Placerville, California

Last updated

Placerville, California
Downtown Placerville, CA 2021.jpg
Bell Tower on Main Street
Seal of Placerville, California.png
Hangtown [1]
El Dorado County California Incorporated and Unincorporated areas Placerville Highlighted.svg
Location of Placerville in California
USA California Northern location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Location of Placerville in Northern California
USA California location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Location of Placerville in California
Usa edcp location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Location of Placerville in the United States
Coordinates: 38°43′47″N120°47′55″W / 38.72972°N 120.79861°W / 38.72972; -120.79861 Coordinates: 38°43′47″N120°47′55″W / 38.72972°N 120.79861°W / 38.72972; -120.79861 [2]
Country Flag of the United States.svg  United States
State Flag of California.svg  California
County Flag of El Dorado County, California.png El Dorado
Incorporated May 13, 1854 [3]
   Mayor Kara Taylor [4]
  Total5.84 sq mi (15.13 km2)
  Land5.84 sq mi (15.13 km2)
  Water0.00 sq mi (0.00 km2)  0.01%
1,867 ft (569 m)
(2019) [6]
  Density1,913.53/sq mi (738.79/km2)
Time zone UTC-8 (PST)
  Summer (DST) UTC-7 (PDT)
ZIP code
95667 [7]
Area code 530
FIPS code 06-57540
GNIS feature IDs 277577, 2411433
Reference no.701 [8]

Placerville ( /ˈplæsərvɪl/ , PLASS-ər-vil; formerly Old Dry Diggings, Dry Diggings, and Hangtown) [9] [10] is a city in and the county seat of El Dorado County, California. The population was 10,747 as of the 2020 census, up from 10,389 as of the 2010 census. It is part of the Sacramento Arden-Arcade Roseville Metropolitan Statistical Area.



A former Maidu settlement called Indak was located at the site of the town. [11]

After the discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill in nearby Coloma, California, by James W. Marshall in 1848 sparked the California Gold Rush, the small town now known as Placerville was known as Dry Diggin's after the manner in which the miners moved cartloads of dry soil to run water to separate the gold from the soil. [10]

Later in 1849, the town earned its most common historical name, "Hangtown", because of the numerous hangings that had occurred there. [12] However, there is debate on exactly how many lynchings occurred in the town. [10] The town had no police force (in 1849) and five immigrants attempted robbery of a Mexican gambler. [10] Of the five immigrants, two Frenchmen and one Chilean were known wanted men, and they were not given any trial, instead they were hanged on an oak tree on Main Street by a mob. [10] [13] The name "Hangtown" stuck after that event. [10]

By about 1850, the temperance league and a few local churches had begun to request that a more friendly name be bestowed upon the town. The name was not changed until 1854 when the City of Placerville was incorporated, taking the name from the local placer gold deposits. At its incorporation, Placerville was the third largest town in California. In 1857, the county seat was then moved from Coloma to Placerville, where it remains today. The town's first post office opened in 1850. [9] In 1871, the Placerville Union Cemetery was founded by a group of fraternal organizations, and it holds the graves of many of the city founders. [14] [15]

Placerville was a central hub for the Mother Lode region's mining operations. [16] The town had many services, including transportation (of people and goods), lodging, banking, and had a market and general store. The history of hard-rock mining is evidenced by an open and accessible Gold Bug Park & Mine, now a museum with tours and books. [17]

The Southern Pacific Railroad once had a branch line that extended from Sacramento to Placerville. The track was abandoned in the 1980s. The Camino, Placerville and Lake Tahoe Railroad (now abandoned) also operated an eight-mile (thirteen-kilometer) shortline that operated between Camino, California, and Placerville until June 17, 1986. The track right-of-way is now a 37-mile hiking and biking path that connects the city of Folsom, California to the town of Camino with plans to extend the trail across the entire El Dorado county and eventually to Lake Tahoe. [18]

Placerville is now registered as California Historical Landmark #701. [8]

Placerville's logo featured a hangman's noose, in reference to the town's history as "Hangtown," until 2021, when the town council voted to remove it. [10] [19] An earlier proposal to redesign the logo had been rejected in 2020. [20]

Placerville has several buildings listed on the National Register of Historic Places; several are noted below.


