Pljevlja

Last updated
Pljevlja

Пљевља
Gradpv.jpg
Pljevlja Hotel Plevlja.JPG
Het klooster van de Heilige Drie-eenheid - Pljevlja.jpg
Pljevlja Mosque 3.JPG
Pljevlja Power station.JPG
Klaster Nejsvetejsi Trojice v Pljevljich, 18. stol.jpg
Pljevlja Mosque 1.JPG
View of Pljevlja
Montenegro adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Pljevlja
Location within Montenegro
Coordinates: 43°21′24″N19°21′30″E / 43.356667°N 19.358333°E / 43.356667; 19.358333
Country Flag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro
Municipality Pljevlja-grb.png Pljevlja
FoundedBetween the 6th and 7th centuries
Settlements153
Government
  MayorIgor Golubović (DPS)
Area
   Town and municipality 1,346 km2 (520 sq mi)
Population
 (2011 census)
  Density27/km2 (70/sq mi)
   Urban
19,489
   Rural
11,297
  Municipality
30,786
Time zone UTC+1
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
84210
Area code +382  52
ISO 3166-2 code ME-14
Car plates PV
Climate Cfb
Website http://www.pljevlja.me/

Pljevlja (Serbian Cyrillic : Пљевља, pronounced  [pʎêʋʎa] ) [1] is a town and the center of Pljevlja Municipality located in the northern part of Montenegro. The city lies at an altitude of 770 m (2,530 ft). In the Middle Ages, Pljevlja had been a crossroad of the important commercial roads and cultural streams, with important roads connecting the littoral with the Balkan interior. In 2011, the municipality of Pljevlja had a population of 30,786, while the city itself had a population of about 19,489 making it the third largest urban settlement in Montenegro. The municipality borders those of Žabljak, Bijelo Polje and Mojkovac in Montenegro, as well as Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina to the east and west respectively. With a total area of 1,346 km2 (520 sq mi), it is the third largest municipality in Montenegro.

Contents

History

Prehistory and antiquity

The first traces of human life in the region date between 50,000 and 40,000 BC, while reliable findings show that the Ćehotina River valley was inhabited no later than 30,000 BC. The oldest traces of human presence in the town area, a flint tool, had been found in the cave under Gospić Peak. The traces of settlements in the later stages of the Stone Age were found in two large archaeological sites called Mališina Stijena and Medena Stijena (around 10,000 stone tools and arms), dating to 12,000–8,000 BC. During the Bronze and Iron Age, since around 2,000 BC up until the Roman conquests, a large number of necropolises with tumuli, as well as fortified settlements rose along the Ćehotina valley, especially around villages of Mataruge, Kakmuža, Hoćevina and Gotovuša. The tumuli found in Ljutići, Gotovuša and Borovica have been archeologically researched.

Roman era

The first attested tribe in the region was called the Pirustae, an Illyrian Pannonian tribe, existed until the Roman invasion in the 1st century AD.[ citation needed ] The Romans had a town built on the ruins of their town, and it was called Municipium S,[ citation needed ] located in the Komini neighbourhood. Several hundred artifacts from the Komini necropolis including a unique not damaged Pljevlja diatreta are kept in the Heritage Museum Pljevlja the richest museum in Montenegro.The Roman house was found in the necropolis Within the borders of present-day Montenegro, Municipium S was located in the Byzantine Empire it's clear indicates the Pljevlja diatreta inscription "VIVAS PANELLENI BONA". The most valuable object is the diatreta or cage cup, a glass vase trimmed with blue glass threads which is considered to be priceless.

Middle Ages

In the Middle Ages, the region of Pljevlja was also a part of nucleus of the Serbian state under the Nemanjić dynasty, until the end of the rule of the Emperor Stefan Dušan. After his death, Pljevlja was under the rule of Serbian autonomous rulers Vojislav Vojinović and Nikola Altomanović. After the defeat of Altomanović 1373 by the joint forces of Serbian lord Lazar Hrebeljanović and Bosnian Ban Tvrtko I, the region of Pljevlja became part of the eastern section of the Kingdom of Bosnia, subsequently part of Sandalj Hranić's province and later the Duchy of Saint Sava.

