Pleven

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Pleven

Плевен (Bulgarian)
Pleven, July 2019.jpg
Pleven - paraklis "Sv. Georgi Pobedonosets" - panoramio (2).jpg
Pleven mart 2014 - panoramio (1).jpg
Pleven Town Hall Todor Bozhinov.jpg
Panorama "Plevenska epopeia 1877g.".JPG
Pleven Railway Station.jpg
Kayluka lake 2.jpg
Storgosia TB 4.jpg
Pleven
Pleven-coat-of-arms.svg
Coat of arms
Bulgaria location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Location of Pleven
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Red pog.svg
Pleven (Europe)
Coordinates: 43°24′28″N24°37′13″E / 43.40778°N 24.62028°E / 43.40778; 24.62028 Coordinates: 43°24′28″N24°37′13″E / 43.40778°N 24.62028°E / 43.40778; 24.62028
Country Bulgaria
Province
(Oblast)
Pleven
Government
  MayorGeorg Spartanski (Reformist Bloc, IMRO-BNM)
Area
   City 85 km2 (33 sq mi)
Elevation
116 m (381 ft)
Population
 (End of 2018)
   City 96,610
  Density1,100/km2 (2,900/sq mi)
   Urban
131,152
Time zone UTC+2 (EET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal Code
5800
Area code(s) 064
Website Official website

Pleven (Bulgarian : Плèвенpronounced  [ˈplɛvɛn] ) is the seventh most populous city in Bulgaria. Located in the northern part of the country, it is the administrative centre of Pleven Province, as well as of the subordinate Pleven municipality. It is the biggest economic center in Northwestern Bulgaria. At the end of 2018 its population is 96,610.

Contents

Internationally known for the siege of Plevna of 1877, it is today a major economic centre of the Bulgarian Northwest and Central North and the third largest city of Northern Bulgaria after Varna and Ruse.

Name

The name comes from the Slavic word plevnya ("barn") or from plevel, meaning "weed", sharing the same root, and the Slavic suffix -en.

Geography

Pleven is in an agricultural region in the middle of the Danubian Plain, the historical region of Moesia, surrounded by low limestone hills, the Pleven Heights. The city's central location in Northern Bulgaria defines its importance as a big administrative, economic, political, cultural and transport centre. Pleven is 170 kilometres (106 miles) away from the capital city of Sofia, 320 km (199 miles) west of the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast and 50 km (31 miles) south of the Danube.

The river Vit flows near the city and the tiny Tuchenitsa river (commonly known in Pleven as Barata, literally "The Streamlet") crosses it.

Climate

Pleven's climate is temperate continental. Winters are cool, with much snow: temperatures usually fall below −20 °C (−4 °F) overnight. Springs are warm, with temperatures around 20 °C (68 °F). Summers are warm, and temperatures have exceeded 38–44 °C (100–111 °F) on occasion. The average annual temperature is around 13 °C (55.4 °F).

Climate data for Pleven, Bulgaria
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)22.8
(73.0)
24.0
(75.2)
31.2
(88.2)
35.1
(95.2)
37.5
(99.5)
38.4
(101.1)
44
(111)
41.8
(107.2)
40.8
(105.4)
38.3
(100.9)
28.8
(83.8)
23.4
(74.1)
44
(111)
Average high °C (°F)1.3
(34.3)
4.6
(40.3)
10.3
(50.5)
18.1
(64.6)
23.1
(73.6)
26.7
(80.1)
29.3
(84.7)
29.4
(84.9)
25.4
(77.7)
18.2
(64.8)
10.5
(50.9)
4.1
(39.4)
16.8
(62.2)
Daily mean °C (°F)−2.2
(28.0)
0.6
(33.1)
5.4
(41.7)
12.5
(54.5)
17.4
(63.3)
21.0
(69.8)
23.4
(74.1)
22.9
(73.2)
18.6
(65.5)
12.4
(54.3)
6.4
(43.5)
0.7
(33.3)
11.6
(52.9)
Average low °C (°F)−5.5
(22.1)
−3.3
(26.1)
0.9
(33.6)
6.8
(44.2)
11.5
(52.7)
14.8
(58.6)
16.7
(62.1)
16.1
(61.0)
12.3
(54.1)
7.2
(45.0)
2.9
(37.2)
−2.0
(28.4)
6.5
(43.7)
Record low °C (°F)−29.3
(−20.7)
−22.2
(−8.0)
−18.9
(−2.0)
−5.7
(21.7)
0.6
(33.1)
3.4
(38.1)
8.7
(47.7)
8.9
(48.0)
−0.6
(30.9)
−6.5
(20.3)
−20.4
(−4.7)
−24
(−11)
−29.3
(−20.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches)39
(1.5)
34
(1.3)
33
(1.3)
52
(2.0)
68
(2.7)
81
(3.2)
63
(2.5)
40
(1.6)
38
(1.5)
44
(1.7)
45
(1.8)
41
(1.6)
578
(22.8)
Source: Stringmeteo [1]

