Pleven

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Pleven

Плевен
Pleven-coat-of-arms.svg
Coat of arms
Bulgaria location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Pleven
Location of Pleven
Coordinates: 43°24′28″N24°37′13″E / 43.40778°N 24.62028°E / 43.40778; 24.62028 Coordinates: 43°24′28″N24°37′13″E / 43.40778°N 24.62028°E / 43.40778; 24.62028
Country Bulgaria
Province
(Oblast)
Pleven
Government
  MayorGeorg Spartanski (Reformist Bloc, IMRO-BNM)
Area
  City85 km2 (33 sq mi)
Elevation
116 m (381 ft)
Population
(Census February 2011) [1]
  City106,954
  Density1,300/km2 (3,300/sq mi)
   Urban
131,152
Time zone UTC+2 (EET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal Code
5800
Area code(s) 064
Website Official website

Pleven (Bulgarian : Плевенpronounced  [ˈplɛvɛn] ) is the seventh most populous city in Bulgaria. Located in the northern part of the country, it is the administrative centre of Pleven Province, as well as of the subordinate Pleven municipality. It is the biggest economic center in Northwestern Bulgaria. At the end of 2015 its population is 99,628.

Bulgarian language South Slavic language

Bulgarian, is an Indo-European language and a member of the Southern branch of the Slavic language family.

Pleven Province Province in Bulgaria

Pleven Province is a province located in central northern Bulgaria, bordering the Danube river, Romania and the Bulgarian provinces of Vratsa, Veliko Tarnovo and Lovech. It is divided into 11 subdivisions, called municipalities, that embrace a territory of 4,333.54 km² with a population, as of February 2011, of 269 752 inhabitants. The province's capital is the city of Pleven.

Contents

Internationally known for the Siege of Plevna of 1877, it is today a major economic centre of the Bulgarian Northwest and Central North and the third largest city of Northern Bulgaria after Varna and Rousse.

Siege of Plevna

The Siege of Plevna, or Siege of Pleven, was a major battle of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878, fought by the joint army of Russia and Romania against the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman defense held up the main Russian advance southwards into Bulgaria for five months, encouraging other great powers actively to support the Ottoman cause. Eventually, superior Russian and Romanian numbers forced the garrison to capitulate. The Russian-Romanian victory on 10 December 1877 was decisive for the outcome of the war and the Liberation of Bulgaria.

Varna Place in Bulgaria

Varna is the third-largest city in Bulgaria and the largest city and seaside resort on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast. Situated strategically in the Gulf of Varna, the city has been a major economic, social and cultural centre for almost three millennia. Varna, historically known as Odessos, grew from a Thracian seaside settlement to a major seaport on the Black Sea.

Name

The name comes from the Slavic word plevnya ("barn") or from plevel, meaning "weed", sharing the same root, and the Slavic suffix -en.

Slavic languages languages of the Slavic peoples

The Slavic languages are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples. They are thought to descend from a proto-language called Proto-Slavic, spoken during the Early Middle Ages, which in turn is thought to have descended from the earlier Proto-Balto-Slavic language, linking the Slavic languages to the Baltic languages in a Balto-Slavic group within the Indo-European family.

In linguistics, a suffix is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word. Common examples are case ending, which indicate the grammatical cased of nouns or adjectives, and verb endings, which form the conjugation of verbs.

Geography

Pleven is in an agricultural region in the middle of the Danubian Plain, the historical region of Moesia, surrounded by low limestone hills, the Pleven Heights. The city's central location in Northern Bulgaria defines its importance as a big administrative, economic, political, cultural and transport centre. Pleven is 170 kilometres (106 miles) away from the capital city of Sofia, 320 km (199 miles) west of the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast and 50 km (31 miles) south of the Danube.

Danubian Plain (Bulgaria) Plains in Bulgaria

The Danubian Plain constitutes the northern part of Bulgaria, situated north of the Balkan Mountains and south of the Danube. Its western border is the Timok River and to the east it borders the Black Sea. The plain has an area of 31,523 square kilometres (12,171 sq mi). It is about 500 kilometres (310 mi) long and 20 to 120 kilometres wide.

