Last updated
Planetes manga vol 1.jpg
Cover for the first manga volume
Genre Science fiction [1]
Written by Makoto Yukimura
Published by Kodansha
English publisher
ImprintMorning KC
Magazine Morning
Demographic Seinen
Original runJanuary 1999January 2004
Volumes4 (List of volumes)
Anime television series
Directed by Gorō Taniguchi
Produced byYoshitaka Kawaguchi
Atsushi Yukawa
Tomoyuki Uehara
Written by Ichirō Ōkouchi
Music by Kōtarō Nakagawa
Studio Sunrise
Licensed by
Original network NHK BS2
English network
Original run October 4, 2003 April 17, 2004
Episodes26 (List of episodes)
Wikipe-tan face.svg   Anime and mangaportal

Planetes (Japanese: プラネテス, Hepburn: Puranetesu, Ancient Greek: Πλάνητες Planētes, "Planets"; literally "Wanderers") [2] is a Japanese hard science fiction manga written and illustrated by Makoto Yukimura. It was adapted into a 26-episode anime television series by Sunrise, which was broadcast on NHK from October 2003 through April 2004. The story revolves around the crew of a space debris collection craft in the year 2075.


The manga was published in English in North America by Tokyopop, and the anime was distributed in North America by Bandai Entertainment. Both the manga and anime received the Seiun Award for best science fiction series. [3]


The story of Planetes follows the crew of the DS-12 "Toy Box" of the Space Debris Section, a unit of Technora Corporation. Debris Section's purpose is to prevent the damage or destruction of satellites, space stations and spacecraft from collision with debris (so-called "space debris") in Earth's and the Moon's orbits. They use a number of methods to dispose of the debris (mainly by burning it via atmospheric reentry or through salvage), accomplished through the use of EVA suits.

The story sometimes revolves around debris collection itself, but more often the concept of collecting "trash" in space is merely a storytelling method for building character development. The members of the Debris Section are looked down upon as the lowest members of the company and they must work hard to prove their worth to others and accomplish their dreams.

Ongoing plot elements include an upcoming exploratory mission to Jupiter on the new fusion powered ship, Von Braun, and the lead character's decision to join the mission, no matter the cost. Many other plot threads are also developed throughout the series that help to explain each character's motivations and personalities. The Space Defense Front is a terrorist organization that believes mankind is exploiting space without first curing global problems such as mass famine and the widened socio-economic divide on Earth. [4]



Space debris around Earth, NASA visualization Debris-GEO1280.jpg
Space debris around Earth, NASA visualization

The story of Planetes takes place in the near future. Special care was given in Planetes for a very realistic depiction of space and space travel. For instance, when in a weightless environment, the frame count dramatically increases in order to make weightless motion more fluid and realistic. Also, spaceships make no noise in the vacuum of space and astronauts routinely suffer from known space illnesses such as radiation poisoning, decompression sickness, cancer, brittle bones and mental illnesses spawned from isolation in the vacuum of space.

Concepts like momentum in weightlessness are early plot points and are always illustrated naturally. Director Goro Taniguchi stated in the DVD commentary that he learned much about orbital mechanics in the course of making the series. This can be shown in showing specific orbital energy, through changing orbits by applying thrust throughout the series. [5] Even the necessity for the retrieval of space debris that is central to the plot is rooted in the serious and growing problem with space debris today. [6]

The show also works to connect itself to the history of rocketry and space flight. The opening sequence is similar to the television series Star Trek: Enterprise , featuring a montage of the history of space flight from Greek mythology to the "modern" setting outlined in the series. Along the way, animated images of important milestones in space travel like Robert Goddard's early rocket tests, the V-2 rocket, Sputnik 1, Laika the dog, the Vostok spacecraft, Apollo 11, Skylab, Mir, the International Space Station and the Space Shuttle Endeavour and other milestones are displayed. References to early pioneers in rocketry like Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, Robert H. Goddard, Wernher von Braun and Hermann Oberth are also made regularly. [7]

The Japanese space agency JAXA served as a technical consultant to the series. [8] [9] The US version of the DVDs featured interviews with two scientists from NASA's Orbital Debris Section. However, both scientists stated that the premise of having to rendezvous with debris in orbit is highly unlikely as it would take an extravagant amount of energy for a relatively small amount of salvageable material. [10] One of the scientists stated that the previous director of the NASA Orbital Debris Section was in fact Donald J. Kessler, the scientist who proposed the eponymous Kessler Syndrome, which is cited and used several times in both the anime and manga. [11]

