Pina Bausch (center) and Dominique Mercy (second from left) at the end of Wiesenland in 2009 in Paris.
|Born||27 July 1940|
|Died||30 June 2009 68) (aged|
|Other names||Philippine Bausch|
|Occupation||Modern dance choreographer, folk dance choreographer, dancer|
|Known for||Contemporary dance and choreography|
Philippine "Pina" Bausch(27 July 1940 – 30 June 2009) was a German dancer and choreographer who, with a blend of movement, sound, and prominent stage sets, and with performers during the development of a piece (a style now known as Tanztheater ), became an influence in the field of modern dance from the 1970s on. She created the company Tanztheater Wuppertal Pina Bausch, which performs internationally.
Bausch was born in Solingen, the daughter of August and Anita Bausch, who owned a restaurant with guest rooms which is where she was born. The restaurant provided Pina with a venue to start performing at a very young age. She would perform for all of the guests in the hotel and occasionally go into their rooms and dance while they were trying to read the newspaper. It was then that her parents saw her potential.
Pina was accepted into Kurt Jooss's the Folkwangschule at age of 14.
After graduation in 1959, Bausch left Germany with a scholarship from the German Academic Exchange Service to continue her studies at the Juilliard School in New York City in 1960,where her teachers included Antony Tudor, José Limón, Alfredo Corvino, and Paul Taylor. Bausch was soon performing with Tudor at the Metropolitan Opera Ballet Company, and with Paul Taylor at New American Ballet. When, in 1960, Taylor was invited to premiere a new work named Tablet in Spoleto, Italy, he took Bausch with him. In New York Bausch also performed with the Paul Sanasardo and Donya Feuer Dance Company and collaborated on two pieces with them in 1961. It was in New York City that Pina stated, "New York is like a jungle but at the same time it gives you a feeling of total freedom. In these two years, I have found myself."
In 1962, Bausch joined Jooss' new Folkwang-Ballett (Folkwang Ballet) as a soloist and assisted Jooss on many of the pieces. In 1968, she choreographed her first piece, Fragmente (Fragments), to music by Béla Bartók.In 1969, she succeeded Jooss as artistic director of the company.
In 1973, Bausch started as artistic director of the Wuppertal Opera ballet, as the Tanztheater Wuppertal, run as an independent company. The company has a large repertoire of original pieces, and regularly tours throughout the world from its home base of the Opernhaus Wuppertal. It was renamed later: Tanztheater Wuppertal Pina Bausch.
Her best-known dance-theatre works include the melancholic Café Müller (1985), in which dancers stumble around the stage crashing into tables and chairs. Bausch had most of the dancers perform this piece with their eyes closed. The thrilling Frühlingsopfer ( The Rite of Spring ) (1975) required the stage to be completely covered with soil.She stated: "It is almost unimportant whether a work finds an understanding audience. One has to do it because one believes that it is the right thing to do. We are not only here to please, we cannot help challenging the spectator."
One of the themes in her work was relationships. She had a very specific process in which she went about creating emotions. "Improvisation and the memory of [the dancer's] own experiences ... she asks questions—about parents, childhood, feelings in specific situations, the use of objects, dislikes, injuries, aspirations. From the answers develop gestures, sentences, dialogues, little scenes." The dancer is free to choose any expressive mode, whether it is verbal or physical when answering these questions. It is with this freedom that the dancer feels secure in going deep within themselves. When talking about her process she stated, "There is no book. There is no set. There is no music. There is only life and us. It's absolutely frightening to do a work when you have nothing to hold on to." She stated, "In the end, it's composition. What you do with things. There's nothing there to start with. There are only answers: sentences, little scenes someone's shown you. It's all separate to start with. Then at a certain point I'll take something which I think is right and join it to something else. This with that, that with something else. One thing with various other things. And by the time I've found the next thing is right, then the little thing I had is already a lot bigger."
Male-female interaction is a theme found throughout her work, which has been an inspiration for—and reached a wider audience through—the movie Talk to Her , directed by Pedro Almodóvar. Her pieces are constructed of short units of dialogue and action, often of a surreal nature. Repetition is an important structuring device. She stated: "Repetition is not repetition, ... The same action makes you feel something completely different by the end." Her large multi-media productions often involve elaborate sets and eclectic music. In Vollmond, half of the stage is taken up by a giant, rocky hill, and the score includes everything from Portuguese music to k.d. lang.
In 1983, she played the role of La Principessa Lherimia in Federico Fellini's film And the Ship Sails On .The Tanztheater Wuppertal Pina Bausch made its American debut in Los Angeles as the opening performance of the 1984 Olympic Arts Festival.
In 2009, Bausch started to collaborate with film director Wim Wenders on a 3D documentary, Pina. The film premiered at the Berlin Film Festival in 2011.