Ottoman Empire

Pljevlja was located within the Ottoman Sanjak of Novi Pazar. In 1880 the town became the capital of the Pljevaljski Sanjak (Sanjak of Taslica) of the Ottoman Empire, which existed until the First Balkan War in 1912. Sanjak of Novibazar.png
Pljevlja was located within the Ottoman Sanjak of Novi Pazar. In 1880 the town became the capital of the Pljevaljski Sanjak (Sanjak of Taşlıca) of the Ottoman Empire, which existed until the First Balkan War in 1912.

In 1465, the Ottoman Empire conquered Pljevlja. During the Ottoman offensive, the fortress of Kukanj, the residence of Stjepan Vukčić Kosača, was destroyed. Fearing an onslaught, many merchants, almost all feudal land owners and wealthier population fled from Pljevlja, seeking refuge in the Republic of Venice, Republic of Ragusa, or further north into the Kingdom of Hungary or Austrian Empire. In Turkish, the town was known as Taslıdja ("rocky").

In the Ottoman defter (census book) of 1475/76, the majority of local inhabitants were Eastern Orthodox Christian, numbering some 101 households. The town was expanded into a kasaba, a larger Ottoman city without a fortress. The 15th and 16th centuries were a period of much construction in the city: in 1465 the Holy Trinity Monastery was founded, in 1569 Husein-paša's mosque was built and during the 16th century the city got a sewage system. When the center of Sanjak of Herzegovina was moved to Pljevlja from Foča in 1572, the city started to change rapidly: urban housing increased: 72 houses in 1468, 150 in 1516, 300 in 1570; in the 17th century Pljevlja had around 650 houses in the city center and over 400 in the surrounding area. The first Muslim religious school (madrasa), was built in the 17th century; water-works were constructed in the 18th century. The Russian consul visited Pljevlja in the 19th century and wrote that Pljevlja was a very beautiful oriental city with gardens and fountains, mosques and churches and over 800 houses in the city center (7,000 citizens) which made Pljevlja the second largest city in the Herzegovina Sanjak besides Mostar. After two big fires that burned the city center to the ground, the city's economy was ruined. That was the reason for displacing the center of Herzegovina to Mostar in 1833. After 1833 the city stagnated in both an economic and cultural sense.

In 1875, after a failed uprising, mass emigration took place around Pljevlja in the direction of Užice, Valjevo and the Drina river basin. [2]

Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman control after the Berlin Congress

As a result of the Congress of Berlin in 1878, Pljevlja and the rest of the Sandžak region were given to Austria-Hungary, interrupting Ottoman rule in the area for the first time in four centuries. However, by 1879, a special convention between Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Empire transferred western parts of the Sanjak of Novi Pazar into dual jurisdiction between Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire. In 1880, Pljevlja was named the capital of the newly formed Sanjak of Pljevlja (in Turkish: Taşlıca Sancağı). Administration remained in Turkish hands, with Austro-Hungarian military presence in the cities of Pljevlja, Prijepolje and Priboj. Some 5,000 Austro-Hungarian soldiers and their families came to Pljevlja. As a result, Austro-Hungarian businesses expanded in Pljevlja; the first modern drug store was opened in 1879, a photo store in 1892, and a hospital in 1880. The Austro-Hungarian Army built the first brewery in Pljevlja in 1889. [3] The Pljevlja brewery's annual production was limited to 2,000 hectoliters, and demand was greater than what the brewery could produce. [3] As a result, the Austro-Hungarian garrison in Pljevlja consumed most of the beer produced there. [3]

In 1901, the Pljevlja Gymnasium was built by the Serbian Orthodox Church, with the approval of the Ottoman administration. As a result of the Bosnian crisis, Austria-Hungary withdrew its forces from Pljevlja in 1908. From 1908 to 1912, Pljevlja remained under the control of Young Turks. In the first days of the First Balkan War Pljevlja was freed on October 26, 1912.

