Podgorica

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Podgorica
Подгорица
PodgoricaOverview.jpg
Podgorica Trg Republike.JPG
Radio tower Podgorica.jpg
Crnogorsko Narodno Pozoriste.JPG
Podgorica.JPG
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Podgorica panoramic view, Republic Square, Dajbabska Gora Tower, Montenegrin National Theatre building, Telenor Centre, Moscow and Millennium bridges
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Podgorica
Location of Podgorica in Montenegro
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Podgorica
Podgorica (Balkans)
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Podgorica
Podgorica (Europe)
Coordinates: 42°26′28.63″N19°15′46.41″E / 42.4412861°N 19.2628917°E / 42.4412861; 19.2628917 Coordinates: 42°26′28.63″N19°15′46.41″E / 42.4412861°N 19.2628917°E / 42.4412861; 19.2628917
Country Flag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro
Municipality Podgorica Coat of Arms.png Podgorica
FoundedBefore 11th century
Government
   Mayor Ivan Vuković (DPS)
  Ruling coalitionDPS-SD-AA
Area
   Capital city 108 km2 (42 sq mi)
  Metro
1,441 km2 (556 sq mi)
Elevation
40 m (130 ft)
Population
 (2011 census) [1]
   Urban
Increase2.svg 185,832
   Rural
Increase2.svg 15,525
   Metro
Increase2.svg 201,351
Demonym(s) Podgoričanin (male)
Podgoričanka (female)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
Postal code
81 000 – 81 124
Area code(s) +382 20
License plate PG
Website Podgorica Capital City

Podgorica (Montenegrin: Подгорица, pronounced  [pǒdɡoritsa] ; lit. "area below the little hill") is the capital and largest city of Montenegro.

Contents

The city was known as Titograd (Montenegrin and Serbian: Титоград, pronounced  [tîtoɡraːd] ) between 1946 and 1992—in the period that Montenegro formed, as the Socialist Republic of Montenegro, part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY)—in honour of Marshal Josip Broz Tito.

Podgorica's favourable position at the confluence of the Ribnica and Morača rivers and at the meeting-point of the fertile Zeta Plain and Bjelopavlići Valley has encouraged settlement. The city is close to winter skiing centers in the north and to seaside resorts on the Adriatic Sea. Podgorica is home to almost a quarter (24.35%) of the country's population. [2] It is also the nation's administrative center and its economic, cultural, and educational focus.

Name and etymology

Podgorica is written in Cyrillic as Подгорица, pronounced  [pǒdɡoritsa] ; UK: /ˈpɒdɡɒrɪtsə,pɒdˈɡɔːr-/ , [3] US: /ˈpɒdɡərtsə,ˈpɔːdɡɒr-/ ; [4] [5] [6] Podgorica literally means "area below Gorica". Gorica (Cyrillic : Горица), meaning "little hill", is the name of one of the cypress-covered hillocks that overlooks the city center. Some three kilometres (1.9 miles) north-west of Podgorica lie the ruins of the Roman-era town of Doclea, from which the Roman Emperor Diocletian hailed. In later centuries, Romans "corrected" the name to Dioclea, guessing wrongly that an i had been lost in vulgar speech. Duklja is the later South Slavic version of same word. At its foundation (some time before the 11th century), the town was called Birziminium  [ sr ]. In the Middle Ages, it was known as Ribnica (Cyrillic : Рибница, [rîbnitsa] ). The name Podgorica was used from 1326. From 1946 to 1992, the city was named Titograd (Cyrillic : Титоград) in honour of Josip Broz Tito, the President of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1953 to 1980.

History

Early history

Doclea, Roman town, the seat of the Late Roman province of Praevalitana. Doclea Roman city Podgorica.jpg
Doclea, Roman town, the seat of the Late Roman province of Praevalitana.
Archeological remains of the Roman period in Doclea. Ancient city Doclea - ruins 06.jpg
Archeological remains of the Roman period in Doclea.

Podgorica is at the crossroads of several historically important routes, near the rivers Zeta, Morača, Cijevna, Ribnica, Sitnica and Mareza in the valley of Lake Skadar and near the Adriatic Sea, in fertile lowlands with favourable climate. The earliest human settlements were in prehistory: the oldest physical remains are from the late Stone Age.

