Pleven

Last updated

Pleven
Плевен (Bulgarian)
Pleven, July 2019.jpg
Pleven - paraklis "Sv. Georgi Pobedonosets" - panoramio (2).jpg
Pleven mart 2014 - panoramio (1).jpg
Pleven Town Hall Todor Bozhinov.jpg
Panorama "Plevenska epopeia 1877g.".JPG
Pleven Railway Station.jpg
Kayluka lake 2.jpg
Storgosia TB 4.jpg
Pleven
Pleven-coat-of-arms.svg
Bulgaria location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Location of Pleven
Balkans relief location map.jpg
Red pog.svg
Pleven (Balkans)
Europe blank laea location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Pleven (Europe)
Coordinates: 43°24′28″N24°37′13″E / 43.40778°N 24.62028°E / 43.40778; 24.62028 Coordinates: 43°24′28″N24°37′13″E / 43.40778°N 24.62028°E / 43.40778; 24.62028
Country Bulgaria
Province
(Oblast)
Pleven
Government
  MayorGeorg Spartanski (Reformist Bloc, IMRO-BNM)
Area
   City 85 km2 (33 sq mi)
Elevation
116 m (381 ft)
Population
 (2020) [1]
   City 100 952
   Urban
113,164
Time zone UTC+2 (EET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal Code
5800
Area code(s) 064
Website Official website

Pleven (Bulgarian : Плèвенpronounced  [ˈplɛvɛn] ) is the seventh most populous city in Bulgaria. Located in the northern part of the country, it is the administrative centre of Pleven Province, as well as of the subordinate Pleven municipality. It is the biggest economic center in Northwestern Bulgaria. As of the 2021 census its population is 89,823.

Contents

Internationally known for the siege of Plevna of 1877, it is today a major economic centre of the Bulgarian Northwest and Central North and the third largest city of Northern Bulgaria after Varna and Ruse.

Name

The name comes from the Slavic word plevnya ("barn") or from plevel, meaning "weed", sharing the same root, and the Slavic suffix -en.

Geography

Pleven is in an agricultural region in the middle of the Danubian Plain, the historical region of Moesia, surrounded by low limestone hills, the Pleven Heights. The city's central location in Northern Bulgaria defines its importance as a big administrative, economic, political, cultural and transport centre. Pleven is 170 kilometres (106 miles) away from the capital city of Sofia, 320 km (199 miles) west of the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast and 50 km (31 miles) south of the Danube.

The river Vit flows near the city and the tiny Tuchenitsa river (commonly known in Pleven as Barata, literally "The Streamlet") crosses it.

Climate

Pleven's climate is temperate continental. Winters are cool, with much snow: temperatures usually fall below −20 °C (−4 °F) overnight. Springs are warm, with temperatures around 20 °C (68 °F). Summers are warm, and temperatures have exceeded 38–44 °C (100–111 °F) on occasion. The average annual temperature is around 13 °C (55.4 °F).

Climate data for Pleven, Bulgaria
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)22.8
(73.0)
24.0
(75.2)
31.2
(88.2)
35.1
(95.2)
37.5
(99.5)
38.4
(101.1)
44
(111)
41.8
(107.2)
40.8
(105.4)
38.3
(100.9)
28.8
(83.8)
23.4
(74.1)
44
(111)
Average high °C (°F)1.3
(34.3)
4.6
(40.3)
10.3
(50.5)
18.1
(64.6)
23.1
(73.6)
26.7
(80.1)
29.3
(84.7)
29.4
(84.9)
25.4
(77.7)
18.2
(64.8)
10.5
(50.9)
4.1
(39.4)
16.8
(62.2)
Daily mean °C (°F)−2.2
(28.0)
0.6
(33.1)
5.4
(41.7)
12.5
(54.5)
17.4
(63.3)
21.0
(69.8)
23.4
(74.1)
22.9
(73.2)
18.6
(65.5)
12.4
(54.3)
6.4
(43.5)
0.7
(33.3)
11.6
(52.9)
Average low °C (°F)−5.5
(22.1)
−3.3
(26.1)
0.9
(33.6)
6.8
(44.2)
11.5
(52.7)
14.8
(58.6)
16.7
(62.1)
16.1
(61.0)
12.3
(54.1)
7.2
(45.0)
2.9
(37.2)
−2.0
(28.4)
6.5
(43.7)
Record low °C (°F)−29.3
(−20.7)
−22.2
(−8.0)
−18.9
(−2.0)
−5.7
(21.7)
0.6
(33.1)
3.4
(38.1)
8.7
(47.7)
8.9
(48.0)
−0.6
(30.9)
−6.5
(20.3)
−20.4
(−4.7)
−24
(−11)
−29.3
(−20.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches)39
(1.5)
34
(1.3)
33
(1.3)
52
(2.0)
68
(2.7)
81
(3.2)
63
(2.5)
40
(1.6)
38
(1.5)
44
(1.7)
45
(1.8)
41
(1.6)
578
(22.8)
Source: Stringmeteo [2]

