The Plan of Cuernavaca (Spanish: Plan de Cuernavaca) was a declaration made in Cuernavaca, Mexico on 25 May 1834 in opposition to reform measures by the liberal administration of Vice President Valentín Gómez Farías. Presumably the declaration was orchestrated by President Antonio López de Santa Anna in agreement with the high clergy. After the triumph of the Plan of Cuernavaca, all laws enacted by the progressives during ten months in office were repealed, the Pontifical and National University of Mexico was reopened, Congress was dissolved and the officials who implemented the reform measures were dismissed. Santa Anna's first dictatorship began. A year later, the conservative faction of the Congress approved the basis for the new constitution that gave rise to the centralist regime in Mexico.
Cuernavaca is the capital and largest city of the state of Morelos in Mexico. The city is located around a 90 min drive south of Mexico City using the Federal Highway 95D.
Valentín Gómez Farías was the President of Mexico for five short periods in the 1830s and 1840s. During his term in 1833, he enacted significant liberal reforms that were aimed at undermining the power of the Roman Catholic Church and the army in Mexico.
Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón, often known as Santa Anna or López de Santa Anna, was a Mexican politician and general who fought to defend royalist New Spain and then fought for Mexican independence. He greatly influenced early Mexican politics and government, and he was an adept soldier and cunning politician who dominated Mexican history in the first half of the nineteenth century to such an extent that historians often refer to it as the "Age of Santa Anna." He was called "the Man of Destiny" who "loomed over his time like a melodramatic colossus, the uncrowned monarch." Santa Anna first opposed the movement for Mexican independence from Spain, but then fought in support of it. He was one of the earliest caudillos of modern Mexico, and he "represents the stereotypical caudillo in Mexican history". Lucas Alamán wrote that "the history of Mexico since 1822 might accurately be called the history of Santa Anna's revolutions…. His name plays the major role in all the political events of the country and its destiny has become intertwined with his."
In March 1833, Antonio López de Santa Anna was elected as President and Valentín Gómez Farías as Vice-President of Mexico. They alternated leadership of the executive branch due to the frequent absences of Santa Anna, sometimeS so that he could personally suppress uprisings, and other times to "restore his failing health."
While Vice President Gómez Farías was at the head of government, he implemented reform measures affecting the interests of both the army and the Catholic Church. Both institutions held special privileges (fueros). A law was proposed to expand the militias controlled by the States, which would relieve the federal budget which funded the army. This law, and a discussion about disposal of church property by the States, led to the rebellions of Escalda and Durán in support of "Religion and privileges." Santa Anna asked Congress for permission to take command of the army and combat the rebels.In response to these rebellions, in June 1833 Congress passed the famous Ley del Caso (Case Law) that ordered opponents of the reformist regime into exile. In November 1833, Congress issued a decree that ordered dissolution of army corps that had rebelled against federal institutions.
In ecclesiastical matters, mandatory tithing was removed, the hospitals and farms of the Philippines missionaries were placed in charge of the Federation, and the College of Santa María de Todos Santos and the Pontifical and National University of Mexico were closed. In its place, the Department of Public Instruction for the Federal District and Territories was created. Congress ordered creation of primary schools, schools for secular education of primary school teachers, and schools for women and girls, all of which were aimed at broadening access to education beyond elite men.The property of the California missions was secularized. On 17 December 1833, Congress issued a decree that authorized the government to fill parish vacancies. This was exercised in some States in the same way that the viceroys had used the power of royal patronage, an assertion of state power not recognized by the papacy since Mexican independence. Bishops and governors of bishoprics who did not comply with this decree would be fined on the first two occasions, and banished from the country after a third offense.
A tithing or tything was a historic English legal, administrative or territorial unit, originally ten hides. Tithings later came to be seen as subdivisions of a manor or civil parish. The tithing's leader or spokesman was known as a tithingman.
The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, and Malaysia and Indonesia to the south.
The Patronato system in Spain was the expression of royal patronage controlling major appointments of Church officials and the management of Church revenues, under terms of concordats with the Holy See. The resulting structure of royal power and ecclesiastical privileges, was formative in the Spanish colonial empire. It resulted in a characteristic constant intermingling of trade, politics, and religion. The papacy granted the power of patronage to the monarchs of Spain and Portugal to appoint clerics because the monarchs "were willing to subsidize missionary activities in newly conquered and discovered territories."