Human elements

The story also depicts the richer countries monopolizing resources in space and the poorer ones falling into civil war and being invaded or needing the assistance of those richer countries, telling a story of dependency theory and the negative side of environmentalism. [12] The conflicting views of the terrorist group, the Space Defense Front, who wish to shut human beings off from space, the main characters who believe in the importance of space exploration and development, [13] and the International Treaty Organization (INTO) which wants space development primarily to serve the economic and military needs of developed nations also play major roles. [14] The anime refrains from oversimplification of the various factions, portraying both true believers and those with ulterior motives on all sides. [15] The final settlement of the conflict is also unique in that it is not resolved by any of the main protagonists or antagonists, but by a compromise struck between powers above their heads. [16]

Both the anime and manga set a precedent of portraying a highly multicultural cast of characters. Usually, characters who refer to anime stereotypes are immediately berated by other characters. [17]


The themes in Planetes are philosophical, sociological, and political in nature.


Though author/illustrator Makoto Yukimura does not have a background in the sciences, the idea of Planetes came to him while reading a book called A Garbage Problem in Space: Space Debris, and found the Japanese phonetics for the word debris (deburi (デブリ)) amusing. Yukimura intentionally did not research space technology for fears that it would compromise his artistic freedom.[ citation needed ]

The presentation of technology in the anime adaptation broke from the manga in several areas, such as with the inclusion of touch-controlled HUDs, retractable debris face shields with a video screen, and peripheral cameras to the EVA suits the main characters use. Also, the anime introduces refinements in the weightless living and working spaces, with foot and hand bars for people to stabilize their movement in a weightless environment. The base of operations of Toy Box is moved from the Moon to a space station called the ISPV 7 in Low Earth Orbit. The United States of America is explicitly named in the manga, as opposed to in the anime where it is seldom mentioned in favor of "INTO" or the International Treaty Organization (a possible reference to NATO and SEATO), which seems to be a federation of individual countries including the United States and Japan.

Planetes shared part of its production staff with another anime series that ran at the same time on NHK, Twin Spica . From this, the production staff slipped several easter egg cross overs into Planetes. Some of these include:

There are several times where the anime and the manga would allude to each other. The following are some examples of this:



Written and illustrated by Makoto Yukimura, the twenty-six chapters appeared as a serial in the Kodansha seinen manga magazine Weekly Morning from January 1999 to January 2004. Kodansha collected the chapters into four tankōbon volumes, and published them from January 23, 2001, to February 23, 2004. [24] [25] It was licensed for an English-language translation in North America by Tokyopop. It published the series in five volumes by splitting the last volume in two parts from October 7, 2003 to February 8, 2005. [26] [27] [28] The translation was rereleased in two omnibus volumes by Dark Horse Comics on December 22, 2015 and May 10, 2016. [29] [30]


The anime adaptation of Planetes began airing its 26-episode run on NHK BS-2 on October 4, 2003, and ended on February 23, 2004. [31] [32] [33] Produced and animated by Sunrise, it was directed by Gorō Taniguchi and scripted by Ichirō Ōkouchi. [34] The anime began development and production before the end of the manga serialization. In the beginning and middle of the series, the writing and production staff only had the first three volumes of the manga as source. In order to fill the entire 26-episode run of the anime, new characters, new settings and new relationships between characters were made in order to increase dramatic tension, reinforce themes introduced in the manga, and introduce new themes that were compatible with the manga. While the manga deals more with existential themes, and humanity's relationship with space, the anime further expands the political elements of the story.

The music score was composed by Kōtarō Nakagawa and produced by Victor Entertainment. [31] [34] The opening theme is "Dive in the Sky" by Mikio Sakai, and the ending themes are "Wonderful Life" by Mikio Sakai [34] for episodes 1-25 and "Planetes" by Hitomi Kuroishi for episode 26. There are two insert songs, "A Secret of the Moon" by Hitomi Kuroishi, used in various episodes, and "Thanks My Friend" by Mikio Sakai used in episode 13.