Placerville is located in the Sierra Nevada foothills where U.S. Route 50 crosses State Route 49. It is the location of three traffic signals along U.S. Route 50, which is otherwise a freeway.

Downtown Placerville is about 1,867 feet (569 m) above sea level, [1] while unincorporated areas of the city range from 1,800 feet (550 m) to nearly 4,000 feet (1,200 m).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.8 square miles (15 km2), over 99% of it land.


Placerville has cool, frequently wet winters and hot, dry summers, creating a typically Californian Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csa). Average January temperatures are a maximum of 53.4 °F (11.9 °C) and a minimum of 32.5 °F (0.3 °C). Average July temperatures are a maximum of 92.7 °F (33.7 °C) and a minimum of 57.2 °F (14.0 °C). Annually, there are an average of 65.7 days with highs of 90 °F (32 °C) or higher and 61.3 mornings with lows of 32 °F (0 °C) or lower. The record high temperature was 114 °F (46 °C) on July 4, 1911. The record low temperature was 8 °F (−13.3 °C) on December 9, 1972.

Average annual rainfall in Placerville is 38.11 inches (968.0 mm). There are an average of 66 days with measurable rain. The wettest calendar year was 1983 with 74.55 inches (1,893.6 mm) and the driest 1976 with 11.85 inches (301 mm). The most rainfall in one month was 23.29 inches (591.6 mm) in December 1955. The most rainfall in 24 hours was 6.22 inches (158 mm) on February 14, 2000. [21] Although snowfall is rare in Placerville, heavy amounts often fall in the mountains east of the city.

Climate data for Placerville, California (1915–2005)
Record high °F (°C)75
Average high °F (°C)53.3
Daily mean °F (°C)42.8
Average low °F (°C)32.4
Record low °F (°C)9
Average rainfall inches (mm)7.05
Average snowfall inches (cm)1.2
Average rainy days101010742011471066


Historical population
1860 2,466
1870 1,562−36.7%
1880 1,95124.9%
1890 1,690−13.4%
1900 1,7483.4%
1910 1,9149.5%
1920 1,650−13.8%
1930 2,32240.7%
1940 3,06432.0%
1950 3,74922.4%
1960 4,43918.4%
1970 5,41622.0%
1980 6,73924.4%
1990 8,35524.0%
2000 9,61015.0%
2010 10,3898.1%
2019 (est.)11,175 [6] 7.6%
U.S. Decennial Census [22]

The 2010 United States Census [23] reported that Placerville had a population of 10,389. The population density was 1,787.3 inhabitants per square mile (690.1/km2). The racial makeup of Placerville was 8,716 (83.9%) White, 80 (0.8%) African American, 162 (1.6%) Native American, 98 (0.9%) Asian, 13 (0.1%) Pacific Islander, 867 (8.3%) from other races, and 453 (4.4%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1,863 persons (17.9%).

The Census reported that 9,788 people (94.2% of the population) lived in households, 131 (1.3%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 470 (4.5%) were institutionalized.

There were 4,129 households, out of which 1,254 (30.4%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 1,607 (38.9%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 604 (14.6%) had a female householder with no husband present, 250 (6.1%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 327 (7.9%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 31 (0.8%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 1,306 households (31.6%) were made up of individuals, and 599 (14.5%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37. There were 2,461 families (59.6% of all households); the average family size was 2.97.

The population was spread out, with 2,277 people (21.9%) under the age of 18, 972 people (9.4%) aged 18 to 24, 2,468 people (23.8%) aged 25 to 44, 2,831 people (27.2%) aged 45 to 64, and 1,841 people (17.7%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40.4 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.9 males.

There were 4,541 housing units at an average density of 781.2 per square mile (301.6/km2), of which 4,129 were occupied, of which 2,160 (52.3%) were owner-occupied, and 1,969 (47.7%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 3.5%; the rental vacancy rate was 7.8%. 5,023 people (48.3% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 4,765 people (45.9%) lived in rental housing units.


El Dorado County Courthouse. Placerville Courthouse.jpg
El Dorado County Courthouse.