History

Prehistory and antiquity

The earliest traces of human settlement in the area date from the 5th millennium BC, the Neolithic.

The central streets of Pleven Pleven Antistene 4.jpg
The central streets of Pleven

Numerous archaeological findings, among them the Nikolaevo treasure found in Bulgaria, evidence for the rich culture of the Thracians, who inhabited the area for thousands of years.

In the beginning of the new era, the region became part of the Roman province of Moesia, and a road station called Storgosia arose near present-day Pleven on the road from Oescus (near modern Gigen) to Philippopolis (now Plovdiv). It later evolved into a fortress. One of the most valued archaeological monuments in Bulgaria from the period is the Early Christian basilica from the fourth century discovered near the modern city.

Middle Ages

Pleven Regional Historical Museum Pleven TodorBozhinov October 2009 (1).jpg
Pleven Regional Historical Museum

During the Middle Ages, Pleven was a well-developed stronghold of the First and the Second Bulgarian Empire. When Slavs populated the region, they gave the settlement its contemporary name Pleven, it was first mentioned in a charter by Hungarian king Stephen V in 1270 in connection to a military campaign in the Bulgarian lands.

Ottoman rule

During the Ottoman rule, Pleven, known as Plevne in Ottoman Turkish, preserved its Bulgarian appearance and culture. Many churches, schools and bridges were built at the time of the Bulgarian National Revival. In 1825, the first secular school in the town was opened, followed by the first girls' school in Bulgaria in 1840, as well as the first boys' school a year later. Pleven was the place where the Bulgarian national hero Vasil Levski established the first revolutionary committee in 1869, part of his national revolutionary network.

Siege of Plevna

The city (then mostly known as Plevna outside Bulgaria) was a major battle scene during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 that Russian Tsar Alexander II held for the purpose of the liberation of Bulgaria. The joint Russian and Romanian army paid dearly for the victory, but it paved the path to the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in this war, the restoration of Bulgaria as a state and the independence of Romania from the Ottoman Empire. It cost the Russians and Romanians 5 months and 38,000 casualties to take the town after four assaults, in what was one of the decisive battles of the war. The siege is remembered as a landmark victory of the Romanian War of Independence, as on 28 November 1877 the Plevna citadel capitulated, and Osman Pasha surrendered the city, the garrison and his sword to the Romanian Colonel Mihail Cerchez.

Pleven Panorama, one of the town's best known sights Pleven-Panorama-outside.JPG
Pleven Panorama, one of the town's best known sights

In the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition of 1911 J.H.V. Crowe concluded his lengthy entry on Pleven (transcribed as Plevna) with the memorable dictum:

Plevna is a striking example of the futility of the purely passive defence, which is doomed to failure however tenaciously carried out... Victories which are not followed up are useless. War without strategy is mere butchery. [2]

On the other hand, the siege of Plevna stands out among other countless sieges and military actions in the region because of its significance. [3] Without this fortress slowing the Russian onslaught, which gave the Great Powers time to intercede, Constantinople would have been repossessed by a Christian army once more.