Incorporation into Montenegro and Yugoslavia

On October 8, 1912, Montenegro was the first of the Balkan states to declare war on the Ottoman Empire, starting the First Balkan War. As a result, territories with significant populations of Serbs and Montenegrins were subject to conflict between the Ottoman occupation and incoming armies of Serbia and Montenegro. This was particularly the case with Sandžak, in which Pljevlja had been wedged in an Ottoman Sanjak between Montenegro and Serbia. By October 28, 1912, Ottoman forces had been completely removed from Pljevlja when the Royal Serbian Army's Javorska brigade arrived, which was accompanied by 150 soldiers from Montenegro. [4] With the departure of Ottoman forces, Montenegro and Serbia eliminated the Ottoman "wedge" in the Sandžak and now shared a border. On November 13, 1913, a formal border agreement between Serbia and Montenegro was signed by Serbian general Miloš Božanović and Montenegro's Minister of Education and Religious Affairs, Mirko Mijušković. As a result of this agreement, Pljevlja was formally incorporated into the Kingdom of Montenegro. [4]

From 1929 to 1941, Pljevlja was part of the Zeta Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. At the beginning of the Second World War Pljevlja, like the rest of Sandžak, was occupied by NDH Ustaše forces. Notable Muslims from Pljevlja, Bijelo Polje and Prijepolje wrote to Pavelić and expressed their loyalty to the Independent State of Croatia allegedly in the name of all Muslims of Sandjak. [5] By September 1941 Ustaše left Sandžak which was occupied by Italian forces within Italian governorate of Montenegro. The Battle of Pljevlja, fought on 1 December 1941 between attacking Partisans and the Italian Pljevlja garrison, was the biggest battle of the Uprising in Montenegro. In April 1942 Italians established a battalion of Sandžak Muslim militia in Metaljka, near Čajniče, composed of about 500 Muslims from villages around Pljevlja and Čajniče. A little later a command post of Sandžak Muslim militia was established in Bukovica, near Pljevlja. In February 1943, over five hundred civilians were killed during the Bukovica massacre.

Since the end of 1943 Pljevlja belonged to the German occupied territory of Montenegro and after the war to Yugoslav Socialist Republic of Montenegro.

Breakup of Yugoslavia

During the breakup of Yugoslavia, Pljevlja was the site of intense tension, with its Muslim community subject to intimidation and violence. On August 6, 1992, a local warlord named Milika "Čeko" Dačević walked into Pljevlja's police headquarters to ask that a vehicle which was seized be returned to his personal envoy, threatening to "declare war" on Pljevlja. [6] Over half of the police force turned themselves over to Dačević during his custody in what was essentially a coup d'état on a municipal level. [6] [7] [8] In addition to the stand-off with Dačević, his militia included forces of the Kornjača brothers from Čajniče, who helped blocked off the town from a garrison of the Yugoslav People's Army. [7] Duško Kornjača threatened to kill all of the Muslims in Pljevlja unless Dačević was released. [6] The militia's control over Pljevlja was strong enough that the Yugoslav People's Army garrison in Pljevlja, composed of only 73 soldiers, [6] refused to confront them. [7] On August 7, 1992, Momir Bulatović and Yugoslav President Dobrica Ćosić came to Pljevlja to negotiate with all parties involved. [8] As a result, Bulatović along with Ćosić promised the Islamic community in Pljevlja that they would attempt to disarm the paramilitaries [9] and add reinforcements of the Yugoslav People's Army to patrol the town. [7] To satisfy the militia, Bulatović and Ćosić asked the local Muslims not to seek autonomy, although they had not done so over the course of the meeting. [9] In spite of the resolution, Pljevlja's Muslim community suffered various incidents up to 1995, particularly in the village of Bukovica where 6 Muslim inhabitants were killed from 1992 onwards. [10]

Contemporary history

In 2008, some members of the municipal assembly of Pljevlja threatened a secession from Montenegro following the Montenegrin recognition of Kosovo. [11] On 2 September, glass was broken on the door of the Islamic Community of Pljevlja and a message was left saying "The black bird has taken off, Pljevlja will be Srebrenica." [12]

Geography

The city lies at an altitude of 770 m (2,530 ft). The municipality borders those of Žabljak, Bijelo Polje and Mojkovac in Montenegro, as well as the republics of Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. With a total area of 1,346 km2 (520 sq mi), it is the third largest municipality in Montenegro.