Moesia historical region of the Balkans

Moesia was an ancient region and later Roman province situated in the Balkans south of the Danube River. It included most of the territory of modern-day Central Serbia, Kosovo and the northern parts of the modern North Macedonia, Northern Bulgaria and Romanian Dobrudja.

Sofia Capital and largest city of Bulgaria

Sofia is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria. The city is at the foot of Vitosha Mountain in the western part of the country. Being in the centre of the Balkan peninsula, it is midway between the Black Sea and the Adriatic Sea, and closest to the Aegean Sea.

The river Vit flows near the town and the tiny Tuchenitsa river (commonly known in Pleven as Barata, literally "The Streamlet") crosses it.

Vit river in Bulgaria

The Vit also Vid is a river in central northern Bulgaria with a length of 168 km. It is a tributary of Danube. The source of the Vit is in Stara Planina, below Vezhen Peak at an altitude of 2,030 m, and it empties into the Danube close to Somovit. The river has a watershed area of 3,228 km², its main tributaries being Kamenska reka, Kalnik and Tuchenitsa.

Climate

Pleven's climate is temperate continental. Winters are cool, with much snow: temperatures usually fall below −20 °C (−4 °F) overnight. Springs are warm, with temperatures around 20 °C (68 °F). Summers are warm, and temperatures have exceeded 38–44 °C (100–111 °F) on occasion. The average annual temperature is around 13 °C (55.4 °F).

Climate data for Pleven, Bulgaria
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)22.8
(73.0)
24.0
(75.2)
31.2
(88.2)
35.1
(95.2)
37.5
(99.5)
38.4
(101.1)
44
(111)
41.8
(107.2)
40.8
(105.4)
38.3
(100.9)
28.8
(83.8)
23.4
(74.1)
44
(111)
Average high °C (°F)1.3
(34.3)
4.6
(40.3)
10.3
(50.5)
18.1
(64.6)
23.1
(73.6)
26.7
(80.1)
29.3
(84.7)
29.4
(84.9)
25.4
(77.7)
18.2
(64.8)
10.5
(50.9)
4.1
(39.4)
16.8
(62.2)
Daily mean °C (°F)−2.2
(28.0)
0.6
(33.1)
5.4
(41.7)
12.5
(54.5)
17.4
(63.3)
21.0
(69.8)
23.4
(74.1)
22.9
(73.2)
18.6
(65.5)
12.4
(54.3)
6.4
(43.5)
0.7
(33.3)
11.6
(52.9)
Average low °C (°F)−5.5
(22.1)
−3.3
(26.1)
0.9
(33.6)
6.8
(44.2)
11.5
(52.7)
14.8
(58.6)
16.7
(62.1)
16.1
(61.0)
12.3
(54.1)
7.2
(45.0)
2.9
(37.2)
−2.0
(28.4)
6.5
(43.7)
Record low °C (°F)−29.3
(−20.7)
−22.2
(−8.0)
−18.9
(−2.0)
−5.7
(21.7)
0.6
(33.1)
3.4
(38.1)
8.7
(47.7)
8.9
(48.0)
−0.6
(30.9)
−6.5
(20.3)
−20.4
(−4.7)
−24
(−11)
−29.3
(−20.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches)39
(1.5)
34
(1.3)
33
(1.3)
52
(2.0)
68
(2.7)
81
(3.2)
63
(2.5)
40
(1.6)
38
(1.5)
44
(1.7)
45
(1.8)
41
(1.6)
578
(22.8)
Source: Stringmeteo [2]

History

Prehistory and antiquity

The earliest traces of human settlement in the area date from the 5th millennium BC, the Neolithic.

The 5th millennium BC spanned the years 5000 through 4001 BC. It saw the spread of agriculture from Western Asia throughout Southern and Central Europe.

The Neolithic, the final division of the Stone Age, began about 12,000 years ago when the first development of farming appeared in the Epipalaeolithic Near East, and later in other parts of the world. The division lasted until the transitional period of the Chalcolithic from about 6,500 years ago, marked by the development of metallurgy, leading up to the Bronze Age and Iron Age. In Northern Europe, the Neolithic lasted until about 1700 BC, while in China it extended until 1200 BC. Other parts of the world remained broadly in the Neolithic stage of development, although this term may not be used, until European contact.