Plevna is one of the few engagements that changed the course of history. [4]

Modern history

The events of the Russo-Turkish War proved crucial for the development of Pleven as a key town of central northern Bulgaria. The town experienced significant demographic and economic growth in the following years, gradually establishing itself as a cultural centre of the region.

The Bulgarian Agrarian National Union, a leading interwar party representing the Bulgarian peasantry, was founded in the town in December 1899.

Prior to the Bulgarian orthographic reform of 1945, the name of the town was spelled Плѣвенъ (with yat) in Cyrillic.

Population

The town hall of Pleven Pleven Town Hall Todor Bozhinov.jpg
The town hall of Pleven

According to census 2011, Pleven has a population of 106,954 inhabitants as of February 2011. [5] The ethnic breakdown is 97% Bulgarians among others. The number of the residents of the city reached its peak in the period 1988-1991 when exceeded 135,000. [6] The following table presents the change of the population after 1887.

Pleven
Year18871910193419461956196519751985199220012005200920112013
Population14,30723,04931,52039,05957,55578,933107,883129,863130,747121,880113,700111,426106,954 ??
Highest number 130,747 in 1992
Sources: National Statistical Institute, [5] [6] [7] citypopulation.de, [8] pop-stat.mashke.org, [9] Bulgarian Academy of Sciences [10]

Ethnic, linguistic and religious composition

According to the latest 2011 census data, the individuals declared their ethnic identity were distributed as follows: [11] [12]

Total: 106,954

In Pleven Municipality 112,414 declared as Bulgarians, 4626 as Gypsies, 3204 as Turks and 10,384 did not declare their ethnic group. Most Roma people in Pleven Municipality live in the village of Bukovlak (bg:Буковлък).

An overwhelming majority of 90% of Pleven's residents are Eastern Orthodox Christian. The Diocese of Nikopol, of which Pleven is part, is one of the two Roman Catholic dioceses in Bulgaria, and another 5% of the residents are Roman Catholic by faith, a significant number compared to other Bulgarian cities.

Pleven has three Eastern Orthodox churches, the Bulgarian National Revival St Nicholas Church (1834) that was constructed at the place of a chapel from the Second Bulgarian Empire, the St Paraskeva Church (1934) and the Holy Trinity Church, built in 1870 at the place of a church mentioned as early as 1523 and inaugurated by Exarch Antim I. As of 2005, a new Eastern Orthodox church is being built in the Strogoziya quarter.

The construction of a large Roman Catholic church of Our Lady of Fatima began in 2001. A mosque also exists in the town to serve the needs of the Muslim population, as well as a Methodist church that is situated on the site of the former local puppet theatre.

Economy

Two banks in central Pleven Pleven TodorBozhinov October 2009 (4).jpg
Two banks in central Pleven

A major centre of oil processing, metalworking, machinery construction, of light and food industries in Socialist times. However, the late 1990s and early 2000s saw a revival of light industry [ citation needed ] and the development of branches such as knitwear and store clothes production. Tourism, which had attracted many people from the Soviet Union prior to 1989, and had experienced a slump in the following years, is on the rise again. [ citation needed ]

In 2015, the unemployment rate in Pleven district was 9.2%. [13]

The most important economic sectors in Pleven are chemical, textiles and foodstuffs industries, the manufacturing of cement and glass, machine building, tailoring, agriculture, retail and services. [14] The city has seen a number of major foreign investments in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Particularly noticeable is the mass construction of hypermarkets, with two Billa, two Kaufland, two Carrefour (in construction- first one to open in MALL PLEVEN in 2011), DM, Plus (in construction), ELEMAG, METRO, two LIDL stores, a Praktiker, bauMax and a number of other hypermarkets being opened as of 2006. The Pleven City Center and Central Mall Pleven were opened in 2008.