Climate

Climate data for Pljevlja (1961–1990, extremes 1948–present)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)16.4
(61.5)
22.7
(72.9)
25.0
(77.0)
29.3
(84.7)
33.1
(91.6)
34.7
(94.5)
37.3
(99.1)
38.7
(101.7)
36.3
(97.3)
29.5
(85.1)
25.6
(78.1)
17.3
(63.1)
38.7
(101.7)
Average high °C (°F)1.8
(35.2)
5.3
(41.5)
9.7
(49.5)
14.2
(57.6)
19.5
(67.1)
22.5
(72.5)
24.8
(76.6)
25.2
(77.4)
21.7
(71.1)
16.5
(61.7)
9.5
(49.1)
3.0
(37.4)
14.5
(58.1)
Daily mean °C (°F)−2.8
(27.0)
−0.1
(31.8)
3.6
(38.5)
8.0
(46.4)
12.8
(55.0)
15.5
(59.9)
17.4
(63.3)
17.0
(62.6)
13.6
(56.5)
9.0
(48.2)
3.9
(39.0)
−1.2
(29.8)
8.1
(46.5)
Average low °C (°F)−6.9
(19.6)
−4.6
(23.7)
−1.5
(29.3)
2.2
(36.0)
6.3
(43.3)
9.4
(48.9)
10.6
(51.1)
10.2
(50.4)
7.5
(45.5)
3.5
(38.3)
−0.4
(31.3)
−4.9
(23.2)
2.6
(36.7)
Record low °C (°F)−29.4
(−20.9)
−26.2
(−15.2)
−21
(−6)
−10.1
(13.8)
−3.8
(25.2)
−2.0
(28.4)
2.2
(36.0)
−0.2
(31.6)
−6.4
(20.5)
−7.6
(18.3)
−23.4
(−10.1)
−27
(−17)
−29.4
(−20.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches)58.3
(2.30)
48.1
(1.89)
48.2
(1.90)
60.7
(2.39)
68.8
(2.71)
91.4
(3.60)
72.8
(2.87)
67.0
(2.64)
69.5
(2.74)
68.5
(2.70)
82.5
(3.25)
66.3
(2.61)
802.1
(31.6)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)13121313131411101091213143
Average relative humidity (%)83787370717472727678818576
Mean monthly sunshine hours 50.879.0125.8146.6174.2179.7236.3224.0171.4132.272.635.71,628.3
Source: Hydrological and Meteorological Service of Montenegro [13] [14]

Culture

Culture and education are all present throughout history of Pljevlja and its region. The first educational life, churches and monasteries, as well as in the mosques some time later. The Holy Trinity Monastery (Pljevlja) is the richest treasury of cultural and spiritual life of the Orthodox Serbs from the Middle Ages to the present times. The school in the Holy Trinity Monastery has been working continuously since the 16th century. In 1823, a primary school in Pljevlja started working. The school in Dovolja monastery worked since the 18th century. The very important date in the history of education in Pljevlja is the opening of the Pljevaljska Gymnasium in 1901. The Heritage Museum Pljevlja is a treasure trove of rich historical and cultural heritage of the city and region.

Main features of the town include:

Economy

Coal mine near Pljevlja Pljevlja Tagebau.jpg
Coal mine near Pljevlja

Pljevlja is also one of the main economic engines of Montenegro. The only thermal power plant in Montenegro, which provides 45% of the electric power supply for Montenegro, is situated outside Pljevlja as well as the biggest coal mine with 100% of the coal production in Montenegro. Zinc and lead can be found in Šuplja stijena mine. The richest municipality with forest in Montenegro is Pljevlja and its lumber industry. Agriculture is widespread in the whole municipality. Pljevaljski sir (Pljevlja's cheese, from Пљеваљски сир) is considered a delicacy.

Demographics

Pljevlja is the administrative center of Pljevlja municipality, which has a population of 35,806. The town of Pljevlja itself has 19,136 citizens, and is the only town in the municipality with a population of over 1,000. The municipality has a majority of Serbs.

Population of Pljevlja (Town):

Ethnicity in 2011

EthnicityNumberPercentage
Serbs 17,56957.07%
Montenegrins 7,49424.34%
Bosniaks 2,1286.91%
ethnic Muslims 1,7395.65%
Albanians 170.06%
Croats 160.05%
Other1150.42%
not declared14484.62%
no data2050.55%
Total30,786100%

Sports

The main football team is FK Rudar Pljevlja , which play in the country's top tier. They share their Gradski stadion with lower league side FK Pljevlja 1997 . The town's basketball team is KK Rudar Pljevlja and the handball team is RK Rudar Pljevlja .