The central streets of Pleven Pleven Antistene 4.jpg
The central streets of Pleven

Numerous archaeological findings, among them the Nikolaevo treasure found in Bulgaria, evidence for the rich culture of the Thracians, who inhabited the area for thousands of years.

In the beginning of the new era, the region became part of the Roman province of Moesia, and a road station called Storgosia arose near present-day Pleven on the road from Oescus (near modern Gigen) to Philippopolis (now Plovdiv). It later evolved into a fortress. One of the most valued archaeological monuments in Bulgaria from the period is the Early Christian basilica from the fourth century discovered near the modern city.

Middle Ages

Pleven Regional Historical Museum Pleven TodorBozhinov October 2009 (1).jpg
Pleven Regional Historical Museum

During the Middle Ages, Pleven was a well-developed stronghold of the First and the Second Bulgarian Empire. When Slavs populated the region, they gave the settlement its contemporary name Pleven, it was first mentioned in a charter by Hungarian king Stephen V in 1270 in connection to a military campaign in the Bulgarian lands.

Ottoman rule

During the Ottoman rule, Pleven, known as Plevne in Ottoman Turkish, preserved its Bulgarian appearance and culture. Many churches, schools and bridges were built at the time of the Bulgarian National Revival. In 1825, the first secular school in the town was opened, followed by the first girls' school in Bulgaria in 1840, as well as the first boys' school a year later. Pleven was the place where the Bulgarian national hero Vasil Levski established the first revolutionary committee in 1869, part of his national revolutionary network.

Siege of Plevna

The city (then mostly known as Plevna outside Bulgaria) was a major battle scene during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 that Russian Tsar Alexander II held for the purpose of the liberation of Bulgaria. The joint Russian and Romanian army paid dearly for the victory, but it paved the path to the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in this war, the restoration of Bulgaria as a state and the independence of Romania from the Ottoman Empire. It cost the Russians and Romanians 5 months and 38,000 casualties to take the town after four assaults, in what was one of the decisive battles of the war. The siege is remembered as a landmark victory of the Romanian War of Independence, as on 28 November 1877 the Plevna citadel capitulated, and Osman Pasha surrendered the city, the garrison and his sword to the Romanian Colonel Mihail Cerchez.

Pleven Panorama, one of the town's best known sights Pleven-Panorama-outside.JPG
Pleven Panorama, one of the town's best known sights

In the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition of 1911 J.H.V. Crowe concluded his lengthy entry on Pleven (transcribed as Plevna) with the memorable dictum:

On the other hand, the Siege of Plevna stands out among other countless sieges and military actions in the region because of its significance. [4] Without this fortress slowing the Russian onslaught, which gave the Great Powers time to intercede, Constantinople would have been repossessed by a Christian army once more.

Modern history

The events of the Russo-Turkish War proved crucial for the development of Pleven as a key town of central northern Bulgaria. The town experienced significant demographic and economic growth in the following years, gradually establishing itself as a cultural centre of the region.

The Bulgarian Agrarian National Union, a leading interwar party representing the Bulgarian peasantry, was founded in the town in December 1899.

Prior to the Bulgarian orthographic reform of 1945, the name of the town was spelled Плѣвенъ (with yat) in Cyrillic.

Population

The town hall of Pleven Pleven Town Hall Todor Bozhinov.jpg
The town hall of Pleven

According to census 2011, Pleven has a population of 106,954 inhabitants as of February 2011. [1] The ethnic breakdown is 97% Bulgarians among others. The number of the residents of the city reached its peak in the period 1988-1991 when exceeded 135,000. [6] The following table presents the change of the population after 1887.

Pleven
Year18871910193419461956196519751985199220012005200920112013
Population14,30723,04931,52039,05957,55578,933107,883129,863130,747121,880113,700111,426106,954??
Highest number 130,747 in 1992
Sources: National Statistical Institute, [1] [6] [7] citypopulation.de, [8] pop-stat.mashke.org, [9] Bulgarian Academy of Sciences [10]

Ethnic, linguistic and religious composition

According to the latest 2011 census data, the individuals declared their ethnic identity were distributed as follows: [11] [12]

Total: 106,954

In Pleven Municipality 112,414 declared as Bulgarians, 4626 as Gypsies, 3204 as Turks and 10,384 did not declare their ethnic group.