In the Iron Age, the area between the Zeta and Bjelopavlići valleys was occupied by two Illyrian tribes, the Labeates and the Docleatae. The population of the town of Doclea was 8,000–10,000, in which all core urban issues were resolved. The high population density (in an area of about 10 km (6 mi) radius) was made possible by the geographical position, favorable climate, and economic conditions and by the defensive positions that were of great importance at that time.

Middle Ages

From the 5th century AD, with the arrival of the first Slavic and Avar tribes and the beginning of the break-up of the Roman Empire, the area bore witness to many noteworthy events. [ citation needed ] With time, the fortifications ceased their function, and new towns were built; a new settlement probably named after the Ribnica river, on whose banks it was built, Ribnica, was established. It was first mentioned during the reign of the Nemanjić dynasty, as part of the Serbian kingdom. The importance of Ribnica was its position as crossroads in communications with the west. [ citation needed ]

The name Podgorica was first mentioned in 1326 in a court document of the Kotor archives. The city was economically strong: trade routes between the Republic of Ragusa and Serbia, well developed at that time, were maintained via the road that led to Podgorica through Trebinje and Nikšić. As a busy crossroads, Podgorica was a vibrant regional center of trade and communication. This boosted its development, economic power, military strength, and strategic importance. [ citation needed ]

Ottoman Empire

View of Ribnica fortress and Old bridge, Catholic Church (right), Debbaglar Bridge, government mansion and the Mirko Varosh Hotel (far left), before 1901. 28iulsah.jpg
View of Ribnica fortress and Old bridge, Catholic Church (right), Debbaglar Bridge, government mansion and the Mirko Varosh Hotel (far left), before 1901.
City Clock Tower. Sahat-kula in Podgorica.jpg
City Clock Tower.

The Ottoman Empire captured Podgorica in 1474. Podgorica became a kaza of the Sanjak of Scutari (which was historically led by Albanian Pashas). In 1479, The Ottomans built a large fortress in Podgorica, and the existing settlement, with its highly developed merchant connections, became the main Ottoman defensive and attacking bastion in the region. At the beginning of 1474 the Ottoman sultan intended to rebuild Podgorica and Baleč and settle them with 5,000 Muslim families (most of then Albanian or Slavic origin), [7] in order to stop cooperation between the Principality of Zeta and Albania Veneta. [8]

Podgorica fell again, but this time to the Ottomans in 1484, and the character of the town changed extensively. The Ottomans fortified the city, building towers, gates, and defensive ramparts that give Podgorica the appearance of an Ottoman military city.

Most of today's Montenegro and Podgorica fell under the rule of the Albanian Bushati Family of Shkodra between 1760 and 1831, which ruled independently from the Imperial authority of the Ottoman Sultan.

In 1864, Podgorica became a kaze of the Scutari Vilayet called Böğürtlen ("blackberry", also known as Burguriçe).

On 7 October 1874, in a violent reaction over the murder of a local named Juso Mučin Krnić, [9] Ottoman forces killed at least 15 people in Podgorica. [10] The massacre was widely reported outside of Montenegro and ultimately contributed to the buildup to the Montenegrin-Ottoman War.

The end of the Montenegrin-Ottoman War in 1878 resulted in the Congress of Berlin recognizing vast territories, including that of Podgorica, as part of the newly recognized Kingdom of Montenegro. At that time there were about 1,500 houses in Podgorica, with more than 8,000 people living there – of Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Muslim faiths flourishing together.

The Petrović and Karađorđević monarchies

King Nikola I monument Spomenik kralju Nikoli u Podgorici.jpg
King Nikola I monument

After the Berlin Congress in 1878, when Podgorica was annexed to the Principality of Montenegro, marking the end of four centuries of Ottoman rule, and the beginning of a new era for Podgorica and Montenegro. The first forms of capital concentration were seen in 1902 when roads were built to all neighboring towns, and tobacco became Podgorica's first significant commercial product. Then in 1904, a savings bank named Zetska formed the first significant financial institution, and it would soon grow into Podgorička Bank.