Transport

The main transit road connections are:

Twin towns – sister cities

Pljevlja Municipality is twinned with: [15]

Symbols

The coat of arms of Pljevlja has three lines near the bottom that represents the three rivers that run through the cities: Breznica, Ćehotina, and Vezičnica. First layer is clock tower from the center of Pljevlja and in the back are town-hall and the largest arc of bridge over Tara river which connects municipality of Pljevlja with the rest of the Montenegro. Colours are blue, red and white which represent the pan-Slavic tricolour system.

Notable people

Related Research Articles

History of Bosnia and Herzegovina History of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina, sometimes referred to simply as Bosnia, is a country in Southeast Europe on the Balkan Peninsula. It has had permanent settlement since the Neolithic Age. By the early historical period it was inhabited by Illyrians and Celts. Christianity arrived in the 1st century, and by the 4th century the area became part of the Western Roman Empire. Germanic tribes invaded soon after, followed by Slavs in the 6th Century. In 1136, Béla II of Hungary invaded Bosnia and created the title "Ban of Bosnia" as an honorary title for his son Ladislaus II of Hungary. During this time, Bosnia became virtually autonomous, and was eventually proclaimed a kingdom in 1377. The Ottoman Empire followed in 1463 and lasted over 400 years. They wrought great changes to the political and administrative system, introduced land reforms, and class and religious distinctions. A series of uprisings began 1831, which culminated in the Herzegovinian rebellion, a widespread peasant uprising, in 1875. The conflict eventually forced the Ottomans to cede administration of the country to Austria-Hungary through the Treaty of Berlin in 1878. The establishment of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929 brought the redrawing of administrative regions into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia which purposely avoided all historical and ethnic lines, and removed any trace of Bosnian identity. The kingdom of Yugoslavia was conquered by Nazi forces in World War II, and Bosnia was ceded to the Independent State of Croatia (NDH), which led to widespread persecution and genocide. Three years of war began in 1992 which caused around 100,000 deaths and 2 million refugees.

The history of Montenegro begins in the Early Middle Ages, into the former Roman province of Dalmatia that forms present-day Montenegro. In the 9th century, there were three principalities on the territory of Montenegro: Duklja, roughly corresponding to the southern half, Travunia, the west, and Rascia, the north. In 1042, Stefan Vojislav led a revolt that resulted in the independence of Duklja and the establishment of the Vojislavljević dynasty. Duklja reached its zenith under Vojislav's son, Mihailo (1046–81), and his grandson Bodin (1081–1101). By the 13th century, Zeta had replaced Duklja when referring to the realm. In the late 14th century, southern Montenegro (Zeta) came under the rule of the Balšić noble family, then the Crnojević noble family, and by the 15th century, Zeta was more often referred to as Crna Gora. Large portions fell under the control of the Ottoman Empire from 1496 to 1878. Parts were controlled by the Republic of Venice. From 1515 until 1851 the prince-bishops (vladikas) of Cetinje were the rulers. The House of Petrović-Njegoš ruled until 1918. From 1918, it was a part of Yugoslavia. On the basis of an independence referendum held on 21 May 2006, Montenegro declared independence on 3 June of that year.

Foča Town and municipality in Republika Srpska

Foča is a town and a municipality located in Republika Srpska in eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina, on the banks of Drina river. As of 2013, the town has a population of 12,234 inhabitants, while the municipality has 18,288 inhabitants.

Sandžak Geographical region in Serbia and Montenegro

Sandžak, also known as Sanjak, is a historical geo-political region in Serbia and Montenegro. The name Sandžak derives from the Sanjak of Novi Pazar, a former Ottoman administrative district founded in 1865. Serbs usually refer to the region by its medieval name of Raška.

Montenegrins

Montenegrins are a South Slavic ethnic group native to Montenegro.