An overwhelming majority of 90% of Pleven's residents are Eastern Orthodox Christian. The Diocese of Nikopol, of which Pleven is part, is one of the two Roman Catholic dioceses in Bulgaria, and another 5% of the residents are Roman Catholic by faith, a significant number compared to other Bulgarian cities.

Pleven has three Eastern Orthodox churches, the Bulgarian National Revival St Nicholas Church (1834) that was constructed at the place of a chapel from the Second Bulgarian Empire, the St Paraskeva Church (1934) and the Holy Trinity Church, built in 1870 at the place of a church mentioned as early as 1523 and inaugurated by Exarch Antim I. As of 2005, a new Eastern Orthodox church is being built in the Strogoziya quarter.

The construction of a large Roman Catholic church of Our Lady of Fatima began in 2001. A mosque also exists in the town to serve the needs of the Muslim population, as well as a Methodist church that is situated on the site of the former local puppet theatre.

Economy

Two banks in central Pleven Pleven TodorBozhinov October 2009 (4).jpg
Two banks in central Pleven

A major centre of oil processing, metalworking, machinery construction, of light and food industries in Socialist times. However, the late 1990s and early 2000s saw a revival of light industry [ citation needed ] and the development of branches such as knitwear and store clothes production. Tourism, which had attracted many people from the Soviet Union prior to 1989, and had experienced a slump in the following years, is on the rise again. [ citation needed ]

In 2015, the unemployment rate in Pleven district was 9.2%. [13]

The most important economic sectors in Pleven are chemical, textiles and foodstuffs industries, the manufacturing of cement and glass, machine building, tailoring, agriculture, retail and services. [14] The city has seen a number of major foreign investments in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Particularly noticeable is the mass construction of hypermarkets, with two Billa, two Kaufland, two Carrefour (in construction- first one to open in MALL PLEVEN in 2011), DM, Plus (in construction), ELEMAG, METRO, one LIDL store, a Praktiker, bauMax and a number of other hypermarkets being opened as of 2006. The Pleven City Center and central mall pleven mall was opened in 2008.

Transport

The international railway Sofia — Bucharest — Moscow runs through Pleven. The international road E 83 passes just north of the city. The national A2 Hemus highway Sofia — Varna is projected to pass 16 km (10 mi) south of Pleven. Over 90% of the inner city transportation in Pleven is maintained by trolleybuses. There are 14 trolleybus lines, and 75 km (47 mi) trolleybus network. The trolleybus fleet consist of ZIU-682 (1985–1988) and Skoda 26-TR Solaris trolleybuses, produced in 2014. A project for 12 km (7 mi) trolleybus routes extension is underway. When the extension is completed Pleven will become 100% covered by trolleybus transport. [ citation needed ]

Transmitter

Near Pleven, there is a large facility for medium wave and short wave broadcasting. Pleven medium wave transmitter, working on 594 kHz, uses as antenna two 250 metres (820 feet) tall guyed mast radiators insulated against ground. These masts belong to the tallest structures of Bulgaria. [15]

Museum of the Liberation of Pleven Pleven TodorBozhinov October 2009 (3).jpg
Museum of the Liberation of Pleven

Main sights

Most of the sights of the town are related to the Russo-Turkish War. The monuments related to the war alone are about 200. Some of the more popular include the St George the Conqueror Chapel Mausoleum in honour of the many Russian and Romanian soldiers who lost their lives during the Siege of Plevna and the ossuary in Skobelev Park. Another popular attraction is Pleven Panorama, created after (and reputedly larger than) the Borodino Panorama in Russia on the occasion of the anniversary of the Siege of Plevna.

Culture

The Pleven Regional Historical Museum is another popular tourist attraction, while the Svetlin Rusev Donative Exhibition, situated in the former public baths, exhibits works by Bulgarian artists, as well as noted Western European art figures.

The Ivan Radoev Dramatic Theatre is the centre of theatrical life in Pleven. A number of community centres ( chitalishta ) are also active in the city.

Sport and recreation

Pleven is often regarded [ according to whom? ] as an important centre of sports in Bulgaria, with many noted Bulgarian sportspeople having been born and/or trained in the town, including Tereza Marinova and Galabin Boevski.

