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City of Požega
Church of the Holy Spirit
|• Mayor||Darko Puljašić (HDZ)|
|• City||133.91 km2 (51.70 sq mi)|
|Elevation||311 m (1,020 ft)|
|• Density||200/km2 (510/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|Area code||+385 34|
Požega (Croatian pronunciation: [pôʒeɡa] ) is a city in western Slavonia, eastern Croatia, with a total population of 26,248 (census 2011). It is the administrative center of the Požega-Slavonia County.
Between 1921 and 1991, the town was known as Slavonska Požega. [ unreliable source? ]In German, the town is known as Poschegg, in Hungarian as Pozsega, in Turkish as Pojega, and in Latin as Incerum (-i, n.) and Possega. There is a town in Serbia with same name (see: Požega, Serbia). "Požega" is supposed to be related to the Croatian word "požar", meaning "forest fire". "Incerum" is supposed to come from Proto-Indo-European words *h1eyn (valley) and *kjer (heart), so that it means "the heart of the valley".
Požega (elevation: 152 m (499 ft)) is located in the south-western part of the Valley of Požega, or Požega basin, in Croatian: Požeška kotlina. This fertile valley has been important since the antiquity - its Roman name was Vallis Aurea, meaning "golden valley".
The valley is formed by the Slavonian mountains of Požeška Gora, Psunj, Papuk, Krndija and Dilj.
Two state roads run concurrently through the city: the D38 Pakrac — Požega — Pleternica — Đakovo and the D51 Nova Gradiška — Požega — Našice, as well as a railroad: Nova Kapela/Batrina — Pleternica — Požega — Velika.
The total population of the city administrative area is 26,248, in the following settlements:
By ethnicity, the population is 93.24% Croats, 4.66% Serbs, 0.56% undeclared, 0.38% Albanians, 0.15% Czechs, and others.
The first mention of the city of Požega is found in the Gesta Hungarorum, by an anonymous notary of Béla III (1172–1196) where he mentions the conquest of three forts in Slavonia - as the area between rivers Danube and Sutla was then called: Zagreb, Vlco (Vukovar) and Posega. The fortress of Požega, an elongated hexagonal fortification located on a hill in the present-day city center, was probably built during the 11th century, although the first documents that clearly mention Požega county date from 1210, while the city of Požega was documented for the first time in a charter of Andrew II on January 11, 1227.
Požega was originally the residential estate of the Croatian-Hungarian queen and was exempt from the authority of the viceroy and the county. Although no such charter survives, the privileges that citizens enjoyed fully corresponded to a free royal city.
The fortress doesn't exist anymore, and the irregularly-shaped central city square is Romanic in nature. Only fragments of walls remain to remind that there once stood a fortress. The remaining monuments from that age are the Church of St. Lawrence (first mentioned in 1303), and the Church of the Holy Spirit (built in 1235).
By the late 14th century, the city started to decline economically due to insecurity from Ottoman raids. In the 15th century, city walls were built, replacing a moat that existed before. This proved an insufficient defense as the Turks seized Požega in 1537.
During the 150-year-long Ottoman rule, Požega was seat of a Sanjak of Požega and given certain prominence. After a considerable economic decline, in 1537, at the time of the Ottoman conquest, Požega reportedly had 110 houses and 15 businesses. However, by 1579, there were 160 craftsmen in Požega as a result of improved security and an increase in population.
The death of Hasan Predojević the Požega Sanjak Bey in the Battle of Sisak in 1593, marked the first Ottoman defeat in Europe, and after years of steady decline, Ottoman rule grew weaker until Požega was finally liberated on 12 March 1688 by citizens led by friar Luka Ibrišimović. This day is now celebrated as the day of the city. However, Ottomans retook Požega in 1690 and held for 1 year.
After the liberation in 1691, Požega came under Habsburg rule, and in 1745, Požega county was restored and the city thus returned to the authority of Croatian viceroy. Požega underwent a period of vigorous development: In 1699, a grammar school opened - only the fifth in Croatia. In 1727, Jesuits built a theatre, and in 1740, the city's first pharmacy. Today the city theater (Požega City Theater) is located on Square of the Holy Trinity (Trg Svetog Trojstva). There used to be also a philosophical college for Franciscan novices - the first such institution in Slavonia since the Ottoman rule. Finally, the Academia Posegana opened in 1760, placing Požega, along with Zagreb, among the first Croatian centres of highest education.