Central Serbia

Central Serbia, also referred to as Serbia proper, is the region of Serbia lying outside the provinces of Vojvodina to the north and the disputed territory of Kosovo to the south. Central Serbia is a term of convenience, not an administrative division of Serbia as such, and does not have any form of separate administration.

Momir Bulatović Former President of Montenegro

Momir Bulatović was a Yugoslav and Montenegrin politician. He was the first President of the Republic of Montenegro from 1990 to 1998, after which he served as the Prime Minister of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1998 until 2000, when Slobodan Milošević was overthrown. He was a leader of the Montenegro's Democratic Party of Socialists from 1989 to 1997, when he split from DPS after a conflict with Milo Đukanović.

Trebinje City in Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Trebinje is a town and municipality located in the Republika Srpska entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is the southernmost city in Bosnia and Herzegovina and is situated on the banks of Trebišnjica river in the region of East Herzegovina. As of 2013, it has a population of 31,433 inhabitants. The city's old town quarter dates to the 18th-century Ottoman period, and includes the Arslanagić Bridge.

Kosovo Vilayet Administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire from 1877 to 1913

The Vilayet of Kosovo was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkan Peninsula which included the current territory of Kosovo and the north-western part of the Republic of North Macedonia. The areas today comprising Sandžak (Raška) region of Serbia and Montenegro, although de jure under Ottoman control, were in fact under Austro-Hungarian occupation from 1878 until 1909, as provided under Article 25 of the Treaty of Berlin. Uskub (Skopje) functioned as the capital of the province and the midway point between Istanbul and its European provinces. Uskub's population of 32,000 made it the largest city in the province, followed by Prizren, also numbering at 30,000.

Demographic history of Bosnia and Herzegovina

This article is about the Demographic history of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and deals with the country's documented demographics over time. For an overview of the various ethnic groups and their historical development, see Ethnic groups in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Sanjak of Novi Pazar

The Sanjak of Novi Pazar was an Ottoman sanjak that was created in 1865. It was reorganized in 1880 and 1902. The Ottoman rule in the region lasted until the First Balkan War (1912). The Sanjak of Novi Pazar included territories of present-day northeastern Montenegro and southwestern Serbia, also including some northern parts of Kosovo. The region is known as Sandžak.

Bosniaks of Serbia

Bosniaks are the fourth largest ethnic group in Serbia after Serbs, Hungarians and Roma, numbering 145,278 or 2.02% of the population according to the 2011 census. They are concentrated in south-western Serbia, and their cultural centre is Novi Pazar.

Bosniaks are an ethnic group in Montenegro, first introduced in the 2003 census. According to the last census from 2011, the total number of Bosniaks in Montenegro was 89.614 and they comprised 15% of population. Bosniaks are the third largest ethnic group in the country, after Montenegrins and Serbs.

Drobnjaci are historical tribe and region, Drobnjak, in Old Herzegovina in Montenegro. Its unofficial centre is in Šavnik. The Orthodox families have St. George (Đurđevdan) as their patron saint (slava) and the majority of Drobnjak churches are devoted to St. George as well. Families of distant Drobnjak origin are present in all former Yugoslav republics and in Hungary and Hungarian populated parts of Romania and Slovakia where it is spelled in its magyarised form as Drobnyák.

Old Herzegovina Historical region in parts of present-day Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Serbia

Old Herzegovina is a historical region, covering eastern parts of historical Herzegovina, outside the scope of modern Herzegovina. Major section of Old Herzegovina belongs to modern Montenegro, while minor section belongs to modern Serbia. The term also refers to former Herzegovinian regions in Upper Podrinje, in Bosnia and Herzegovina. All of those regions were parts of historical Herzegovina from the middle of the 15th century until 1878.

The Sanjak of Herzegovina was an Ottoman administrative unit established in 1470. The seat was in Foča until 1572 when it was moved to Taşlıca (Pljevlja). The sanjak was initially part of the Eyalet of Rumelia but was administrated into the Eyalet of Bosnia following its establishment in 1580.