The city hosts two football clubs, Spartak Pleven and Belite orli, which have separate stadiums. Both teams play in the second Bulgarian league and haven't had any major successes in the past, although Spartak Pleven has been the first team for a couple of former Bulgarian internationals such as Plamen Getov.

Spartak Pleven is also a basketball team, a national championship winner in 1995 and national cup winner in 1996 (then named Plama Pleven). Other than that, the team is a regular first league participant.

Pleven is famous for its Kaylaka (where the ruins of the Storgosia fortification can be found) and Skobelev parks. The latter is home to the Pleven Panorama and is situated on the original location of the battle during the Russo-Turkish War.

Military

The Reserve Officers' School was in Pleven from 1961 to its closing on May 28, 2008. [16]

Notable natives

International relations

Twin towns – Sister cities

Pleven is twinned with:

Honours

See also

Related Research Articles

Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878) conflict of 1877–78

The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro. Fought in the Balkans and in the Caucasus, it originated in emerging 19th-century Balkan nationalism. Additional factors combined Russian goals of recovering territorial losses endured during the Crimean War, re-establishing itself in the Black Sea and supporting the political movement attempting to free Balkan nations from the Ottoman Empire.

Silistra Place in Bulgaria

Silistra is a port city in northeastern Bulgaria. The city lies on the southern bank of the lower Danube river, and is also the part of the Romanian border where it stops following the Danube. Silistra is the administrative center of the Silistra Province and one of the important cities of the historical region of Southern Dobruja.

Oltenița Municipality in Călărași County, Romania

Oltenița is a city in Romania in the Călărași County on the left bank of the Argeş River where its waters flows into the Danube.

Plevna may refer to:

Nikopol, Bulgaria town in Bulgaria

Nikopol is a town in northern Bulgaria, the administrative center of Nikopol municipality, part of Pleven Province, on the right bank of the Danube river, 4 kilometres downstream from the mouth of the Osam river. It spreads at the foot of steep chalk cliffs along the Danube and up a narrow valley. As of December 2009, the town has a population of 3,892 inhabitants.

Romanian War of Independence

The Romanian War of Independence is the name used in Romanian historiography to refer to the Russo-Turkish War (1877–78), following which Romania, fighting on the Russian side, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire. On April 16 [O.S. April 4] 1877, Romania and the Russian Empire signed a treaty at Bucharest under which Russian troops were allowed to pass through Romanian territory, with the condition that Russia respected the integrity of Romania. Consequently, the mobilization of the Romanian troops also began, and about 120,000 soldiers were massed in the south of the country to defend against an eventual attack of the Ottoman forces from south of the Danube. On April 24 [O.S. April 12] 1877, Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire and its troops entered Romania through the newly built Eiffel Bridge, on their way to the Ottoman Empire. Due to great losses, the Russian Empire asked Romania to intervene. On July 24 [O.S. July 12] 1877, the first Romanian Army units crossed the Danube and join forces with the Russian Army.

Pleven Panorama

Pleven Epopee 1877, more commonly known as Pleven Panorama, is a panorama located in Pleven, Bulgaria, that depicts the events of the Russian-Turkish War of 1877–78, specifically the five-month Siege of Plevna which made the city internationally famous and which contributed to the Liberation of Bulgaria after five centuries of Ottoman rule.

Svishtov Place in Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria

Svishtov is a town in northern Bulgaria, located in Veliko Tarnovo Province on the right bank of the Danube river opposite the Romanian town of Zimnicea. It is the administrative centre of the homonymous Svishtov Municipality. With a population of 35,923 inhabitants, as of December 2009, the town is the second-largest in the province after the city of Veliko Tarnovo and before Gorna Oryahovitsa.

Battle of Shipka Pass battle

The Battle of Shipka Pass consisted of four battles that were fought between the Russian Empire, aided by Bulgarian volunteers known as opalchentsi, and the Ottoman Empire for control over the vital Shipka Pass during the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878). The crucial moment came in August 1877, when a group of 5,000 Bulgarian volunteers and 2,500 Russian troops repulsed an attack against the peak by a nearly 40,000 strong Ottoman army.