History

Prehistory and antiquity

The earliest traces of human settlement in the area date from the 5th millennium BC, the Neolithic.

The central streets of Pleven Pleven Antistene 4.jpg
The central streets of Pleven

Numerous archaeological findings, among them the Nikolaevo treasure found in Bulgaria, evidence for the rich culture of the Thracians, who inhabited the area for thousands of years.

In the beginning of the new era, the region became part of the Roman province of Moesia, and a road station called Storgosia arose near present-day Pleven on the road from Oescus (near modern Gigen) to Philippopolis (now Plovdiv). It later evolved into a fortress. One of the most valued archaeological monuments in Bulgaria from the period is the Early Christian basilica from the fourth century discovered near the modern city.

Middle Ages

Pleven Regional Historical Museum Pleven TodorBozhinov October 2009 (1).jpg
Pleven Regional Historical Museum

During the Middle Ages, Pleven was a well-developed stronghold of the First and the Second Bulgarian Empire. When Slavs populated the region, they gave the settlement its contemporary name Pleven, it was first mentioned in a charter by Hungarian king Stephen V in 1270 in connection to a military campaign in the Bulgarian lands.

Ottoman rule

During the Ottoman rule, Pleven, known as Plevne in Ottoman Turkish, preserved its Bulgarian appearance and culture. Many churches, schools and bridges were built at the time of the Bulgarian National Revival. In 1825, the first secular school in the town was opened, followed by the first girls' school in Bulgaria in 1840, as well as the first boys' school a year later. Pleven was the place where the Bulgarian national hero Vasil Levski established the first revolutionary committee in 1869, part of his national revolutionary network.

Siege of Plevna

The city (then mostly known as Plevna outside Bulgaria) was a major battle scene during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 that Russian Tsar Alexander II held for the purpose of the liberation of Bulgaria. The joint Russian and Romanian army paid dearly for the victory, but it paved the path to the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in this war, the restoration of Bulgaria as a state and the independence of Romania from the Ottoman Empire. It cost the Russians and Romanians 5 months and 38,000 casualties to take the town after four assaults, in what was one of the decisive battles of the war. The siege is remembered as a landmark victory of the Romanian War of Independence, as on 28 November 1877 the Plevna citadel capitulated, and Osman Pasha surrendered the city, the garrison and his sword to the Romanian Colonel Mihail Cerchez.

Pleven Panorama, one of the town's best known sights Pleven-Panorama-outside.JPG
Pleven Panorama, one of the town's best known sights

In the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition of 1911 J.H.V. Crowe concluded his lengthy entry on Pleven (transcribed as Plevna) with the memorable dictum:

Plevna is a striking example of the futility of the purely passive defence, which is doomed to failure however tenaciously carried out... Victories which are not followed up are useless. War without strategy is mere butchery. [3]

On the other hand, the siege of Plevna stands out among other countless sieges and military actions in the region because of its significance. [4] Without this fortress slowing the Russian onslaught, which gave the Great Powers time to intercede, Constantinople would have been repossessed by a Christian army once more.