In the California State Legislature, Placerville is in the 1st Senate District , represented by Republican Brian Dahle, [24] and the 5th Assembly District , represented by Republican Joe Patterson. [25]

In the United States House of Representatives, Placerville is in California's 4th congressional district , represented by Democrat Mike Thompson. [26]


The region east of Placerville, popularly known as Apple Hill and Pleasant Valley, is becoming a center for wine production. The wine region is officially designated as the El Dorado AVA. The largest wineries in the area are Boeger, Lava Cap and Madrona, but most of the 30 plus wineries surrounding Placerville are family owned and smaller in wine grape and wine production. The region is "renown[ed] for making vibrantly flavorful, distinctly delicious wines, grown in the dramatic elevations of the Sierra Nevada." [27] The area is increasingly a center for sophisticated production of Rhone style wines, noted by El Dorado County having a local chapter of the Rhone Rangers winemaker association.

Formerly known as Anderson Field, the arena and main grandstand that is now known as Placerville Speedway was originally built by the El Dorado County Fair during the winter months of 1956. Constructing a clay racing surface around the perimeter of the football field, Warren Jewitt and Bruno Romani created what was originally known as "Hangtown Speedway". Auto racing took place here for the first time on June 18, 1965.

Since 1965, Placerville Speedway has hosted several racing divisions. The track was cut out of a hillside, giving it higher banking, and covered with a dark red clay racing surface. [28]

Placerville is home to the Mountain Democrat , the oldest continuously published newspaper in California, and Marshall Medical Center.


Lincoln Highway porcelain sign.svg

Placerville is served by two major highways. California State Route 49 runs north and south, connecting the city with the other major communities in the Sierra Nevada foothills. U.S. Route 50 heads west to Sacramento and east to South Lake Tahoe. This portion of U.S. Route 50 is a part of the Lincoln Highway. [29]

El Dorado Transit runs public bus service, both local routes connecting Placerville to other populated areas on the western slope and weekday commuter service to/from Sacramento. Amtrak's thruway bus service stops in Placerville along its route connecting Sacramento and South Lake Tahoe.

Placerville is served by the Placerville Airport. [30] A "Good Neighbor" airport (one that takes measures for noise abatement), it has a 4,200-foot-long (1,300 m) runway, [31] but is not currently served by any commercial air transport.


Gold specimen from Placerville Gold-133538.jpg
Gold specimen from Placerville

Placerville has many old buildings from the Gold Rush days. [32] A walk down Main Street also reveals many historical markers, signifying spots of certain events or persons of importance during this period. Placerville was also on the line of the Pony Express, a short-lived mail carrier service that connected California to the Midwest and East (basically from Sacramento to St. Joseph, Missouri).

Historically, Placerville was often referred to by the name "Hangtown," because of the 3 unfortunates that were hung after being caught for cattle rustling by locals. Those traveling in the area can still see the site of the hangman's platform that was used for public hangings [33] along with a commemorative mannequin ("George") hanging from a noose above the Old Hangman's Tree (now an ice cream parlor). The dummy enjoyed a brief hiatus when town officials attempted to freshen up the town's image before returning due to popular demand. In 2015 the dummy was stolen. [34] It has since been replaced. In April 2021, the city council agreed unanimously to remove the noose from the city's logo. [35]

Placerville is home to the legendary dish known as the "Hangtown fry" which includes eggs, bacon, and oysters. [36] There are multiple legends regarding the origin, but all stories agree that Placerville is the place of origin.

The Southern Pacific Transportation Company branch line was purchased from the Union Pacific in 1996 for $14 million by the Joint Powers Authority consisting of Sacramento County, Folsom, and El Dorado County. The line is being converted to a hiking and biking trail, with over 12 miles of the rail line now paved as a Class 1 biking route. [37]

Placerville is the home of United Ancient Order of Druids of California Grove No. 1, which was established in 1860 as the first Druid hall in California. It was reinstated in 2017–18, along with several other historical fraternal societies. Main Street Placerville features a large stone column holding a glass and metal "torch" known as "The Druid Monument", commemorating the Order's inception there 1860. [38] [39] The City of Placerville is currently attempting to repave the roundabout containing the monument, possibly removing it permanently in the process—a proposal that has divided the community. [40]