In 1765, Empress Maria Theresa granted Požega a royal free city charter and supported the construction of the present-day Cathedral of St.Teresa of Ávila.
In 1847, Požega was the first city in Croatia to introduce the Croatian language in official use, and the achievements of its notable citizens earned it the nickname of "Slavonian Athens".
In the late 19th century and early 20th century, Požega was the seat of the Požega County of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia.
From 1941 to 1945, Požega was part of the Independent State of Croatia. During this period war crimes were committed against the Serb and Jewish population, allegedly under former police chief Milivoj Ašner.
Požega County was abolished along with other Croatian counties in 1923, and was restored in 1993, following the independence of Croatia. Furthermore, in the footsteps of its tradition as an educational center as well as a church center, Požega became a diocesan see in 1997, and a graduate-degree college was opened in 1998.
Chief occupations include farming, viticulture, livestock breeding, metal-processing (foundry, machines and tractors, household appliances), foodstuffs (chocolate, sweets and drinks), textiles (ready-made), wood and timber, building material (bricks, roof tiles) and printing industries.
The city has an 800-year-old cultural and historical heritage. Its carefully cherished traditions underlie the tourist development of Požega.
The central town square with a number of nice buildings (the church of the Holy Spirit, the Franciscan monastery, the Town House, etc.) and a plague column is one of the most beautiful squares in Croatia.
Požega hosts a number of traditional cultural events and performances. Grgurevo or St. Gregory's Day is a traditional show of canons and mortars, exhibited on the central square (12 March). The event includes the mortar fire in Požega vineyards, which symbolizes the chasing of the Ottomans from the region and commemorates the victory over the Turks on Sokolovac Hill in 1688. The Croatian Minute Movie Cup — an international festival featuring one-minute-long movies — and the national dog show are held in May The events in June are St. John's Bonfire (21 June), Kulenijada— a special event dedicated to presentation and tasting of the very best kulen (Slavonian paprika-flavoured sausages), served with quality local wines.
The events in September are Fišijada (fishing and preparing of Slavonian-style fish specialities) and the important music festival Golden Strings of Slavonia (first weekend in September). This event is a contest of folk music performers and singers but also includes other events (grape harvest, beauty contest, the most "swaggering" peasant girl, national costumes show, etc.). Organ music evenings are organized on the occasion of the town's day and in commemoration of its patroness, St. Teresa of Avila (15 October). There is a quiz contest each April, "Spring Open Vallis Aurea" (SOVA), organized by the Quiz lover's club. SOVA arouse from Pub quiz, a popular event that is usually organized on Fridays bi-weekly, and become probably the largest independent quiz contest in the country.
There are three primary schools and seven secondary schools in Požega.
The Gymnasium in Požega was founded in 1699 and it is classified as one of the oldest educational institutions in the Republic of Croatia. In the period from 1761 to 1776 it was aligned among high schools under the name of Academia Posegana, with two faculties – the Faculty of Philosophy and the Faculty of Theology. It was attended by many famous people whose work is weaved into the scientific and cultural identity of Croatia and the Croatian people: o. Kajo Agjić, Vjekoslav Babukić, Dragutin Lerman, Antun Kanižlić, J. E. Tomić, Miroslav Kraljević and Matko Peić are only some of them.
Today the Gymnasium is an independent high school which carries out general and natural sciences-mathematics syllabus and curriculum.
Internationally, the most important sporting event in Požega is the annual international judo tournament held in October, organized by the local Judokan judo club.
Among other significant sporting events in Požega, in May there is a motocross race as a part of the Croatian championship, in June there is car race held on Glavica race track, and in September there is a basketball tournament.
The sports hall Grabrik, the Orljava river and the surrounding hills are the major sports and recreational areas of Požega. Angling opportunities are provided on the Orljava and Veličanka rivers, and there is also small game hunting in the lowlands and high game in the nearby hills. Traditional Slavonian specialities and wines are offered throughout the region.
On 17 May 2013 the first ever professional boxing event was held in Grabrik sports hall with Mark de Mori fighting Adnan Buharalija for the WBU Heavyweight World title. de Mori, whose wife Milijana Vojnovic is from Pozega, won the bout in the 5th round when Buharalija retired in his corner. The event was promoted by Pozegans Nail Mahmutović and Tomislav Jakobovic.