Bausch was married to Dutch-born Rolf Borzik, a set and costume designer who died of leukaemia in 1980.Later that year, she met Ronald Kay, and in 1981 they had a son, Rolf-Salomon T.
Among the honours awarded to Bausch are the UK's Laurence Olivier Award and Japan's Kyoto Prize. She was awarded the Deutscher Tanzpreis in 1995. In 1999, she was the recipient of the Europe Theatre Prize.In 2008, the city of Frankfurt am Main awarded her its prestigious Goethe Prize. She was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2009.
Works by Bausch were staged in June and July 2012 as a highlight of the Cultural Olympiad preceding the Olympic Games 2012 in London. The works were created when Bausch was invited to visit and stay in 10 global locations – in India, Brazil, Palermo, Hong Kong, Los Angeles, Budapest, Istanbul, Santiago, Rome, and Japan – between 1986 and 2009. Seven of the works have not been seen in the UK.
Bausch died on 30 June 2009 in Wuppertal, North Rhine Westphalia, Germany at the age of 68of an unstated form of cancer attributable to smoking, five days after diagnosis and two days before shooting was scheduled to begin for the long-planned Wim Wenders documentary. She is survived by her son Salomon.
The same year, choreographer and experimental theatre-maker Dimitris Papaioannou created a piece called Nowhere to inaugurate the renovated Main Stage of the Greek National Theatre in Athens. The show's central and most prolific scene was dedicated to the memory of Pina Bausch and involved performers linking arms and stripping naked a man and woman.
Wenders' documentary, Pina, was released in late 2011 in the United States, and is dedicated to her memory.
Bausch's style has influenced performers such as David Bowie, who designed part of his 1987 Glass Spider Tour with Bausch in mind. For the tour, Bowie "wanted to bridge together some kind of symbolist theatre and modern dance" and used Bausch's early work as a guideline.
Promotional trailers for the third season of American Horror Story: Coven included a clip for the episode "Detention" and were likely influenced by Bausch's work Blaubart. Stills from the performance and the episode show a group of women seemingly defying gravity as they cling to the walls high above the ground, toes pointed down and hands pressed above them. The photo of Bausch's performance was previously released on Reddit as well as Twitter with the implication that it was from a Russian mental institution, but its source was quickly identified.
The following table shows works since 1973. Several of Pina Bausch's works were announced as Tanzabend because she chose a title late in the development of a work.The typical subtitle from 1978 was Stück von Pina Bausch (A piece by Pina Bausch). The translations are given as on the website of Tanztheater Wuppertal Pina Bausch. Some of the German titles are ambiguous. "Kontakthof" is composed of Kontakt ("contact") and Hof ("court, courtyard"), resulting in "courtyard of contact," which is also a technical term for an area in some brothels where the first contact with prostitutes is possible. "Ich bring dich um die Ecke," literally "I'll take you around the corner," can mean "I'll accompany you around the corner" but also colloquially "I'll kill you." "Ahnen" can mean "ancestors," but also (as a verb) "to foresee", "bode", "suspect."
The details about the music for the works until 1986 follow a book by Raimund Hoghe who was dramaturg in Wuppertal.
|1973||Fritz||Tanzabend||by Gustav Mahler and Wolfgang Hufschmidt|
|Iphigenie auf Tauris||Tanzoper||Iphigenia in Tauris||Gluck's opera Iphigenie auf Tauris|
|1974||Zwei Krawatten||Two ties||Choreography of a revue|
|Ich bring' dich um die Ecke||Schlagerballett||I'll do you in||Dance music after old Schlager||ambiguous title|
|Adagio||Fünf Lieder von Gustav Mahler||Adagio / Five songs by Gustav Mahler||Mahler's Five songs|
|1975||Orpheus und Eurydike||Tanzoper||Gluck's opera Orpheus und Eurydike|
|Frühlingsopfer||Wind von West|
Der zweite Frühling
Le Sacre du Printmps
|The Rite of Spring||Stravinsky's ballet The Rite of Spring|
|1976||Die sieben Todsünden||Die sieben Todsünden der Kleinbürger|
Fürchtet Euch nicht
|The Seven Deadly Sins||The Seven Deadly Sins , music: Kurt Weill, libretto: Bertolt Brecht||Ballet with pantomime, dance and singing (soprano and male quartet)|
|1977||Blaubart||Beim Anhören einer Tonbandaufnahme von Béla Bartóks Oper Herzog Blaubarts Burg, Stück von Pina Bausch||Bluebeard / while listening to a taped recording of Béla Bartók's opera Duke Bluebeard's Castle, a piece by Pina Bausch||Bartók's opera Bluebeard's Castle|
