of Mexico or who identify as culturally Mexican

Mexicans are the people of the United Mexican States, a country in North America.

Sonora State of Mexico

Sonora, officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora, is one of 31 states that, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 federal entities of United Mexican States. It is divided into 72 municipalities; the capital city is Hermosillo. Sonora is bordered by the states of Chihuahua to the east, Baja California to the northwest and Sinaloa to the south. To the north, it shares the U.S.–Mexico border primarily with the state of Arizona with a small length with New Mexico, and on the west has a significant share of the coastline of the Gulf of California.

Seri people ethnic group

The Seri are an indigenous group of the Mexican state of Sonora. The majority reside on the Seri communal property, in the towns of Punta Chueca and El Desemboque on the mainland coast of the Gulf of California. Tiburón Island (Tahejöc) and San Esteban Island were also part of their traditional territory. They were historically seminomadic hunter-gatherers who maintained an intimate relationship with both the sea and the land. They are one of the ethnic groups of Mexico that has most strongly maintained their language and culture throughout the years after contact with Spanish and Mexican cultures.

Uprising

While the Pima people had no central authority, the charismatic Luis Oacpicagigua (Luis of Sáric) began the task of unitingwith varying degrees of successthe disparate groups, numbering at least 15,000 people, under a single war plan. The initial act of rebellion was the massacre of 18 settlers lured to Oacpicagigua's home in Sáric. [2] In the ensuing three months, Oacpicagigua and more than a hundred other men attacked the mission at Tubutama, and other Spanish settlements, and more than a hundred settlers were killed. Oacpicagigua surrendered to Captain José Díaz del Carpio on March 18, 1752 after a negotiated peace. When the Pima leaders laid the blame for the revolt on Jesuit missionaries (who would be expelled from Spain and its colonies in 1767) they were pardoned by the colonial governor Ortiz Parrilla. [2]

Luis Oacpicagigua or Luis of Sáric was a Pima Indian leader in the Spanish province of Sáric, now the far north of the Mexican state of Sonora. Oacpicagigua served as a provincial "Indian governor" and fought for the Spanish government against enemy tribes, but later rebelled against the Spanish in the 1751 Pima Revolt. The revolt failed in 1752, Oacpicagigua and his lieutenant Luis of Pitic were summoned for questioning and subsequently arrested, and Oacpicagigua died in Horcasitas jail in 1755.

Sáric Place in Sonora, Mexico

Sáric is a small town in Sáric Municipality, located in the extreme north of the Mexican state of Sonora. In 2010, it had a population of 892.

Tubutama Place in Sonora, Mexico

Tubutama is a town in Tubutama Municipality, in the north-west of the Mexican state of Sonora. Eusebio Kino, SJ, founded Mission San Pedro y San Pablo del Tubutama in 1691. Tubutama was the headquarters of religious administration for the entire Pimería Alta during much of the Jesuit and Franciscan period of Spanish colonial rule.

After the conflict

Small scale conflict soon began again, however, and Oacpicagigua eventually died in a Spanish prison in 1755. The colonial government founded three new presidios in Sonora to control the Pima and Seri populace in the years after the revolt: San Ignacio de Tubac, Santa Gertrudis de Altar, and San Carlos de Buenavista, present-day Tubac, Arizona, Altar, Sonora, and Buenavista, Sonora, respectively. [3] While intermittent rebellions continued, by the end of the eighteenth century, Sonoran natives had been largely missionized or Hispanicized, and the assimilated tribes of frontier New Spain were absorbed into the Spanish Empire.

Presidio Fort type

A presidio is a fortified base established by the Spanish in areas under their control or influence. The term is derived from the Latin word praesidium meaning protection or defense.

Tubac, Arizona Census-designated place in Arizona, United States

Tubac is a census-designated place (CDP) in Santa Cruz County, Arizona, United States. The population was 1,191 at the 2010 census. The place name "Tubac" is an English borrowing from a Hispanicized form of the O'odham name, which translates into English as "rotten". The original O'odham name is written Cuwak. The first syllable is accented. When first taken into Spanish speech, it was spelled Tubaca. Finally over time the last "a" was dropped. Tubac is situated on the Santa Cruz River.

Altar, Sonora Place in Sonora, Mexico

Altar is small city and municipal seat of Altar Municipality in the Mexican state of Sonora. It is located in the northwest region of the state at 30°42′49″N111°50′07″W.

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References

  1. Ewing, Russell C. (October 1938). "The Pima Outbreak in November, 1751". New Mexico Historical Review. XIII (4): 337–46.
  2. 1 2 3 Roberto Mario Salmón (July 1988). "A Marginal Man: Luis of Saric and the Pima Revolt of 1751". The Americas. The Americas, Vol. 45, No. 1. 45 (1): 61–77. doi:10.2307/1007327. JSTOR   1007327.
  3. John Francis Bannon (July 1979). "The Mission as a Frontier Institution: Sixty Years of Interest and Research". The Western Historical Quarterly . The Western Historical Quarterly, Vol. 10, No. 3. 10 (3): 303–322. doi:10.2307/967373. JSTOR   967373.

Henry Farmer Dobyns, Jr. was an anthropologist, author and researcher specializing in the ethnohistory and demography of native peoples in the American hemisphere. He is most well known for his groundbreaking demographic research on the size of indigenous American populations before the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492.