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Požega is twinned with:
Slavonia is, with Dalmatia, Croatia proper and Istria, one of the four historical regions of Croatia. Taking up the east of the country, it roughly corresponds with five Croatian counties: Brod-Posavina, Osijek-Baranja, Požega-Slavonia, Virovitica-Podravina and Vukovar-Syrmia, although the territory of the counties includes Baranya, and the definition of the western extent of Slavonia as a region varies. The counties cover 12,556 square kilometres or 22.2% of Croatia, inhabited by 806,192—18.8% of Croatia's population. The largest city in the region is Osijek, followed by Slavonski Brod and Vinkovci.
Đakovo is a town in the region of Slavonia, Croatia. Đakovo is the centre of the fertile and rich Đakovo region.
Sisak-Moslavina County is a Croatian county in eastern Central Croatia and southwestern Slavonia. It is named after the city of Sisak and the region Moslavina just across the river Sava. According to 2011 census it is inhabited by 172,000 people.
Bjelovar-Bilogora County is a county in central Croatia.
Požega-Slavonia County is a Croatian county in western Slavonia. Its capital is Požega. Its population was 78,034 as of the 2011 census.
Brod-Posavina County is the southern Slavonian county in Croatia. Its center is the city of Slavonski Brod and it spreads along the left bank of the Sava river, hence the name Posavina. Other notable towns include Nova Gradiška.
Nova Gradiška is a town located in the Brod-Posavina County of Croatia, population 14,229 (2011). It is located in the historic region of Slavonia, near the border to Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Kingdom of Slavonia was a province of the Habsburg Monarchy and the Austrian Empire that existed from 1699 to 1868. The province included northern parts of present-day regions of Slavonia and Syrmia. The southern parts of these regions were part of the Slavonian Military Frontier, which was a section of the Military Frontier.
Novska is a town in the Sisak-Moslavina County of Croatia. It is located in western part of the historic region of Slavonia, between Kutina and Nova Gradiška, 94 km (58 mi) linear distance southeast of the capital, Zagreb.
Šokci are a South Slavic ethnic group native to historical regions of Baranya, Bačka, Slavonia and Syrmia. These regions today span eastern Croatia, southwestern Hungary, and northern Serbia. They primarily self-identify as a subgroup of Croats and therefore they are not considered a separate ethnicity in Croatia and elsewhere.
Pakrac is a town in western Slavonia, Croatia, population 4,842, total municipality population 8,460. Pakrac is located on the road and railroad connecting the regions of Posavina and Podravina.
Velika is a village and a municipality in the Požega Valley in Slavonia.
Lipik is a town in western Slavonia, in the Požega-Slavonia County of northeastern Croatia. It is known for its spas, mineral water and Lipizzaner stables.
Pleternica is a town in the region of Slavonia, Croatia, 12 km (7.5 mi) southeast of Požega, in the Požega Valley. The population of the municipality is 11,323, with 3,418 in Pleternica itself (2011).
Požeška gora,, is a mountain located south of Požega, Croatia in the region of central Slavonia. The mountain is a part of Slavonian mountains enveloping the Požega Valley, located adjacent to Psunj to the east of Požeška gora, and to the west of Dilj. Požeška gora and Dilj are separated by a gap through which Orljava River flows south out of the Požega Valley. The highest peak of the mountain is Kapavac, 618 metres above sea level.
The Kingdom of Croatia was part of the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy from 1527, following the Election in Cetin, and the Austrian Empire from 1804 to 1867. It was also a part of the Lands of the Hungarian Crown, but was subject to direct Imperial Austrian rule for significant periods of time, including its final years. Its capital was Zagreb.
Srijemske Laze is a village in Stari Jankovci municipality, Vukovar-Syrmia County, Croatia. According to 2011 census there is 566 residents. The majority ethnic group in village are Serbs. Village is connected by the D46 highway.
Gradski Vrhovci is a village in Požega-Slavonia County, Croatia. The village is administered as a part of the City of Požega. According to national census of 2011, population of the village is 46.
Novi Mihaljevci is a village in Požega-Slavonia County, Croatia. The village is administered as a part of the City of Požega.
The Požega Valley is a geographic microregion of Croatia, located in central Slavonia, encompassing the eastern part of the Požega-Slavonia County. It is located in the Pannonian Basin, bounded by Psunj, Papuk and Krndija mountains from west and north, and Požeška Gora and Dilj from south and east, as the Pannonian plain is interspersed by horst and graben structures. The largest settlement in the region is the city of Požega, followed by Pleternica and Kutjevo. The main watercourse in the region is Orljava River. The region covers 1,249 square kilometres and has a population of 60,599.
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