Both the manga and the anime were critically acclaimed. According to Anime News Network, the manga has a "solid, engrossing storyline and well-developed characters". [35] Anime News Network also proclaimed Planetes to be the best science fiction anime series of 2005. [36] Both the manga and anime received the Seiun Award for best science fiction series, the manga in 2002 and the anime in 2005. [3]

In terms of sales, the manga was only a modest success in North America, with volume 3 reaching 81st place on the Diamond US sales top 100, selling about 1100 copies through the distributor. [37] Volume 4 reached 93rd place, selling about 1400 copies. [38]

See also

Related Research Articles

<i>Love Hina</i> 2000 anime and manga series by Ken Akamatsu

Love Hina is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Ken Akamatsu. It was serialized in Kodansha's Weekly Shōnen Magazine from October 1998 to October 2001, with the chapters collected into 14 tankōbon volumes by Kodansha. The series tells the story of Keitarō Urashima and his attempts to find the girl with whom he made a childhood promise to enter the University of Tokyo. The manga was licensed for an English-language release in North America and the United Kingdom by Tokyopop, in Australia by Madman Entertainment, and in Singapore by Chuang Yi. Two novelizations of Love Hina, written by two anime series screenwriters, were also released in Japan by Kodansha. Both novels were later released in North America and the United Kingdom by Tokyopop.

<i>Magic Knight Rayearth</i> Japanese manga series by Clamp

Magic Knight Rayearth is a Japanese manga series created by Clamp. Appearing as a serial in the manga magazine Nakayoshi from the November 1993 issue to the February 1995 issue, the chapters of Magic Knight Rayearth were collected into three bound volumes by Kodansha, and were published from July 1994 to March 1995. A sequel was serialized in the same manga magazine from the March 1995 issue to the April 1996 issue, and was published by Kodansha in three bound volumes from July 1995 to April 1996. The series follows three eighth-grade girls who find themselves transported from modern-day Japan into a magical world, where they are tasked with rescuing a princess.

<i>Voices of a Distant Star</i> 2002 Japanese anime film

Voices of a Distant Star is a Japanese science fiction original video animation (OVA) short film created and animated by Makoto Shinkai. It follows the lives of two close childhood friends, a boy and a girl, who get separated once the girl is sent into space to fight in a war against aliens. As the 15-year-old girl goes deeper and deeper into space, the texts she sends take longer to reach the Earth; the film simultaneously follows her battles and the boy's life as he receives her texts over the years.

<i>Rave Master</i> Japanese manga series

Rave Master, titled Rave and, alternatively, The Groove Adventure Rave in Japan, is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Hiro Mashima. The series follows Haru Glory, a teenager on a quest to find the five pieces of the sacred stone Rave in order to bring peace to the world by defeating the criminal group Demon Card. Mashima created this series with the idea of travelling around the world and was presented with difficulties in its serialization due to its considerable length.

<i>Tokyo Mew Mew</i> Japanese manga and anime series

Tokyo Mew Mew is a Japanese manga series written by Reiko Yoshida and illustrated by Mia Ikumi. It was originally serialized in Kodansha's shōjo manga magazine Nakayoshi from September 2000 to February 2003, with its chapters collected in seven tankōbon volumes by Kodansha. It focuses on five girls infused with the DNA of endangered animals which gives them special powers and allows them to transform into "Mew Mews". Led by Ichigo Momomiya, the girls protect the earth from aliens who wish to "reclaim" it.

<i>Samurai Deeper Kyo</i>

Samurai Deeper Kyo is a manga series written and illustrated by Akimine Kamijyo. Set during the Edo period of Japan's history, Samurai Deeper Kyo follows Demon Eyes Kyo, a feared samurai seeking to regain his body after his soul is sealed inside the body of his rival, Mibu Kyoshiro. Kyo is joined in his search by the bounty-hunter Shiina Yuya, the heir to the Tokugawa shogunate Benitora; and Sanada Yukimura, a known rival of the Tokugawa.

<i>GetBackers</i> Japanese manga series

GetBackers is a Japanese manga series written by Yuya Aoki and illustrated by Rando Ayamine. The series was serialized in Kodansha's Weekly Shōnen Magazine from 1999 until 2007, totaling 39 volumes. The plot follows the "GetBackers", a group that retrieves anything that was lost. The team is primarily composed of Ban Mido, a man born with the illusionary technique "Evil Eye", and Ginji Amano the former leader of a gang called "The VOLTS", a powerful group in the dangerous territory called the Infinity Fortress in Shinjuku.