Plevna is one of the few engagements that changed the course of history. [5]

Modern history

The events of the Russo-Turkish War proved crucial for the development of Pleven as a key town of central northern Bulgaria. The town experienced significant demographic and economic growth in the following years, gradually establishing itself as a cultural centre of the region.

The Bulgarian Agrarian National Union, a leading interwar party representing the Bulgarian peasantry, was founded in the town in December 1899.

Prior to the Bulgarian orthographic reform of 1945, the name of the town was spelled Плѣвенъ (with yat) in Cyrillic.

Population

The town hall of Pleven Pleven Town Hall Todor Bozhinov.jpg
The town hall of Pleven

According to census 2021, Pleven has a population of 89,823 inhabitants as of December 2021. [6] The ethnic breakdown is 97% Bulgarians among others. The number of the residents of the city reached its peak in the period 1988-1991 when exceeded 135,000. [7] The following table presents the change of the population after 1887.

Pleven
Year18871910193419461956196519751985199220012005200920112021
Population14,30723,04931,52039,05957,55578,933107,883129,863130,747121,880113,700111,426106,95489,823
Highest number 130,747 in 1992
Sources: National Statistical Institute, [8] [7] [9] [10] citypopulation.de, [11] pop-stat.mashke.org, [12] Bulgarian Academy of Sciences [13]

Ethnic, linguistic and religious composition

According to the 2011 census data, the individuals declared their ethnic identity were distributed as follows: [14] [15]

Total: 106,954

In Pleven Municipality 112,414 declared as Bulgarians, 4626 as Gypsies, 3204 as Turks and 10,384 did not declare their ethnic group. Most Roma people in Pleven Municipality live in the village of Bukovlak (bg:Буковлък).

An overwhelming majority of 90% of Pleven's residents are Eastern Orthodox Christian. The Diocese of Nikopol, of which Pleven is part, is one of the two Roman Catholic dioceses in Bulgaria, and another 5% of the residents are Roman Catholic by faith, a significant number compared to other Bulgarian cities.

Pleven has three Eastern Orthodox churches, the Bulgarian National Revival St Nicholas Church (1834) that was constructed at the place of a chapel from the Second Bulgarian Empire, the St Paraskeva Church (1934) and the Holy Trinity Church, built in 1870 at the place of a church mentioned as early as 1523 and inaugurated by Exarch Antim I. As of 2005, a new Eastern Orthodox church is being built in the Strogoziya quarter.

The construction of a large Roman Catholic church of Our Lady of Fatima began in 2001. A mosque also exists in the town to serve the needs of the Muslim population, as well as a Methodist church that is situated on the site of the former local puppet theatre.

Economy

Two banks in central Pleven Pleven TodorBozhinov October 2009 (4).jpg
Two banks in central Pleven

A major centre of oil processing, metalworking, machinery construction, of light and food industries in Socialist times. However, the late 1990s and early 2000s saw a revival of light industry [ citation needed ] and the development of branches such as knitwear and store clothes production. Tourism, which had attracted many people from the Soviet Union prior to 1989, and had experienced a slump in the following years, is on the rise again. [ citation needed ]

In 2015, the unemployment rate in Pleven district was 9.2%. [16]

The most important economic sectors in Pleven are chemical, textiles and foodstuffs industries, the manufacturing of cement and glass, machine building, tailoring, agriculture, retail and services. [17] The city has seen a number of major foreign investments in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Particularly noticeable is the mass construction of hypermarkets, with two Billa, two Kaufland, two Carrefour (in construction- first one to open in MALL PLEVEN in 2011), DM, Plus (in construction), ELEMAG, METRO, two LIDL stores, a Praktiker, bauMax and a number of other hypermarkets being opened as of 2006. The Pleven City Center and Central Mall Pleven were opened in 2008.

Transport

The international railway Sofia — Bucharest — Moscow runs through Pleven. The international road E 83 passes just north of the city. The national A2 Hemus highway Sofia — Varna is projected to pass 16 km (10 mi) south of Pleven.