Notable people

Over the years many influential people had shops in Placerville, mostly along the now historic Main Street. [41]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">El Dorado County, California</span> County in California, United States

El Dorado County, officially the County of El Dorado, is a county located in the U.S. state of California. As of the 2020 census, the population was 191,185. The county seat is Placerville. The County is part of the Sacramento-Roseville-Arden-Arcade, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area. It is located entirely in the Sierra Nevada, from the historic Gold Country in the western foothills to the High Sierra in the east. El Dorado County's population has grown as Greater Sacramento has expanded into the region. Where the county line crosses US 50 at Clarksville, the distance to Sacramento is 15 miles. In the county's high altitude eastern end at Lake Tahoe, environmental awareness and environmental protection initiatives have grown along with the population since the 1960 Winter Olympics, hosted at the former Squaw Valley Ski Resort in neighboring Placer County.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Placer County, California</span> County in California, United States

Placer County, officially the County of Placer, is a county in the U.S. state of California. As of the 2020 census, the population was 404,739. The county seat is Auburn.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">El Dorado Hills, California</span> Census-designated place in California, United States

El Dorado Hills is an unincorporated town and census-designated place in El Dorado County, California. Located in the Greater Sacramento region of Northern California, it had a population was 50,547 at the 2020 census, up from 42,108 at the 2010 census. El Dorado Hills is primarily an affluent suburb of Sacramento.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">South Lake Tahoe, California</span> City in the state of California, United States

South Lake Tahoe is the most populous city in El Dorado County, California, United States, in the Sierra Nevada mountains. The city's population was 21,330 at the 2020 census, down from 21,403 at the 2010 census. The city, along the southern edge of Lake Tahoe, extends about 5 miles (8 km) west-southwest along U.S. Route 50, also known as Lake Tahoe Boulevard. The east end of the city, on the California–Nevada state line right next to the town of Stateline, Nevada, is mainly geared towards tourism, with T-shirt shops, restaurants, hotels, and Heavenly Mountain Resort with the Nevada casinos just across the state line in Stateline. The western end of town is mainly residential, and clusters around "The Y", the X-shaped intersection of US 50, State Route 89, and the continuation of Lake Tahoe Boulevard after it loses its federal highway designation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">California State Route 49</span> Highway in California

State Route 49 is a north–south state highway in the U.S. state of California that passes through many historic mining communities of the 1849 California gold rush and it is known as the Golden Chain Highway. The highway's creation was lobbied by the Mother Lode Highway Association, a group of locals and historians seeking a single highway connect many relevant locations along the Gold Rush to honor the 49ers. One of the bridges along SR 49 is named for the leader of the association, Archie Stevenot.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Area code 530</span> Area code for parts of northern California

Area code 530 is a California telephone area code in northeastern and Northern California.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">U.S. Route 50 in California</span> Highway in California

U.S. Route 50 (US 50) is a transcontinental United States Numbered Highway, stretching from West Sacramento, California, in the west to Ocean City, Maryland, in the east. The California portion of US 50 runs east from Interstate 80 (I-80) in West Sacramento to the Nevada state line in South Lake Tahoe. A portion in Sacramento also has the unsigned designation of Interstate 305. The western half of the highway in California is a four-or-more-lane divided highway, mostly built to freeway standards, and known as the El Dorado Freeway outside of downtown Sacramento. US 50 continues as an undivided highway with one eastbound lane and two westbound lanes until the route reaches the canyon of the South Fork American River at Riverton. The remainder of the highway, which climbs along and out of the canyon, then over the Sierra Nevada at Echo Summit and into the Lake Tahoe Basin, is primarily a two-lane road.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hangtown fry</span> American egg, oyster, and bacon dish

Hangtown fry is a type of omelette made famous during the California Gold Rush in the 1850s. The most common version includes bacon and oysters combined with eggs, and fried together.