|Komm tanz mit mir||Stück unter Verwendung von alten Volksliedern||Come dance with me, piece using old folk songs||old folk songs|
|Renate wandert aus||Operette von Pina Bausch||Renate emigrates||Schlager, Songs, Evergreens|
|1978||Er nimmt sie an der Hand und führt sie in sein Schloss, die anderen folgen ...||Stück von Pina Bausch||He takes her by the hand and leads her into the castle, the others follow ...||Schauspielhaus Bochum|
|Café Müller||Stück von Pina Bausch||by Henry Purcell|
|Kontakthof||Court of contact||Schlager of the 1930s, a.o.||ambiguous title|
|1979||Arien||Stück von Pina Bausch||Arias||by Beethoven, Comedian Harmonists, Mozart, old Italian arias, sung by Benjamino Gigli, a.o.|
|Keuschheitslegende||Stück von Pina Bausch||Legend of chastity||by Nino Rota, Robin/Styne, George Gershwin, Georg Boulanger, Peter Kreuder, Barnabas von Geczy, a.o.|
|1980||1980 – Ein Stück von Pina Bausch||1980 A piece by Pina Bausch||Old English folk songs, Shakespeare songs, Comedian Harmonists, Judy Garland, a.o.|
|Bandoneon||Stück von Pina Bausch||Tangoes, sung a.o. by Carlos Gardel|
|1982||Walzer||Stück von Pina Bausch||Waltz||by Edith Piaf, Tino Rossi, a.o.|
|Nelken||Stück von Pina Bausch||Carnations||by Franz Schubert, George Gershwin, Sophie Tucker, a.o.||New version in 1983 at the Theaterfestival München|
|1984||Auf dem Gebirge hat man ein Geschrei gehört||Stück von Pina Bausch||On the mountain a cry was heard||by Heinrich Schütz, Henry Purcell, Felix Mendelssohn, Irish pipe music, Billie Holiday, Tommy Dorsey, Fred Astaire, a.o.|
|1985||Two Cigarettes in the Dark||Stück von Pina Bausch||by Monteverdi, Brahms, Beethoven, Bach, Hugo Wolf, Purcell, Ben Webster, Alberta Hunter, Minnelieder, a.o.|
|1986||Viktor||Stück von Pina Bausch||Folk music from Lombardy, Tuscany, Southern Italy, Sardinia and Bolivia, medieval dance music, Russian Waltz, music from New Orleans, dance music of the 1930s, music by Tchaikovsky, Buxtehude, Dvořák and Khachaturian, a.o.|
|1991||Tanzabend II||Dance Evening II|
|1993||Das Stück mit dem Schiff||The Piece with the Ship|
|1994||Ein Trauerspiel||A Tragedy|
|1996||Nur Du||Only you|
|1997||Der Fensterputzer||The window washer|
|Kontakthof – Mit Damen und Herren ab 65||Kontakthof – with men and women of age 65 and up|
|2001||Água||Portuguese for "Water"|
|2002||Für die Kinder von gestern, heute und morgen||For the children of yesterday, today, and tomorrow|
|2003||Nefés||Turkish for "Breath"|
|Kontakthof – Mit Teenagern ab 14||Kontakthof, with teenagers 14 years and up|
|2009||... como el musguito en la piedra, ay si, si, si ...||... like the moss on the stone ...|
Kurt Jooss was a famous ballet dancer and choreographer mixing classical ballet with theatre; he is also widely regarded as the founder of Tanztheater. Jooss is noted for establishing several dance companies, including most notably, the Folkwang Tanztheater, in Essen.
Expressionist dance is a term for a movement that arose in 1900 as a protest against the artistic stagnation of classical ballet and towards maturity in the future of art in general. Traditional ballet was perceived as the austere, mechanical and tightly held in fixed and conventional forms.
The German Tanztheater grew out of German Expressionist dance in Weimar Germany and 1920s Vienna. The term first appears around 1927 to identify a particular style of dance emerging from within the new forms of 'expressionist dance' developing in Central Europe since 1917. Its main exponents include Mary Wigman, Kurt Jooss and Rudolf Laban. The term reappears in critical reviews in the 1980s to identify the work of primarily German choreographers who were students of Jooss and Wigman, along with the Austrian Johann Kresnik. The development of the form and its concepts was influenced by Bertolt Brecht and Max Reinhardt, and the cultural ferment of the Weimar Republic.
The Green Table is a ballet by the German choreographer Kurt Jooss and his most popular work, depicting the futility of peace negotiations of the 1930s. It was the first work to be fully notated using kinetography Laban (Labanotation). It is in the repertoire of ballet companies worldwide, where it has been staged by Jooss himself. Since his death in 1979, his daughter Anna Markard has been responsible for stagings of the work.
Meryl Tankard AO is an Australian dancer and choreographer who has a wide national and international reputation.