Over 90% of the inner city transportation in Pleven is maintained by trolleybuses. There are 14 trolleybus lines, and 75 km (47 mi) trolleybus network. The trolleybus fleet consist of ZIU-682 (1985–1988) and Skoda 26-TR Solaris trolleybuses, produced in 2014. A project for 12 km (7 mi) trolleybus routes extension is underway. When the extension is completed Pleven will become 100% covered by trolleybus transport. [ citation needed ]

Transmitter

Near Pleven, there is a large facility for medium wave and short wave broadcasting. Pleven medium wave transmitter, working on 594 kHz, uses as antenna two 250 metres (820 feet) tall guyed mast radiators insulated against ground. These masts belong to the tallest structures of Bulgaria. [18]

Museum of the Liberation of Pleven Pleven TodorBozhinov October 2009 (3).jpg
Museum of the Liberation of Pleven

Main sights

Most of the sights of the town are related to the Russo-Turkish War. The monuments related to the war alone are about 200. Some of the more popular include the St George the Conqueror Chapel Mausoleum in honour of the many Russian and Romanian soldiers who lost their lives during the siege of Plevna and the ossuary in Skobelev Park. Another popular attraction is Pleven Panorama, created after (and reputedly larger than) the Borodino Panorama in Russia on the occasion of the anniversary of the siege of Plevna.

Culture

The Pleven Regional Historical Museum is another popular tourist attraction, while the Svetlin Rusev Donative Exhibition, situated in the former public baths, exhibits works by Bulgarian artists, as well as noted Western European art figures.

The Ivan Radoev Dramatic Theatre is the centre of theatrical life in Pleven. A number of community centres ( chitalishta ) are also active in the city.

Medical University - Pleven, one of the five medical universities in Bulgaria, was established in 1974, aiming to expand the horizons, size and reputation of the City Hospital, founded in 1865.

Sport and recreation

Pleven is often regarded [ according to whom? ] as an important centre of sports in Bulgaria, with many noted Bulgarian sportspeople having been born and/or trained in the town, including Tereza Marinova and Galabin Boevski.

The city hosts two football clubs, Spartak Pleven and Belite orli, which have separate stadiums. Both teams play in the second Bulgarian league and haven't had any major successes in the past, although Spartak Pleven has been the first team for a couple of former Bulgarian internationals such as Plamen Getov.

Spartak Pleven is also a basketball team, a national championship winner in 1995 and national cup winner in 1996 (then named Plama Pleven). Other than that, the team is a regular first league participant.

Pleven is famous for its Kaylaka (where the ruins of the Storgosia fortification can be found) and Skobelev parks. The latter is home to the Pleven Panorama and is situated on the original location of the battle during the Russo-Turkish War.

Notable natives

International relations

Twin towns – sister cities

Pleven is twinned with: [19]

Honours

See also

Related Research Articles

Vidin City in Bulgaria

Vidin is a port city on the southern bank of the Danube in north-western Bulgaria. It is close to the borders with Romania and Serbia, and is also the administrative centre of Vidin Province, as well as of the Metropolitan of Vidin.

Silistra Town in Bulgaria

Silistra is a town in Northeastern Bulgaria. The town lies on the southern bank of the lower Danube river, and is also the part of the Romanian border where it stops following the Danube. Silistra is the administrative center of the Silistra Province and one of the important towns of the historical region of Southern Dobrudzha.

Sevlievo Place in Gabrovo, Bulgaria

Sevlievo is a town in north-central Bulgaria, part of Gabrovo Province. Sevlievo is known as one of the wealthiest towns in Bulgaria owing to the well developed local economy, high employment rate and major foreign investments, such as the American Standard Companies factory. It is the administrative centre of the homonymous Sevlievo Municipality.

Vratsa Town in Bulgaria

Vratsa is the largest city in northwestern Bulgaria and the administrative and economic centre of the municipality of Vratsa and Vratsa district. It is located about 112 km north of Sofia, 40 km southeast of Montana.