The Golden Empire Council (GEC-BSA) is a California-based 501(c)(3) nonprofit affiliated with the Boy Scouts of America and its Western Region, Area 4. The council serves a large section of Northern California, primarily the Sacramento Valley and the northern Sierra Nevada. Its boundaries range north to south from Redding to Elk Grove and west to east from Vacaville to Pollock Pines and include 16 Northern California Counties. Its council headquarters and service center is located in Sacramento. The council also operates two Scout Shops selling BSA merchandise; located in Sacramento and Chico.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sacramento metropolitan area</span> Metropolitan area in California, United States

The Greater Sacramento area refers to a metropolitan region in Northern California comprising either the U.S. Census Bureau defined Sacramento–Roseville–Arden-Arcade metropolitan statistical area or the larger Sacramento–Roseville combined statistical area, the latter of which consists of seven counties, namely Sacramento, Yolo, Placer, El Dorado, Sutter, Yuba, and Nevada counties.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">El Dorado Transit</span>

El Dorado Transit is the operator of mass transportation in El Dorado County, California. Service is provided to the highly urbanized corridor of Western Slope suburbs of Sacramento, California. Six local routes are offered, providing weekday service between shopping and business destinations within the county. The commuter routes form the core of the system, running run from Placerville to Downtown Sacramento and offer six park-and-ride options to travelers. Twice daily reverse commuter options also travel from Sacramento to El Dorado County. The 50 Express provides hourly buses travel from Missouri Flat Rd. to and from Red Hawk Casino, Cameron Park, El Dorado Hills, the Sacramento RT Iron Point light rail station, and to Folsom Lake College.

John Augustus Raffetto, Sr. was an Italian-American businessman who founded the First National Bank of Placerville and ran the Ivy House and Cary House hotels.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">El Dorado County Fair</span>

The El Dorado County Fair is held in Placerville, California, every Father's Day weekend. The annual event opens on the third Thursday in June and concludes on the following Sunday evening.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Swansboro, California</span> Unincorporated community in California, United States

Swansboro Country; a subdivision within the community of Mosquito, is a residential area northeast of Placerville, the county seat of El Dorado County, California. The population was approximately 1,000 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Sacramento–Arden-Arcade–Roseville Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Alexander Howison Murray Jr. (1907–1993), known as Sandy Murray, was a two-time mayor of Placerville, California and three-time president of the county's chamber of commerce, who championed regional development, including the building of U.S. Route 50 in California (US 50) and was a regular page-one name in the Placerville Mountain Democrat.

Lloyd Raffetto also known as Lloyd A. Raffetto, Lloyd Alexander Raffetto, and "Raff" (1897-1988), was a noted Italian-American-Irish-American co-inventor of an ice cream manufacturing process, entrepreneur, and banker who owned the Raffles Hotel and co-founded the Mother Lode Bank, both of Placerville, California.

Jack Swift Berry was a forestry expert and lumberman and then two-term member of the California State Legislature from the Republican Party.

John Augustus Raffetto Jr. also known as John A. Raffetto and John Raffetto, (1908-1977), was an American entrepreneur and banker who owned the Ivy House Hotel of Placerville, California and co-founded the Placer National Bank of Rocklin, California.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">El Dorado County Superior Court</span> Branch of California superior court with jurisdiction over El DoradoCountry

The Superior Court of California, County of El Dorado, also known as the El Dorado County Superior Court, is the branch of the California superior court with jurisdiction over El Dorado County.

Placerville Union Cemetery, formerly Union Cemetery, is a burial ground formed in 1871 by a group of fraternal organizations, and located in Placerville, California. It had been established as a private cemetery, and in 2005 the management was switched to the El Dorado County.