Susanne Linke is an internationally renowned German dancer and choreographer who is one of the major innovators of German Tanztheater, along with Pina Bausch and Reinhild Hoffmann.
Alistair Spalding CBE has been the Artistic Director and Chief Executive of Sadler's Wells theatre since 2004.
Jun Miyake is a Japanese composer. His music was used in the film Pina, nominated for the Academy Awards for Best Documentary Feature in January 2012. He has also been awarded by the German critic’s award - Der Preis der deutschen Schallplattenkritik - as Best Album of the Year for his last 3 albums “Stolen from Strangers”, “Lost Memory Theatre act-1”, and “Lost Memory Theatre act-2”. He is not to be confused by the Jazz saxophone player of the same name active in New York.
Dominique Mercy is a French contemporary dancer. He has been a member, since 1974, of the Tanztheater Wuppertal company of Pina Bausch as well as a choreographer in his own right.
Pina is a 2011 German 3D documentary film about the contemporary dance choreographer Pina Bausch. It was directed by Wim Wenders. The film premiered out of competition at the 61st Berlin International Film Festival.
Opernhaus Wuppertal is a German theatre in Wuppertal, North Rhine-Westphalia. It houses mostly performances of operas, but also plays, run by the municipal Wuppertaler Bühnen. The house is also the venue for dance performances by the Tanztheater Wuppertal company created by Pina Bausch.
Schauspielhaus Wuppertal was a Schauspielhaus, a theatre for plays, in Wuppertal, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. The 745-seat municipal theatre is on Bundesallee next to the river Wupper in Elberfeld. Designed by Gerhard Graubner, it was opened in 1966, run from 2001 by 'Wuppertaler Bühnen'. Starting in 2009, the house operated only 135 seats, and it was closed on 30 June 2013.
Wuppertaler Bühnen is the municipal theatre company in Wuppertal, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It serves opera and plays. The opera house Opernhaus Wuppertal has served from 1956 as a venue for opera and performances of the separate dance company Tanztheater Wuppertal, founded by Pina Bausch. Plays have been performed at different locations, from 1966 to 2013 in the Schauspielhaus Wuppertal.
Reinhild Hoffmann is a German choreographer and dancer who is an important innovator in Tanztheater, along with Pina Bausch and Susanne Linke.
Johann "Hans" Kresnik was an Austrian dancer, and theater director working in the tradition of German Tanztheater who is known for his politically charged approach to dance.
Nikolina Nikoleski, born in Zagreb, Croatia, is a leading dancer and choreographer of Bharatanatyam. She learned contemporary dance in Germany at the prestigious dance academy of Pina Bausch – - and spent six years in India learning Bharatanatyam. Her Guru is the highly regarded Padmashree Dr. Saroja Vaidyanathan. She is half Macedonian and half Croatian.
Sigurd Leeder was a German dancer, choreographer and dance education theorist. He was born in Hamburg on 14 August 1902, the son of Carl Eduard Gottfried Leder, lithographer, and Martha Auguste Anna Henriette Friedrich. He died in Herisau, Switzerland on 20 June 1981. He developed a method of teaching expressive dance and contributed, with Albrecht Knust, to the development and dissemination of Labanotation, which pioneered the written language of symbols to record and represent modern dance.
Café Müller is a dance choreographed by Pina Bausch set to the music of Henry Purcell. It has been performed regularly since its creation and in May 1985 was performed and filmed at the Opernhaus, and broadcast on German television in December of that year.
Josephine Ann Endicott is an Australian dancer and former employee of the Tanztheater Wuppertal Pina Bausch dance ensemble.
Lin Mei-hong is a Taiwanese choreographer. Lin began dancing with the Lanyang Dance Troupe in Taiwan, then moved to Italy and Germany for further training. She has spent the majority of her career in Europe, with the Ballet in Plauen, Theater Dortmund, and Staatstheater Darmstadt. In 2013, Lin became artistic director for the ballet of the Austrian Landestheater Linz.
»Ich mach ja immer, immer wieder mach ich ganz verzweifelte Anstrengungen zu tanzen«, sagt Pina Bausch. Auf die alte, traditionelle Weise ... Freunde der Familien nahmen die kleine Philippine mit ins Kinderballett. »Ich bin da mitgegangen ...
Geben wir es ruhig zu: das Bild der kleinen Philippine Bausch, wie sie – fünfjährig, sechsjährig? - inmitten anderer Kinder am Boden liegt, das Bein in den Nacken gelegt, vor Stolz errötend ob des zweifelhaften Kompliments der Lehrerin, hat ...
Pina. eigtl. Philippine Bausch, dt. Tänzerin und Choreografin •27.7.1940 Solingen Pina Bausch ist die Begründerin des ...
Born Philippine Bausch in Solingen. Germany, 27 July 1940. Studied with Kurt Jooss at the Folkwang ...
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