Transport

The international railway Sofia — Bucharest — Moscow runs through Pleven. The international road E 83 passes just north of the city. The national A2 Hemus highway Sofia — Varna is projected to pass 16 km (10 mi) south of Pleven. Over 90% of the inner city transportation in Pleven is maintained by trolleybuses. There are 14 trolleybus lines, and 75 km (47 mi) trolleybus network. The trolleybus fleet consist of ZIU-682 (1985–1988) and Skoda 26-TR Solaris trolleybuses, produced in 2014. A project for 12 km (7 mi) trolleybus routes extension is underway. When the extension is completed Pleven will become 100% covered by trolleybus transport. [ citation needed ]

Transmitter

Near Pleven, there is a large facility for medium wave and short wave broadcasting. Pleven medium wave transmitter, working on 594 kHz, uses as antenna two 250 metres (820 feet) tall guyed mast radiators insulated against ground. These masts belong to the tallest structures of Bulgaria. [15]

Museum of the Liberation of Pleven Pleven TodorBozhinov October 2009 (3).jpg
Museum of the Liberation of Pleven

Main sights

Most of the sights of the town are related to the Russo-Turkish War. The monuments related to the war alone are about 200. Some of the more popular include the St George the Conqueror Chapel Mausoleum in honour of the many Russian and Romanian soldiers who lost their lives during the siege of Plevna and the ossuary in Skobelev Park. Another popular attraction is Pleven Panorama, created after (and reputedly larger than) the Borodino Panorama in Russia on the occasion of the anniversary of the siege of Plevna.

Culture

The Pleven Regional Historical Museum is another popular tourist attraction, while the Svetlin Rusev Donative Exhibition, situated in the former public baths, exhibits works by Bulgarian artists, as well as noted Western European art figures.

The Ivan Radoev Dramatic Theatre is the centre of theatrical life in Pleven. A number of community centres ( chitalishta ) are also active in the city.

Medical University - Pleven,is one of the five medical universities in Bulgaria, was established in 1974, aiming to expand the horizons, size and reputation of the City Hospital, founded in 1865.

Sport and recreation

Pleven is often regarded [ according to whom? ] as an important centre of sports in Bulgaria, with many noted Bulgarian sportspeople having been born and/or trained in the town, including Tereza Marinova and Galabin Boevski.

The city hosts two football clubs, Spartak Pleven and Belite orli, which have separate stadiums. Both teams play in the second Bulgarian league and haven't had any major successes in the past, although Spartak Pleven has been the first team for a couple of former Bulgarian internationals such as Plamen Getov.

Spartak Pleven is also a basketball team, a national championship winner in 1995 and national cup winner in 1996 (then named Plama Pleven). Other than that, the team is a regular first league participant.

Pleven is famous for its Kaylaka (where the ruins of the Storgosia fortification can be found) and Skobelev parks. The latter is home to the Pleven Panorama and is situated on the original location of the battle during the Russo-Turkish War.

Notable natives

International relations

Twin towns – Sister cities

Pleven is twinned with: [16]

Honours

See also

Related Research Articles

Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878) Conflict between the Ottoman and Russian empires

The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro. Fought in the Balkans and in the Caucasus, it originated in emerging 19th-century Balkan nationalism. Additional factors included Russian goals of recovering territorial losses endured during the Crimean War of 1853–56, re-establishing itself in the Black Sea and supporting the political movement attempting to free Balkan nations from the Ottoman Empire.

Silistra Town in Bulgaria

Silistra is a town in Northeastern Bulgaria. The town lies on the southern bank of the lower Danube river, and is also the part of the Romanian border where it stops following the Danube. Silistra is the administrative center of the Silistra Province and one of the important towns of the historical region of Southern Dobrudzha.

Oltenița Municipality in Călărași, Romania

Oltenița is a city in Muntenia, Romania in the Călărași County on the left bank of the river Argeș where its waters flows into the Danube.

Pleven Province Province of Bulgaria

Pleven Province is a province located in central northern Bulgaria, bordering the Danube river, Romania and the Bulgarian provinces of Vratsa, Veliko Tarnovo and Lovech. It is divided into 11 subdivisions, called municipalities, that embrace a territory of 4,653.32 km2 (1,796.66 sq mi) with a population, as of February 2011, of 269 752 inhabitants. The province's capital is the city of Pleven.