<i>The Candidate for Goddess</i> Manga written and illustrated by Yukiru Sugisaki

The Candidate for Goddess is a Japanese manga written and illustrated by Yukiru Sugisaki. The series takes place in the distant future, where human beings live among space colonies and a single, inhabitable planet called Zion. The plot follows Zero Enna and his fellow candidates as they try to prove themselves worthy of piloting the "Ingrids", also called "Goddesses". These gigantic, humanoid weapons are humanity's only significant defense against a hostile, alien threat known as "Victim".

Hachi may refer to:

Makoto Yukimura

Makoto Yukimura is a Japanese manga artist. Yukimura made his debut with the hard science fiction manga Planetes, serialized in Weekly Morning magazine from 1999 to 2004 and adapted into a 26-episode anime series by Sunrise. Before that, he worked as an assistant for Shin Morimura.

<i>Chobits</i> Japanese manga series by Clamp

Chobits is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by the Japanese manga collective Clamp. It was published by Kodansha in Weekly Young Magazine from the 43rd issue for 2000 to the 48th issue for 2002 and collected in eight bound volumes. Chobits was adapted as a 26-episode-long anime television series broadcast on TBS from April to September 2002. In addition, it has spawned two video games as well as various merchandise such as figurines, collectable cards, calendars, and artbooks.

<i>Morning</i> (magazine) Japanese manga magazine

Morning is a weekly Japanese seinen manga magazine published by Kodansha, aimed at adult men. It debuted in 1982 as Comic Morning. The digital edition of the magazine is titled Weekly D Morning.

<i>Vinland Saga</i> (manga) Japanese manga series and its adaptation

Vinland Saga is a Japanese historical manga series written and illustrated by Makoto Yukimura. The series is published by Kodansha, and was first serialized in the youth-targeted Weekly Shōnen Magazine before moving to the monthly manga magazine Monthly Afternoon, aimed at young adult men. As of July 2021, the series has been compiled into twenty-five bound volumes. Vinland Saga has also been licensed for English-language publication by Kodansha USA.


Ojarumaru (おじゃる丸) is a Japanese anime series created by Rin Inumaru, produced by NHK Enterprises, and animated by Gallop. The series has aired on NHK E-Tele since October 1998, making it the second longest-running anime on NHK behind Nintama Rantaro, and the third longest-running anime series to date. The series focuses on a 5-year-old Heian-era prince named Ojarumaru Sakanoue who accidentally time-warps to modern Japan and has adventures there while dodging a trio of young oni who try to get back a scepter that he stole from Great King Enma. The official English name of the series is Prince Mackaroo. The series has been dubbed in many languages.

<i>Forest of Piano</i> Japanese manga series

Forest of Piano, known in Japan as Piano no Mori: The Perfect World of Kai, is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Makoto Isshiki. It was serialized by Kodansha from 1998 to 2015, initially in Young Magazine Uppers before transferring to Weekly Morning. Serialization is irregular, and went on hiatus in 2002 before resuming in 2006. The series ended after 26 bound volumes. The series was adapted into a 2007 Japanese animated feature film by director Masayuki Kojima and production company Madhouse. The film featured performances by the renowned pianist Vladimir Ashkenazy. An anime television series adaptation produced by Gaina premiered from April 8, 2018 to April 14, 2019 on NHK.

Sailor Jupiter Character from Sailor Moon

Makoto Kino, better known as Sailor Jupiter, is a fictional character in the Sailor Moon manga series created by Naoko Takeuchi. Makoto is her sailor form's alternative human identity as part of the Sailor Soldiers, female supernatural fighters who protect the Solar System from evil.

<i>Saint Young Men</i> Japanese manga series by Hikaru Nakamura

Saint Young Men is a Japanese slice of life comedy manga series written and illustrated by Hikaru Nakamura. Its plot involves Jesus Christ and Gautama Buddha, who are living as roommates in an apartment in Tokyo. It has been serialized by Kodansha in the monthly seinen manga magazine Monthly Morning Two since September 2006, with chapters collected in nineteen tankōbon volumes as of March 2021. A-1 Pictures adapted the manga series into two original animation DVDs (OADs) and an anime film which was released on May 10, 2013. It also inspired a ten-episode live-action web series in 2018.