In Jalisco and Tamaulipas, government funding of religion was declared. In Durango and the State of Mexico the governors exercised their patronage over ecclesiastical posts. In Michoacán the local legislature regulated observance of the canons and discipline of the clergy. Religious tolerance was declared in Yucatán.On 13 March 1834 there was an earthquake, with aftershocks on 15 and 21 March, and on 24 March there was a severe thunderstorm with hail and water saturated with sulfur. These events were interpreted as "divine signs" by some priests, who urged the population to oppose the new reform laws.
Jalisco, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Jalisco, is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is located in Western Mexico and is bordered by six states which are Nayarit, Zacatecas, Aguascalientes, Guanajuato, Michoacán and Colima. Jalisco is divided into 125 municipalities, and its capital city is Guadalajara. Jalisco is one of the most important states in Mexico because of its natural resources as well as its history. Many of the characteristic traits of Mexican culture, particularly outside Mexico City, are originally from Jalisco, such as mariachi, ranchera music, birria, tequila, jaripeo, etc., hence the state's motto: "Jalisco es México." Economically, it is ranked third in the country, with industries centered in the Guadalajara metropolitan area, the second largest metropolitan area in Mexico. The state is home to two significant indigenous populations, the Huichols and the Nahuas. There is also a significant foreign population, mostly retirees from the United States and Canada, living in the Lake Chapala and Puerto Vallarta areas.
Tamaulipas, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Tamaulipas, is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 43 municipalities and its capital city is Ciudad Victoria.
Durango, officially Free and Sovereign State of Durango, is a state in northwest Mexico. With a population of 1,632,934, Durango has Mexico's second-lowest population density, after Baja California Sur. The city of Victoria de Durango is the state's capital, named after the first president of Mexico, Guadalupe Victoria.
In November 1833, Santa Anna asked Congress for permission to be absent for six months to replenish his "failing health" at the hacienda of Manga Clavo.At this place he received and heard complaints from the opponents of Vice President Valentín Gómez Farías's reform regime, including a letter from the Bishop of Puebla, Francisco Pablo Vázquez, who called the law of 17 December "a sacrilegious statement against the divine authority of the Pope." Meanwhile, the Bishop of Monterrey, José María de Jesús Belaunzarán y Ureña, announced he was willing to pay the fines and suffer exile before enforcing the new law. The Bishop of Chiapas, Luis García Guillén, Governor of the Guadalajara bishopric, Diego de Aranda y Carpinteiro, governor of Oaxaca bishopric, Florencio del Castillo, and the Bishop of Michoacán, Juan Cayetano Gómez de Portugal y Solís refused to obey the law of December 17. In contrast, the governor of Sonora bishopric, Orrantia Francisco, and the governor of Yucatán bishopric, Jose Maria Meneses, were willing to obey the reform laws. Later the first was disowned and deposed, while the second asked to exculpate himself before the council.
Florencio del Castillo was a Costa Rican cleric and politician.
Juan Cayetano José María Gómez de Portugal y Solís was a university professor and the Bishop of Michoacán. He played an active role in the politics of Mexico.
Santa Anna took the side that defended the interests of the Church. On 12 March 1834 he sent a long letter to Gómez Farías expressing dissatisfaction with the directives and agreements that the government had made.On 20 April, the town of Orizaba opposed the decree of the local Legislature that ordered the convents of San José de Gracia and del Carmen to be closed. The rebellion of the people took some lives, but failed to prevent enforcement of the law. Two days later, Congress enacted a 30-day extension before the law of 17 December would be rigidly enforced, after which bishops, councils or governors of bishoprics who did not comply would lose their posts and would be expelled from the country.
On 24 April, before the expiration of his six-months leave, Santa Anna returned to Mexico City. Five days later he published a manifesto in which he informed the public of the bitter division between reformists and conservatives, and declared himself impartial and ready to enforce the Constitution to preserve the rights of citizens.In the first days of May, he issued a decree for the people of Veracruz to return to order, restoring local authorities. He order the disarmament of the civic militia in face of protests by their commander, Lucas Balderas, and suggested to Congress that they should abolish the Ley del Caso.
Dismayed, the members of the Chamber sent a delegation to ask the President whether or not they had the freedom to legislate. Santa Anna replied, "they have, but to do what is right and no more, because I make the Constitution with one hand and in the other hold the sword to ensure it is observed. I had the resolution to attack tyranny, and I will have the resolution to fight demagogy." Given this response, on 15 May Congress decided to suspend its activities since it lacked freedom, "reserving the right to continue at such the time as it saw fit." Congress based its decision on Article 69 of the Rules of Procedure, and prorogued its session. However, Santa Anna decided to summon the Congress for 21 May, show he was not adverse to the legislature power.