Nikopol, Bulgaria town in northern Bulgaria

Nikopol is a town in northern Bulgaria, the administrative center of Nikopol Municipality, part of Pleven Province, on the right bank of the Danube river, 4 kilometres downstream from the mouth of the Osam river. It spreads at the foot of steep chalk cliffs along the Danube and up a narrow valley. As of December 2009, the town has a population of 3,892 inhabitants.

Romanian War of Independence Independence War of Romania in the early days.

The Romanian War of Independence is the name used in Romanian historiography to refer to the Russo-Turkish War (1877–78), following which Romania, fighting on the Russian side, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire. On April 16 [O.S. April 4] 1877, Romania and the Russian Empire signed a treaty at Bucharest under which Russian troops were allowed to pass through Romanian territory, with the condition that Russia respected the integrity of Romania. Consequently, the mobilization of the Romanian troops also began, and about 120,000 soldiers were massed in the south of the country to defend against an eventual attack of the Ottoman forces from south of the Danube. On April 24 [O.S. April 12] 1877, Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire and its troops entered Romania through the newly built Eiffel Bridge, on their way to the Ottoman Empire. Due to great losses, the Russian Empire asked Romania to intervene. On July 24 [O.S. July 12] 1877, the first Romanian Army units crossed the Danube and joined forces with the Russian Army.

Pleven Panorama

Pleven Epopee 1877, more commonly known as Pleven Panorama, is a panorama located in Pleven, Bulgaria, that depicts the events of the Russian-Turkish War of 1877–78, specifically the five-month Siege of Plevna which made the city internationally famous and which contributed to the Liberation of Bulgaria after five centuries of Ottoman rule.

Svishtov Town in Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria

Svishtov is a town in northern Bulgaria, located in Veliko Tarnovo Province on the right bank of the Danube river opposite the Romanian town of Zimnicea. It is the administrative centre of the homonymous Svishtov Municipality. With a population of 35,923 inhabitants, as of December 2009, the town is the second-largest in the province after the city of Veliko Tarnovo and before Gorna Oryahovitsa.

Siege of Plevna Battle in the Russo–Turkish War of 1877–1878

The siege of Plevna, or siege of Pleven, was a major battle of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878, fought by the joint army of Russia and Romania against the Ottoman Empire. After the Russian army crossed the Danube at Svishtov, it began advancing towards the centre of modern Bulgaria, with the aim of crossing the Balkan Mountains to Constantinople, avoiding the fortified Turkish fortresses on the Black Sea coast. The Ottoman army led by Osman Pasha, returning from Serbia after a conflict with that country, was massed in the fortified city of Pleven, a city surrounded by numerous redoubts, located at an important road intersection.

Lovech Place in Bulgaria

Lovech (Bulgarian: Ловеч, romanized: Lovech, pronounced [ˈɫɔvɛt͡ʃ]; is a city in north-central Bulgaria. It is the administrative centre of the Lovech Province and of the subordinate Lovech Municipality. The city is located about 150 kilometres northeast from the capital city of Sofia. Near Lovech are the towns of Pleven, Troyan and Teteven.

Osman Nuri Pasha Ottoman field marshal

Osman Nuri Bey then Pasha, also known as Gazi Osman Pasha, was an Ottoman field marshal who commanded Ottoman forces during the Siege of Plevna in 1877. Although unsuccessful in defending the city, he was awarded the title of Gazi for gallantry in holding the city for five months against superior Russo-Romanian forces. In addition to his Adjutancy title, Osman received the Order of the Medjidie and the Imtiyaz Medal for his services to the Empire. He was made Marshal of the Palace by the Sultan and the Ottoman military anthem called Plevna March was composed for his achievements. The Istanbul suburb of Taşlıtarla was renamed Gaziosmanpaşa in his honour.