  1. "Planetes Omnibus Volume 1 TPB". Dark Horse Comics. Retrieved May 27, 2018.
  2. πλάνης (ἀστήρ); cf. πλανήτης . Liddell, Henry George ; Scott, Robert ; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.
  3. 1 2 "日本SFファングループ連合会議: 星雲賞リスト" (in Japanese). Retrieved 2008-01-26.
  4. Planetes Ep. 12
  5. Episode 1 Cast and Directors' Commentary
  6. Lovgren, Stefan (2006-01-19). "Space Junk Cleanup Needed, NASA Experts Warn". National Geographic News.
  7. The Werner Locksmith character in particular seems to reflect both Von Braun's vision for the future as well as his willingness to resort to questionable means to achieve them.
  8. JAXA is credited for technical advice at the end of the credits of the anime.
  9. Guanche, Chris (2005-03-07). "Interview: Jerry Chu, Marketing Manager, Bandai Entertainment". Mecha Anime HQ. Retrieved 2006-03-06. It's funny, the JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) scientists actually duped the show off TV there and send their colleagues at NASA a copy to check out.
  10. Planetes Vol. 2, supplementary DVD, NASA Orbital Debris Section interview.
  11. D.J. Kessler (1991). "Collisional Cascading: The Limits of Population Growth in Low Earth Orbit". Advances in Space Research. 11 (12): 63–6. Bibcode:1991AdSpR..11l..63K. doi:10.1016/0273-1177(91)90543-S.
  12. Planetes Ep. 18: Mananga, a third world country, fell into civil war when their oil exports were superseded by environmentally cleaner energy found in space.
  13. Planetes Ep. 7: Fee: "Nothing can be solved by locking yourself up in a warm place, how could the world continue without space resources?"
  14. Planetes Ep. 24: Conversation between INTO officials during negotiations.
  15. Planetes Ep. 24: SDF rebels on the Moon are stunned at being abandoned when their leadership strikes a deal with INTO on space resource distribution.
  16. Planetes Ep. 24: Goro attempts to break into the hacked system but the system is restored without his intervention.
  17. Planetes Ep. 6: Lunar Flying Squirrels ask Hachi if he has a black belt, since he is Japanese. Hachi denies this outright and berates them.
  18. Planetes Ep. 11: "From here, we can't see any borders!"
  19. Planetes anime: Much of the latter half of the anime deals with Hachimaki cutting himself off from the others.
  20. Planetes Ep. 26: Claire mentions she wasn't very good at being an aristocrat.
  21. Planetes Ep. 26: Having expanded his influence within Technora Corporation, Dolf decides to defy the board in favor of steering the company towards the ideals he started out with.
  22. Yukimura, Makoto (2004). PLANETES 3. Los Angeles: Tokyopop. p. 88. ISBN   1-59182-510-5.
  23. Yukimura, Makoto (2005). PLANETES 4/2. Los Angeles: Tokyopop. p. 95. ISBN   1-59532-467-4.
  24. プラネテス (1) (in Japanese). Kodansha. Archived from the original on February 1, 2014. Retrieved January 29, 2014.
  25. プラネテス (4) (in Japanese). Kodansha. Archived from the original on February 1, 2014. Retrieved January 29, 2014.
  26. Planetes, Book 1. ISBN   1591822629.
  27. Yukimura, Makoto (8 February 2005). Planetes, Vol. 4: Part 2. ISBN   1595324674.
  28. "Planetes Volume 1". Tokyopop. Archived from the original on June 11, 2008. Retrieved January 29, 2014.
  29. "Planetes Omnibus Volume 1". . Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  30. "Planetes Omnibus Volume 2". . Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  31. 1 2 プラネテス (in Japanese). Victor Entertainment . Retrieved January 29, 2014.
  32. ストーリー: #01 (in Japanese). Retrieved January 29, 2014.
  33. ストーリー: #26 (in Japanese). Retrieved January 29, 2014.
  34. 1 2 3 "NHKアニメワールド:プラネテス" (in Japanese). NHK . Retrieved January 29, 2014.
  35. Cooper, Liann (2004). "RIGHT TURN ONLY!! - Snips and Snails and Puppy Dog Tails". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2006-04-11.
  36. Martin, Theron (2004). "2005 Year in Review - Key's Best of 2005". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2006-04-11.
  37. "Top 100 Graphic Novels Actual--May 2004". ICv2. 2004-07-06. Retrieved 2006-04-12.
  38. "Top 100 Graphic Novels Actual--November 2004". ICv2. 2004-12-21. Retrieved 2006-04-12.

Further reading