Stara Zagora City in Bulgaria

Stara Zagora is the fifth-largest agglomeration in Bulgaria, and the administrative capital of the homonymous Stara Zagora Province located in the historical region of Thrace.

Pleven Panorama

Pleven Epopee 1877, more commonly known as Pleven Panorama, is a panorama located in Pleven, Bulgaria, that depicts the events of the Russian-Turkish War of 1877–78, specifically the five-month Siege of Plevna which made the city internationally famous and which contributed to the Liberation of Bulgaria after five centuries of Ottoman rule.

Siege of Plevna 1877 battle of the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)

The siege of Plevna, or siege of Pleven, was a major battle of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878, fought by the joint army of Russia and Romania against the Ottoman Empire. After the Russian army crossed the Danube at Svishtov, it began advancing towards the centre of modern Bulgaria, with the aim of crossing the Balkan Mountains to Constantinople, avoiding the fortified Turkish fortresses on the Black Sea coast. The Ottoman army led by Osman Pasha, returning from Serbia after a conflict with that country, was massed in the fortified city of Pleven, a city surrounded by numerous redoubts, located at an important road intersection.

Lovech Place in Bulgaria

Lovech (Bulgarian: Ловеч, romanized: Lovech, pronounced [ˈɫɔvɛt͡ʃ]; is a city in north-central Bulgaria. It is the administrative centre of the Lovech Province and of the subordinate Lovech Municipality. The city is located about 150 kilometres northeast from the capital city of Sofia. Near Lovech are the towns of Pleven, Troyan and Teteven.

Razgrad Place in Bulgaria

Razgrad is a city in Northeastern Bulgaria in the valley of the Beli Lom river that falls within the historical and geographical region of Ludogorie (Deliorman). It is an administrative center of Razgrad Province.

Shumen Town in Bulgaria

Shumen is the tenth largest city in Bulgaria and the administrative and economic capital of Shumen Province.

Aytos Place in Burgas, Bulgaria

Aytos, sometimes written Aitos and Ajtos, is a town located in eastern Bulgaria some 30 kilometers from the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast and belonging to the administrative boundaries of Burgas Province. It is the administrative centre of the homonymous Aytos Municipality. As of December 2021, the town has a population of 18974 inhabitants.

Yambol Town in Bulgaria

Yambol is a town in Southeastern Bulgaria and administrative centre of Yambol Province. It lies on both banks of the Tundzha river in the historical region of Thrace. It is occasionally spelled Jambol.

Targovishte City in Bulgaria

Targovishte is a city in Bulgaria, the administrative and economic capital of Targovishte Province.

Samokov Town in Sofia, Bulgaria

Samokov is a town in Sofia Province in the southwest of Bulgaria. It is situated in a basin between the mountains Rila and Vitosha, 55 kilometres from the capital Sofia. Due to the suitable winter sports conditions, Samokov, together with the nearby resort Borovets, is a major tourist centre.

Montana, Bulgaria Town in Montana, Bulgaria

Montana is a town in Northwestern Bulgaria, located 50 kilometres south of the Danube river, 40 kilometres northwest of Vratsa and 30 kilometres east of the Serbian border. It is the administrative centre of Montana Province.

Dupnitsa Town in Kyustendil Province, Bulgaria

Dupnitsa, or Dupnica, is a town in Western Bulgaria. It is at the foot of the highest mountain in the Balkan Peninsula – the Rila Mountain, and about 50 km (31 mi) south of the capital Sofia. Dupnitsa is the second largest town in Kyustendil Province.

Gorna Oryahovitsa Town in Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria

Gorna Oryahovitsa is a town in northern Bulgaria, situated in Veliko Tarnovo Province, 10 km (6 mi) from Veliko Tarnovo. It is the administrative centre of the homonymous Gorna Oryahovitsa Municipality. According to the 2021 Census, the town has a population of 27,317 inhabitants.