Razgrad Place in Bulgaria

Razgrad is a city in Northeastern Bulgaria in the valley of the Beli Lom river that falls within the historical and geographical region of Ludogorie. It is an administrative center of Razgrad Province.

Shumen Town in Bulgaria

Shumen is the tenth largest city in Bulgaria and the administrative and economic capital of Shumen Province.

Pazardzhik City in Bulgaria

Pazardzhik is a city situated along the banks of the Maritsa river, southern Bulgaria. It is the capital of Pazardzhik Province and centre for the homonymous Pazardzhik Municipality.

Tutrakan Place in Silistra, Bulgaria

Tutrakan is a town in northeastern Bulgaria, an administrative centre of the homonymous municipality, part of Silistra Province. It is situated on the right bank of the Danube opposite the Romanian town of Oltenița, in the very west of Southern Dobruja, 58 km east of Rousse and 62 km west of Silistra. As of December 2009, the town has a population of 9,476 inhabitants.

Omurtag (town) Place in Targovishte, Bulgaria

Omurtag is a town at the eastern foot of Stara Planina in northeastern Bulgaria, part of Targovishte Province, situated at 525 m above sea level. It is the administrative centre of the homonymous Omurtag Municipality. As of February 2011, the town has a population of 7,369 inhabitants.

Novi Pazar, Shumen Province Place in Shumen, Bulgaria

Novi Pazar is a town in Shumen Province, northeastern Bulgaria, located in a hollow between the Shumen, Ludogorie and Provadiya plateaus, on the banks of the Kriva Reka. It is the administrative centre of the homonymous Novi Pazar Municipality. As of December 2009, the town has a population of 12,673 inhabitants.

Aksakovo, Bulgaria Place in Varna, Bulgaria

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Grivitsa

Grivitsa is a village in Pleven Municipality, Pleven Province, central northern Bulgaria. It is primarily known as the site of one of the key engagements in the Siege of Plevna during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878.

Pordim Place in Pleven, Bulgaria

Pordim is a town in Pleven Province in central northern Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Pordim Municipality. The town is 155 metres above sea level in the Danubian Plain. In December 2009 the population was 2,117.

References

  1. "Stringmeteo – Pleven Climate". Stringmeteo. 2011. Archived from the original on 4 April 2020. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
  2. Crowe, John Henry Verinder (1911). "Plevna § Investment and Fall of Plevna"  . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica . 21 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 840.
  3. "The Balkan Wars", Andre Gerolymatos, 2002, Basic Books, p.204
  4. "Struggle for Mastery", Taylor, pp.239–241
  5. 1 2 (in Bulgarian) National Statistical Institute - Main Towns Census 2014 Archived 8 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  6. 1 2 (in Bulgarian) National Statistical Institute - Towns population 1956-1992 [ permanent dead link ]
  7. (in English) Bulgarian National Statistical Institute Archived 8 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  8. (in English) „WorldCityPopulation“ Archived 31 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ""pop-stat.mashke.org"". Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 30 December 2010.
  10. (in Bulgarian) Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Archived 6 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  11. (in Bulgarian) Population on 01.02.2011 by provinces, municipalities, settlements and age; National Statistical Institute Archived 8 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  12. Population by province, municipality, settlement and ethnic identification, by 01.02.2011; Bulgarian National Statistical Institute Archived 22 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine (in Bulgarian)
  13. "District Pleven | National statistical institute". www.nsi.bg. Archived from the original on 26 December 2017. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  14. "EURES - Labour market information - Pleven - European Commission". ec.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 3 May 2018. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
  15. "Predavatel • Радио и телевизия в Плевен, Radio & Television in Pleven". www.predavatel.com. Archived from the original on 7 October 2008. Retrieved 18 October 2008.
  16. "Побратимени градове". pleven.bg (in Bulgarian). Pleven. Archived from the original on 25 September 2019. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
  17. www.davidkidd.net/20Plevna.html Archived 17 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine .

[1]

Sources

  1. "Home". Медицински Университет - Плевен. Archived from the original on 23 February 2020. Retrieved 14 February 2020.