On 16 May, in Xalapa and Coatepec, Santa Anna was proclaimed "protector of the Catholic religion." On 23 May, in Oaxaca, he was proclaimed "sustainer of religion and freedom of the country". Finally, on 25 May in the town of Cuernavaca, Ignacio Echeverria and Jose Mariano Campos proclaimed the Plan of Cuernavaca, containing five articles that demanded:
The plan and its declaration had been orchestrated by José María Tornel, governor of the Federal District.On the day that the plan was announced, Tornel issued a decree subjecting the press to censorship and making it a crime to publish posters that offended the regime. Tornel ensured that news of support for the plan by other garrisons was given full publicity. The plan was followed a week later by the "Plan of Toluca", issued by the garrison of the State of Mexico, which threw out the governor and the federalist state legislature.
Between 25 May and 11 June the following towns issued declarations in support of the Plan of Cuernavaca and of safeguarding the Catholic religion: Tlaxcala, Huitzuco, Chignahuapan, Mazatepec, Iguala, Chiautempan, Zacapoaxtla, Huejotzingo, Tepecoacuilco, Ixtlahuaca, Santa María Nativitas, Tlacotepec, San Agustín del Palmar, Tenancingo, Toluca, Tecualoya, San Salvador el Verde, San Martín Texmelucan, Misantla, Tehuacán, Huexotla, Malinalco, San Andrés Tuxtla, Teolitlán, Teziutlán, Joquicingo, Colima, San Juan Teotihuacán, San Pablo del Monte, Aquixtla, Otumba, Apan, Coronango, Totolapan, San Martín Xaltocan, Todos Santos Zempoala, Tulancingo, Chalco, Santa María Ozumba, Santiago Tetla, San Nicolás Panotla, Jiutepec, San Ildefonso Hueyotlipan, Cuautitlán, Azcapotzalco, Santa Inés Zacatelco, Maravatío, Iguala, Tepotzotlán, Santa Ana Monte Alto, Tula, Tlalmanalco, Tlayacapan, San Andrés Chalchicomula, Tepeaca, Santa María Tultepec, San Salvador Atenco, Tenango Tepopola, Contepec, Xochitepec, Singuilucan, Tianguismanalco, Ixtapaluca, Amecameca, Cadereyta, Ixmiquilpan, San Juan del Río, Tecali, Coyoacán, Zimapán, Atlixco, Santo Domingo Mixcoac, Actopan, Mineral de Cardonal, Acatzingo, Atotonilco el Grande, San Ángel, Tacubaya, San Pedro Tolimán, Tlaxcoapan, Santiago de Querétaro, Santiago Tulyehualco, Tacuba, San Agustín Tlaxco, Pachuca, Celaya, Irapuato, Huascazaloya, and the parish of Santa Catarina Mártir in Mexico City.
The pronouncements were not uniform. Sometimes they specifically said they only wanted to throw out the religious reforms, but wanted to retain the federal form of government.However, the wave of supporting proclamations gave Santa Anna the justification he needed to close Congress and repeal the unpopular legislation. The lack of support for the Congress indicated that the general population, with its traditional support for religion, considered that Congress no longer represented their views and resented its exercise of power.
When members of the Chamber wanted to meet, they found that the room keys had been collected and that the doors were guarded by an armed force. In response to the demands of the legislators, Santa Anna replied that the meetings could not continue beyond the period specified by the Constitution. On 1 June he defined his position in another public manifesto, which expressed willingness to defend the people's wishes to maintain the Catholic religion unharmed, saying he had "begged" to the Chambers to repeal the laws to stop the upheavals and religious fears.Nine days after the Plan of Cuernavaca had been published, the Church agreed to pay Santa Anna from 30,000 to 40,000 pesos monthly as long as church privileges were maintained. On 12 June, Santa Anna threw off his mask, dissolved the council and announced his decision to adopt the Plan of Cuernavaca. The church bells pealed and signs were posted reading "Long Live Religion and the illustrious Santa Anna." On 14 June, the new council of the capital supported the president's decision. The same day, Bishop Juan Cayetano Gomez de Portugal led Mass at the Metropolitan Cathedral in Mexico City and sang the Te Deum. The people hailed the president's decision.