  1. 1 2 3 "Placerville". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior.
  2. "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
  3. "California Cities by Incorporation Date". California Association of Local Agency Formation Commissions. Archived from the original (Word) on November 3, 2014. Retrieved April 5, 2013.
  4. "Mayor Taylor". City of Placerville, CA. Retrieved January 23, 2022.
  5. "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
  6. 1 2 "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". United States Census Bureau. May 24, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  7. "ZIP Code(tm) Lookup". United States Postal Service . Retrieved November 23, 2014.
  8. 1 2 "Placerville". Office of Historic Preservation, California State Parks. Retrieved October 7, 2012.
  9. 1 2 Durham, David L. (1998). California's Geographic Names: A Gazetteer of Historic and Modern Names of the State. Clovis, Calif.: Word Dancer Press. p. 539. ISBN   1-884995-14-4.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Svoboda, Dylan (June 5, 2021). "The NorCal town proud of its lynching history, until it wasn't". SFGATE. Retrieved June 8, 2021.
  11. U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Placerville, California
  12. "El Dorado County Visitor's Guide". Archived from the original on May 13, 2008.
  13. "NorCal City Once Known as 'Hangtown' Votes to Remove Noose From Its Logo". SFist - San Francisco News, Restaurants, Events, & Sports. April 15, 2021. Archived from the original on June 8, 2021. Retrieved June 8, 2021.
  14. "Headstones at Placerville Union Cemetery are deteriorating. Who is to blame?". February 3, 2020. Retrieved October 14, 2022.
  15. Bottjer, Linda J. (June 17, 2014). Gold Rush Ghosts of Placerville, Coloma & Georgetown. Arcadia Publishing. pp. 83–84. ISBN   978-1-62584-994-6.
  16. "El Dorado County Visitors Authority". Archived from the original on April 26, 2007. Retrieved May 1, 2007.
  17. Hangtown's Gold Bug Park & Mine.
  18. "El Dorado Trail" . Retrieved May 21, 2022.
  19. Hauser, Christine (April 15, 2021). "A Gold Rush Town Removes a Noose From Its Logo". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved June 8, 2021.
  20. Trent, Rachel (April 14, 2021). "City known as Hangtown votes to remove noose from its logo". CNN. Retrieved April 14, 2021.
  21. "PLACERVILLE, CALIFORNIA - Climate Summary".
  22. "Census of Population and Housing". Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  23. "2010 Census Interactive Population Search: CA - Placerville city". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 15, 2014. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
  24. "Senators". State of California. Retrieved April 5, 2013.
  25. "Members Assembly". State of California. Retrieved April 5, 2013.
  26. "California's 4th Congressional District - Representatives & District Map". Civic Impulse, LLC. Retrieved March 2, 2013.
  27. "El Dorado Winery Association".
  29. A Lincoln Highway route marker is embedded in the front wall of a building at 564 Main Street.
  30. "Airports". Archived from the original on March 30, 2010. Retrieved April 22, 2010.
  31. "Airports". El Dorado County. Retrieved October 22, 2020.
  32. "Historical buildings and monuments in El Dorado County".
  33. "Placerville California Profile and Resource Guide. Placerville, California Facts and Information".
  34. "Hangman missing". October 21, 2015.
  35. Seidman, Lila (April 13, 2021). "Gold Rush past, post-George Floyd present: Placerville drops noose on city logo after months of debate". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 14, 2021.
  36. Noble, Doug. "The Hangtown Fry". City of Placerville, CA. Retrieved July 15, 2018.
  37. "El Dorado Trail Map" . Retrieved May 21, 2022.
  38. "Druids of California".
  39. "Druid Monument in Placerville".
  40. Lakey, Pat (December 15, 2017). "Roundabout opponents now take aim at Clay Street Bridge project". Placerville Mountain Democrat.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  41. "Historic Main Street, Placerville". Archived from the original on March 13, 2016. Retrieved March 7, 2016.
  42. Reminiscences of a Ranger: Early Times in Southern California. University of Oklahoma Press. January 1, 2000. pp. iiv. ISBN   978-0-8061-3152-8.
  43. "Mrs. Kate Boruff Succumbs at 82". Los Angeles Times. September 5, 1942. p. 6.
  44. "Oliver Gagliani". Smithsonian American Art Museum. Retrieved June 8, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  45. Edward Hooker; Margaret Huntington Hooker (1909). The Descendants of Rev. Thomas Hooker, Hartford, Connecticut, 1586-1908. Harvard University. pp.  221–222, 360–361. Retrieved January 27, 2014.
  46. "Mark Hopkins, American businessman". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved June 8, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  47. Thomas Kinkade and Rick Barnett (2003). The Thomas Kinkade Story, A 20 Year Chronology of the Artist. Bulfinch Press. ISBN   0-8212-2858-7.
  48. Wooldridge, Jesse Walton (1931). History of Sacramento Valley California, Vol. 2. Pioneer Historical Publishing Company. pp. 419–420.
  49. "Michael Raffetto, 91, Former Radio Actor". Seattle Times. June 9, 1990.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)