Herzegovina Historical region in the Balkans

Herzegovina is the southern and smaller of two main geographical regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being Bosnia. It has never had strictly defined geographical or cultural-historical borders, nor has it ever been defined as an administrative whole in the geopolitical and economic subdivision of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Gradac, Pljevlja Town in Pljevlja, Montenegro

Gradac is a small town in the Pljevlja Municipality of northern Montenegro. It Montenegro's northernmost settlement with town status and is located in the Sandžak region close to the borders with Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia. Gradac is located along the road to the northwest of the town of Pljevlja; Flysch-like rocks are said to be "exposed in the area of Gradac village, on the Pljevlja-Gradac road".

The Sandžak Muslim militia was established in Sandžak and eastern Herzegovina in Axis occupied Yugoslavia between April or June and August 1941 during World War II. It was under control of the Independent State of Croatia until September 1941, when Italian forces gradually put it under their command and established additional units not only in Sandžak, but in eastern Herzegovina as well. After the capitulation of Italy in September 1943 it was put under German control, while some of its units were merged with three battalions of Albanian collaborationist troops to establish the "SS Polizei-Selbstschutz-Regiment Sandschak" under command of the senior Waffen SS officer Karl von Krempler.

The Bukovica massacre was a massacre of Muslims in Bukovica, Pljevlja, in the Axis-occupied Italian governorate of Montenegro. It took place on 4–7 February 1943, during Pavle Đurišić's Chetniks' 1943 cleansing campaign. The massacre was aimed at establishing Chetnik control over territories held by the Sandžak Muslim militia. After a short battle with the Muslim militia, Chetniks captured Bukovica and killed over five hundred civilians.

References

  1. https://lib.ugent.be/en/catalog/rug01:001632016, Xenia Slavica: Papers presented to Gojko Ružičić on the occasion of his seventy-fifth birthday, 2 February 1969. Gojko Ružičić (14 March 1894 to 26 February 1977) a Serbian-American linguist, who lived and worked in the United States. He was a professor emeritus at Columbia University and contributed significantly to the development of Slavic studies in the United States.
  2. Jovan Cvijić, Balkansko poluostrvo i južnoslovenske zemlje, Belgrade: Zavod za izdavanje udžbenika, 1966, pp. 151-152.
  3. 1 2 3 Goran Malidžan (March 10, 2013). "Od "pljevaljskog" ne ostade ni pjena". Vijesti (in Serbian). Retrieved March 2, 2019.
  4. 1 2 Adnan Prekić (December 12, 2012). "Politika Crne Gore u pljevaljskom kraju 1912/13 godine u izvještajima ministarstava Kraljevine Crne Gore" (in Serbian). Retrieved March 2, 2019.
  5. Knežević, Danilo (1969). Prilog u krvi: Pljevlja 1941-1945. Opštinski odbor SUBNOR-a.
  6. 1 2 3 4 "Kako su se paravojne jedinice otele kontroli". e-novine (in Serbian). May 20, 2011. Retrieved February 12, 2019.
  7. 1 2 3 4 K. Radević (September 27, 2010). "CRNOGORSKI ZLOČIN - BULATOVIĆ: PITAO SAM MILA O ČEMU SE RADI". Bošnjaci.net (in Bosnian). Retrieved February 12, 2019.
  8. 1 2 Morrison 2009, p. 120.
  9. 1 2 Morrison 2009, p. 121.
  10. Jakub Durgut (February 18, 2017). "Zločini bez kazne" (in Serbian). Danas . Retrieved February 12, 2019.
  11. Скупштина Црне Горе о демонстрацијама (in Serbian). Rts.rs. 2008-10-15. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
  12. "Polomljena stakla na vratima Islamske zajednice u PV, Kadribašić: Ako ne pronađu krivce policija odgovorna". vijesti.me (in Serbian). Retrieved 2 September 2020.
  13. "Climate: Pljevlja" (in Montenegrin). Hydrological and Meteorological Service of Montenegro. Retrieved 7 March 2021.
  14. "Dnevni prosjeci i ekstremi" (in Montenegrin). Hydrological and Meteorological Service of Montenegro. Retrieved 7 March 2021.
  15. "U Domu kulture obilježeno svečano otvaranje adaptiranih prostorija Muzeja, Biblioteke i Galerije". pljevlja.me (in Montenegrin). Pljevlja. 2019-11-19. Retrieved 2020-06-22.

Further reading

Coordinates: 43°21′24″N19°21′30″E / 43.35667°N 19.35833°E / 43.35667; 19.35833