Several municipalities in the country continued to adhere to the plan and support the decision of Santa Anna.On 24 June in Mexico City, Santa Anna abolished the law of Ecclesiastical Trusts issued on 17 December 1833 and ratified on 24 April 1834. At the same time he appointed Juan Cayetano Gómez de Portugal y Solís as Secretary of Justice and Ecclesiastical Affairs in place of Andrés Quintana Roo. On 9 July he issued a call for election of new Members of Congress. On 26 July he approved the appointment of the bishop of Yucatán, José María Guerra y Rodríguez Correa. Two days later he suspended the arrest warrant issued against Lucas Alamán and the process that was being followed against Anastasio Bustamante for the murder of Vicente Guerrero. On 30 July, repealed the Ley del Caso. On 1 August he ordered restoration of the Papal and National University of Mexico. On 8 August, he ordered the reinstatement of the judges of the Supreme Court who had been dismissed in March. A month later, on 8 September 1834, Valentin Gomez Farias went into exile in Mexico en route to New Orleans.
Events in the city of Puebla followed a different course. Before the proclamation of the Plan of Cuernavaca, the civic militia had proclaimed a local plan to support the Catholic religion and had urged the local legislature to declare the same. Although some deputies joined with the militia's wishes, President Pedro Pablo Carrillo was not in the room, so a picket of militia forced him to attend the sessions. The Congress of Puebla refused to deliberate until the militia had been withdrawn. The deputies decided not to accept the plan announced by the militia and decided to keep the reform institutions "even at the cost of a bloody war." Meanwhile, Santa Anna tried to overthrow the state government. The governor, Cosme Furlong, had only three thousand men, who were besieged by federal troops of General Luis Quintanar with seven thousand troops and thirty guns. On 13 and 29 June the besiegers made assaults that were repelled,but on 5 July 5 they managed to occupy the Inns of Cristo and the Roncal.
On 16 July, the besiegers opened negotiations with representatives of the governor, Agustín M. Callejo, Juan José Sánchez and the priest Apolinario Zacarías. After long discussions with General Luis de Quintanar, they left for the capital for talks with the president. On 26 July there was a peace agreement, in which Santa Anna promised to preserve the federal system and designate Guadalupe Victoria as commanding general. Although the militants felt betrayed, the city was surrendered on 1 August. Cosme Furlong handed over the state government to General Victoria.
With rumors of the establishment of a centralized system, the governments of Zacatecas, Coahuila and Texas strengthened their militias. Aguascalientes was separated from Zacatecas in May 1835. The rumors were confirmed when Congress declared that the centralized system was constitutional and implemented it on 23 October 1835. This policy led to the Independence of Texasand, years later, the separation of Yucatán.
Guadalupe Victoria, born José Miguel Ramón Adaucto Fernández y Félix, was a Mexican general and political leader who fought for independence against the Spanish Empire in the Mexican War of Independence. He was a deputy in the Mexican Chamber of Deputies for Durango and a member of the Supreme Executive Power following the downfall of the First Mexican Empire. After the adoption of the Constitution of 1824, Victoria was elected as the first President of the United Mexican States.
Mexican Texas is the historiographical name used to refer to the era of Texan history between 1821 and 1836, when it was part of Mexico. Mexico gained independence from Spain in 1821 after winning its war. Initially, Mexican Texas operated similarly to Spanish Texas. Ratification of the 1824 Constitution of Mexico created a federal structure, and the province of Tejas was joined with the province of Coahuila to form the state of Coahuila y Tejas.
José María Bocanegra was a Mexican lawyer and politician who was briefly interim president of Mexico in 1829.
José Mariano de Salas was a Mexican general and politician who served twice as interim president of Mexico. He was also a member of the executive triumvirate of the Second Mexican Empire that invited Maximilian of Habsburg to take the throne.
José Valentín Raimundo Canalizo Bocadillo, known as General Valentín Canalizo, son of Vicente Canalizo and María Josefa Bocadillo and baptized on 16 February 1795 at the Metropolitan Cathedral of Monterrey, was a Mexican President, state governor, city mayor, army general, defense minister and conservative politician. He is as yet the only Mexican President from the city of Monterrey. He was a supporter of a centralist national government, and a confidante of President of Mexico General Antonio López de Santa Anna. Canalizo was President of Mexico two times, for a total of about one year in 1843 and 1844, during the complex Mexican historical times after the one decade-long Mexican War of Independence and before the Mexican–American War. Valentín Canalizo had previously been the Mayor of Mexico City, after being Governor of Puebla state, and years before, Mayor of the city of Cuernavaca.
José María de Tornel y Mendívil (1795–1853) was a 19th-century Mexican army general and politician who greatly influenced the career of President Antonio López de Santa Anna.
In Mexican history, a plan was a declaration of principles announced in conjunction with a rebellion, usually armed, against the central government of the country. Mexican plans were often more formal than the pronunciamientos that were their equivalent elsewhere in Spanish America and Spain. Some were as detailed as the United States Declaration of Independence, though some plans merely announced that the current government was null and void and that the signer of the plan was the new president.