Rakovski (town) Place in Plovdiv, Bulgaria

Rakovski is a town in southern Bulgaria, in the historical region of Thrace. It is located in the Plovdiv Province. The town is also the centre of the Rakovski Municipality. Rakovski was founded in 1966 with the merging of three villages — General Nikolaevo, Sekirovo and Parchevich. The new town was named after the prominent Bulgarian revolutionary Georgi Sava Rakovski.

Peshtera Place in Bulgaria

Peshtera is a town in the Rhodope Mountains, southern Bulgaria. It is located in Pazardzhik Province near the towns of Batak and Bratsigovo. The town is the third largest in the province after Pazardzhik and Velingrad and is the forty-fifth largest in Bulgaria. It is the administrative center of the municipality Peshtera. According to the 2021 census, Peshtera has a population of 15,175 inhabitants. At about 5 km to the south, along the road to Batak, is one of the most visited caves in Bulgaria — Snezhanka. Near the town is located the Peshtera Hydroelectric Power Station. The town is well known for producing the alcohol beverage mastika under the brand Peshterska.

Popovo is a town in northeastern Bulgaria, part of Targovishte Province. It is the administrative centre of the homonymous Popovo Municipality. In 2021, it had a population of 13,324 and an absolute Bulgarian majority.

References

  1. https://nsi.bg/bg/content/2975/%D0%BD%D0%B0%D1%81%D0%B5%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B5-%D0%BF%D0%BE-%D0%BE%D0%B1%D0%BB%D0%B0%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B8-%D0%BE%D0%B1%D1%89%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B8-%D0%BC%D0%B5%D1%81%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%B6%D0%B8%D0%B2%D0%B5%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B5-%D0%B8-%D0%BF%D0%BE%D0%BB
  2. "Stringmeteo – Pleven Climate". Stringmeteo. 2011. Archived from the original on 4 April 2020. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
  3. Crowe, John Henry Verinder (1911). "Plevna § Investment and Fall of Plevna"  . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica . Vol. 21 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 840.
  4. "The Balkan Wars", Andre Gerolymatos, 2002, Basic Books, p.204
  5. "Struggle for Mastery", Taylor, pp.239–241
  6. (in Bulgarian)
  7. 1 2 (in Bulgarian) National Statistical Institute - Towns population 1956-1992 [ permanent dead link ]
  8. (in Bulgarian) National Statistical Institute - Main Towns Census 2014 Archived 8 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  9. (in English) Bulgarian National Statistical Institute Archived 8 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  10. https://nsi.bg/bg/content/2975/%D0%BD%D0%B0%D1%81%D0%B5%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B5-%D0%BF%D0%BE-%D0%BE%D0%B1%D0%BB%D0%B0%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B8-%D0%BE%D0%B1%D1%89%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B8-%D0%BC%D0%B5%D1%81%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%B6%D0%B8%D0%B2%D0%B5%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B5-%D0%B8-%D0%BF%D0%BE%D0%BB
  11. (in English) „WorldCityPopulation“ Archived 31 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ""pop-stat.mashke.org"". Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 30 December 2010.
  13. (in Bulgarian) Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Archived 6 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  14. (in Bulgarian) Population on 01.02.2011 by provinces, municipalities, settlements and age; National Statistical Institute Archived 8 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  15. Population by province, municipality, settlement and ethnic identification, by 01.02.2011; Bulgarian National Statistical Institute Archived 22 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine (in Bulgarian)
  16. "District Pleven | National statistical institute". www.nsi.bg. Archived from the original on 26 December 2017. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  17. "EURES - Labour market information - Pleven - European Commission". ec.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 3 May 2018. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
  18. "Predavatel • Радио и телевизия в Плевен, Radio & Television in Pleven". www.predavatel.com. Archived from the original on 7 October 2008. Retrieved 18 October 2008.
  19. "Побратимени градове". pleven.bg (in Bulgarian). Pleven. Archived from the original on 25 September 2019. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
  20. www.davidkidd.net/20Plevna.html Archived 17 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine .

Sources