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Pishdadian (Persian : پیشدادیان) is the first dynasty of Iranian people in the Shahnameh , Avesta and Iranian mythology. The Pishdadian dynasty is said to have produced the first kings who ruled over the land of Persia. Some of the Pishdadian kings are said to have ruled for thousands of years.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is a pluricentric language primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.
The Shahnameh is a long epic poem written by the Persian poet Ferdowsi between c. 977 and 1010 CE and is the national epic of Greater Iran. Consisting of some 50,000 "distichs" or couplets, the Shahnameh is the world's longest epic poem written by a single poet. It tells mainly the mythical and to some extent the historical past of the Persian Empire from the creation of the world until the Arab conquest of Iran in the 7th century. Modern Iran, Azerbaijan, Afghanistan and the greater region influenced by Persian culture celebrate this national epic.
The Avesta is the primary collection of religious texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in the otherwise unrecorded Avestan language.
The Pishdadi kings are as follows:
Amol, the capital Nowzar, Kai Kobad, Fereydun and Kai Khosrow.
Amol is a city and the administrative center of Amol County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. In the 2006 census, the surveyed population of the city was 197,470, in 55,183 families.
Nowzar is the ninth Shah of the Pishdadian dynasty of Persia according to Shahnameh. He is the son of Manuchehr and becomes the Shah of Iran after his father's death. His reign of seven years comes to an end when he is killed by Afrasiab during a battle.
Fereydun, also pronounced and spelled Freydun, Faridon and Afridun, is the name of an Iranian mythical king and hero from the kingdom of Varena. He is known as an emblem of victory, justice, and generosity in the Persian literature.
Jamshid is the fourth Shah of the Pishdadian dynasty of Persia according to Shahnameh.
King of Kings was a ruling title employed primarily by monarchs based in the Middle East. Though most commonly associated with Iran, especially the Achaemenid and Sasanian Empires, the title was originally introduced during the Middle Assyrian Empire by king Tukulti-Ninurta I and was subsequently used in a number of different kingdoms and empires, including the aforementioned Persia, various Hellenic kingdoms, Armenia, Georgia and Ethiopia.
Derafsh Kaviani, or Derafsh Kavani, was the legendary royal standard (vexilloid) of Iran (Persia) used since ancient times until the fall of the Sasanian Empire. Following the defeat of the Sassanids at the Arab conquest of Persia, the Sassanid standard was recovered by one Zerar bin Kattab, who received 30,000 dinars for it. After the jewels were removed, Rashidun Caliph Umar is said to have burned the standard. The banner was also sometimes called the "Standard of Jamshid", the "Standard of Fereydun" and the "Royal Standard".
Zahhāk or Zahāk is an evil figure in Persian mythology, evident in ancient Persian folklore as Aži Dahāka, the name by which he also appears in the texts of the Avesta. In Middle Persian he is called Dahāg or Bēvar Asp the latter meaning "he who has 10,000 horses". In Zoroastrianism, Zahhak is considered the son of Angra Mainyu, the foe of Ahura Mazda. In the Shāhnāmah of Ferdowsi, Zahhāk is the son of a ruler named Merdās.
Sari is the provincial capital of Mazandaran and former capital of Iran, located in the north of Iran, between the northern slopes of the Alborz Mountains and southern coast of the Caspian Sea. Sari is the largest and most populous city of Mazandaran.
Garshāsp was the last Shah of the Pishdadian dynasty of Persia according to Shahnameh. He was a descendant of Zaav and ruled over Persian Empire about nine years. and is the name of a monster-slaying hero in Iranian mythology. The Avestan form of his name is Kərəsāspa and in Middle Persian his name is Kirsāsp.
Manūchehr, is the eighth Shah of the Pishdadian dynasty of Persia according to Shahnameh. He is the first of the legendary Iranian Shahs who ruled Iran after the breakup of the world empire of Manūchehr's great-grandfather, Fereydūn.
Sām (sam) (سام), also transliterated Saam, is a mythical hero of ancient Persia, and an important character in the Shahnameh epic. He was the son of Nariman, grandson of Garshasp and father to Zāl. He was Iran's champion during the rule of Fereydun, Manuchehr and Nowzar. He was appointed by Manuchehr to rule Zabulistan (Sistan), and then Mazandaran. After Manuchehr, because of Nowzar's corrupted and failed rulership, Iranian champions asked Sām to rule Iran. Sām didn't accept, he supported Nowzar and advised him to follow Fereydun and Manuchehr. Sām returned to Mazandaran, and died soon after that. Afrasiab then attacked Zabulistan.
The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs, was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia. The Seljuqs established both the Seljuk Empire and the Sultanate of Rum, which at their heights stretched from Iran to Anatolia, and were targets of the First Crusade.
The Aq Qoyunlu or Ak Koyunlu, also called the White Sheep Turkomans, was a Persianate Sunni Oghuz Turkic tribal confederation that ruled parts of present-day Eastern Turkey from 1378 to 1501, and in their last decades also ruled Armenia, Azerbaijan, most part of Iran, and Iraq.
Kai Kobad is a mythological figure of Iranian folklore and oral tradition. The 'Kai' stock epithet identifies Kobad as a Kayanian, a mythological dynasty that in tradition Kai Kobad was also the founder of.
Zaav, Zav or Zou is the tenth Shah of the Pishdadian dynasty of Persia according to Shahnameh. He was a descendant of Nowzar and ruled over Iran about five years.
Tous son of Nowzar is a mythological Iranian prince and hero from the Pishdadian-Dynasty, whose deeds and adventures were told in Ferdowsi's Shahnameh.
Kaveh the Blacksmith, also known as Kawa or the Blacksmith of Isfahan, is a mythical figure in the Iranian mythology who leads a popular uprising against a ruthless foreign ruler, Zahāk. His story is narrated in the Shahnameh, the national epic of Iran, by the 10th-century Persian poet Ferdowsi.
Iraj is seventh Shah of the Pishdadian dynasty of Shahnameh. Based on Iranian mythology, he is the youngest son of Fereydun. In the Avestan legends, Pahlavi literature, Sasanian-based Persian sources, some Arabic sources, and particularly in Shahnameh, he is considered the name-giver of the Iranian nation, the ancestor of their royal houses, and a paragon of those slain in defense of just causes.
The Achaemenid Kingdom refers to the pre-imperial history of the Achaemenid dynasty. The first king of the kingdom was Achaemenes, who was the forefather of the Achamenids, and also gave his name to the dynasty. The Achaemenid kingdom was the ruling kingdom of Persia and Anshan.