Lovech Place in Bulgaria

Lovech is a city in north-central Bulgaria. It is the administrative centre of the Lovech Province and of the subordinate Lovech Municipality. The city is located about 150 kilometres northeast from the capital city of Sofia. Near Lovech are the towns of Pleven, Troyan and Teteven.

Osman Nuri Pasha Ottoman general

Osman Nuri Pasha, also known as Gazi Osman Pasha, was an Ottoman field marshal and the hero of the Siege of Plevna in 1877. Although unsuccessful in defending the city, he was awarded the title Gazi for gallantry in holding the city for five months against superior Russo-Romanian forces. In addition to his Adjutancy title, Osman received the Order of the Medjidie and the Imtiyaz Medal for his services to the Empire. He was made Marshal of the Palace by the Sultan and the Ottoman military anthem called Plevna March was composed for his achievements. The Istanbul suburb of Taşlıtarla was renamed Gaziosmanpaşa in his honour.

Shumen Place in Bulgaria

Shumen is the tenth largest city in Bulgaria and the administrative and economic capital of Shumen Province.

Pleven is a major town in Northern Bulgaria, capital of the Pleven Province.

Oryahovo Place in Vratsa, Bulgaria

Oryahovo is a port city in northwestern Bulgaria, part of Vratsa Province. It is located in a hilly country on the right bank of the Danube, just east of the mouth of the river Ogosta, a few more kilometres downstream from where the Jiu flows into the Danube on Romanian territory. The town is known for the ferry service that connects it to the Romanian town of Bechet across the river. There are also plans by local private companies for a bridge across the Danube. As of December 2009, Oryahovo has a population of 5,400 inhabitants.

Knezha Place in Pleven, Bulgaria

Knezha is a town in Pleven Province, Northern Bulgaria. It is the administrative center of the homonymous Knezha Municipality. As of December 2009, the town has a population of 11,191 inhabitants.

Skobelev Park is a museum park in the vicinity of Pleven, Bulgaria. It was built between 1904 and 1907 on the very battlefield of the Siege of Plevna during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78, specifically the third assault of General Mikhail Skobelev's detachment between 30 August and 11 September 1877.

Grivitsa

Grivitsa is a village in Pleven Municipality, Pleven Province, central northern Bulgaria. It is primarily known as the site of one of the key engagements in the Siege of Plevna during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878.

Pordim Place in Pleven, Bulgaria

Pordim is a town in Pleven Province in central northern Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Pordim Municipality. The town is 155 metres above sea level in the Danubian Plain. In December 2009 the population was 2,117.

References

  1. 1 2 3 (in Bulgarian) National Statistical Institute - Main Towns Census 2014 Archived 8 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  2. "Stringmeteo – Pleven Climate". Stringmeteo. 2011. Retrieved June 20, 2012.
  3. Wikisource-logo.svg Crowe, John Henry Verinder (1911). "Plevna § Investment and Fall of Plevna"  . In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica . 21 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 840.
  4. "The Balkan Wars", Andre Gerolymatos, 2002, Basic Books, p.204
  5. "Struggle for Mastery", Taylor, pp.239–241
  6. 1 2 (in Bulgarian) National Statistical Institute - Towns population 1956-1992 [ permanent dead link ]
  7. (in English) Bulgarian National Statistical Institute Archived 8 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  8. (in English) „WorldCityPopulation“
  9. "„pop-stat.mashke.org"".
  10. (in Bulgarian) Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Archived 6 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  11. (in Bulgarian) Population on 01.02.2011 by provinces, municipalities, settlements and age; National Statistical Institute
  12. Population by province, municipality, settlement and ethnic identification, by 01.02.2011; Bulgarian National Statistical Institute (in Bulgarian)
  13. "District Pleven | National statistical institute". www.nsi.bg. Retrieved 2017-12-26.
  14. "EURES - Labour market information - Pleven - European Commission". ec.europa.eu.
  15. "Predavatel • Радио и телевизия в Плевен, Radio & Television in Pleven". www.predavatel.com. Retrieved 18 October 2008.
  16. bg:Школа за запасни офицери
  17. "Kardeş Şehirler". Bursa Büyükşehir Belediyesi Basın Koordinasyon Merkez. Tüm Hakları Saklıdır. Retrieved 2013-07-27.
  18. www.davidkidd.net/20Plevna.html Archived 17 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine .

Sources