Melchor de Eca y Múzquiz was a Mexican soldier and politician. From August to December 1832, he was president of Mexico.
Manuel Gómez Pedraza y Rodríguez was a Mexican general and president of his country from 1832 to 1833.
The attempted Spanish reconquest of Mexico was an effort by the Spanish government to regain possession of its former colony of Mexico, resulting in episodes of war comprised in clashes between the newly born Mexican nation and Spain. The designation mainly covers two periods: the first attempts occurred from 1821 to 1825 and involved the defense of Mexico's territorial waters, while the second period had two stages, including the Mexican expansion plan to take the Spanish-held island of Cuba between 1826 and 1828, and the 1829 expedition of Spanish General Isidro Barradas, which landed on Mexican soil with the object of reconquering Mexican territory. Although the Spanish never regained control of the country they did damage the fledgling Mexican economy.
The Second Federal Republic of Mexico is the name given to the second attempt to achieve a federalist government in Mexico. Officially called the United Mexican States, a federal republic was implemented again on August 22, 1846 when interim president José Mariano Salas issued a decree restoring the 1824 constitution. Like the Mexican Empire, the First Federal Republic and the Centralist Republic it was a chaotic period, marked by political instability that resulted in several internal conflicts. Mexico's loss of the war with the United States saw half the territory Mexico claimed become part of the United States. Even though Antonio López de Santa Anna played a major role in much of this history, he returned to the presidency yet again, selling northern territory coveted by the United States contiguous to territory it just gained in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The sale of the Mesilla Valley was for many the final straw, and liberals promulgated of the Plan of Ayutla, calling for the overthrow of Santa Anna. Santa Anna went into exile and the liberals set about implementing their vision of Mexico.
In February 1847, five Mexican National Guard regiments rose up in rebellion against the Mexican government, in protest over legislation that permitted the government to requisition money and property from the Catholic Church. Led by General Matías Peña y Barragán, the group issued a set of demands which included the resignation of the President and Vice President of Mexico. When the demands were not met, fighting broke out in Mexico City. President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna was able to negotiate a peaceful solution with the rebels in March 1847.
The Centralist Republic of Mexico, or in the anglophone scholarship, the Central Republic, was officially the Mexican Republic. It was a unitary political regime established in Mexico on October 23, 1835, under a new constitution known as the Seven Laws after the repeal of the federalist Constitution of 1824. Mexican conservatives attributed the political chaos of the federal era to the empowerment of states over the federal government, participation of non-elite men in the political system through universal male suffrage, rebellions, and economic stagnation to the weakness of the federal government. Conservative elites saw the solution to the problem as abolishing the federal system and creating a centralized one, reminiscent of the colonial era. Federalism had given a range of powers to Mexican states, their legislatures and municipalities. It was favored by the states outside the center of Mexico. Those favoring a centralized state were the conservative urban elites. Mexican conservatives saw federalism as a failure and Mexico not prepared for such a system. They considered the ideal form of government as a centralized, administrative republic, with the states losing power to the central government. Conservatives with the support of the Mexican army created the Central Republic, which lasted eleven years, 1835–46. The unitary regime was formally established on December 30, 1836, with the enactment of the Siete Leyes. However, the Seven Laws proved unworkable and were abandoned four and a half years later, and replaced by a military dictatorship under Antonio López de Santa Anna. On August 22, 1846, acting President José Mariano Salas issued the decree that restored the Constitution of 1824 and, with this, the return to federalism.
José Gabriel de Armijo (1774–1830) was a Spanish and Mexican military commander of caudillo origin known for his role in the Mexican War of Independence.
José María Luis Mora Lamadrid was a priest, lawyer, historian, politician and liberal ideologue. Considered one of the first supporters of liberalism in Mexico, he fought for the separation of church and state. Mora has been deemed "the most significant liberal spokesman for his generation [and] his thought epitomizes the structure and the predominant orientation of Mexican liberalism."
The Plan of Veracruz was an agreement proclaimed by Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna at the port of Mexico on December 2, 1822, it was ratified on December 6.
The 1832 Plan of Veracruz was a statement made on January 2 of that year by Mexican military commander Ciriaco Vazquez. His goal was to remove ministers from the cabinet of Anastasio Bustamante, acting president of the United Mexican States, and remove Bustamante from office. Antonio López de Santa Anna, the plan's instigator and spokesman for the protesters, led an armed uprising five days later. Although the plan and uprising were initially opposed by most of the garrisons and state legislatures, the political and military forces gradually joined the fight against Bustamante's conservative regime.
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