World War I marked the end of dynamic development for Podgorica, which by then was the largest city in the newly proclaimed Kingdom of Montenegro. On 10 August 1914, nine military personnel and 13 civilians were killed in Podgorica from an aerial bombardment by Austro-Hungarian Aviation Troops. [11] The city was bombed three more times in 1915. [11] Podgorica was occupied, as was the rest of the country, by Austria-Hungary from 1916 to 1918.

After the liberation by the Allies in 1918, the controversial Podgorica Assembly marked the end of Montenegrin statehood, as Montenegro was merged with the Kingdom of Serbia and incorporated into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. The population of urban Podgorica during this interwar period was approximately 14,000. [12]

During the interwar period (1918–1941), Podgorica had public bathrooms as most residents did not have their own. [12] However, the Imperial hotel built-in 1925 had two bathrooms, which was unprecedented at the time. [12] It was one of at least six hotels built in the city during the interwar period. [12]

World War II

Bombing of Podgorica in World War II Aerial photo of bombing of Podgorica.JPG
Bombing of Podgorica in World War II

After the Yugoslav coup d'état on 27 March 1941, demonstrations supporting the coup took place in Podgorica. [13] As a result of the coup, Yugoslavia turned against its previous alliance with the Axis powers and was subsequently invaded. Podgorica was bombed over 80 times throughout the course of the war. [14] The city was first bombed by the Luftwaffe on 6 April 1941. On 5 May 1944, Podgorica was bombed by the USAAF in an attack against Axis forces, although the bombardment that day killed approximately 400 civilians. [15] The city was liberated on 19 December 1944. According to the Belgrade Museum of Genocide Victims, a total of 1,691 people were killed in Podgorica over the course of the war. [16]

Socialist Yugoslavia

On 12 July 1946, Josip Broz Tito made one of his early visits to Podgorica from the Radovče hotel, where he spoke to a crowd. [17] It was the first of fifteen total visits made by Tito to the city after World War II. [17]

"Podgorica is destroyed. We will build her altogether because it's our responsibility, because that's what's required of us by the sacrifices which Podgorica gave! We will do it, that's what I promise you in the name of the Federal government." -Josip Broz Tito on 12 July 1946. [17]

On 25 July 1948, the vice president of the People's Parliament of Montenegro, Andrija Mugoša, along with secretary Gavron Cemović, signed a law changing the name of Podgorica into "Titovgrad". [14] The law was "retroactively" activated such that the name change applied to any records starting from 13 July 1946, when it became the capital of Montenegro within the newly formed Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. [14] However, in a glaring contradiction, the "Službeni list" or legal code of Yugoslavia recorded the name "Titograd" without the letter "v". [14] Ultimately, "Titograd" was used over "Titovgrad". [14]

In addition to the new name, Titograd saw the establishment of new factories. The Radoje Dakić factory, built-in 1946 for the production of heavy machinery, became one of the largest employers in Titograd. In 1964, Radoje Dakić guaranteed hired workers an apartment in the city. [18] In the late 1960s, the cities of Titograd, Zadar, and Mostar competed to be selected as the location of Yugoslavia's expanding aluminum industry. [19] In a highly politicized selection process, Titograd was ultimately chosen and the Kombinat was constructed in 1969. [19] In 1974, the public Veljko Vlahović University was founded in Titograd. On 15 April 1979, the city suffered damage by a 6.9 magnitude earthquake.

Titograd was the site of massive protests during Yugoslavia's anti-bureaucratic revolution. On 10 January 1989, over 10,000 people protested in the city. [20] [21] By the turn of the decade, Titograd was recognized as the city with the most greenery in Yugoslavia, along with Banja Luka. [22]

Contemporary history

The headquarters of the European Union, OSCE in Podgorica. Podgorica EU OSCE UNDP embassies 1a Bulevar Svetog Petra Cetinjskog.JPG
The headquarters of the European Union, OSCE in Podgorica.

As Yugoslavia began to break up, Titograd was renamed to Podgorica after a referendum on 2 April 1992. [23] The Yugoslav wars largely bypassed Montenegro, but the entire country was greatly affected with severe economic stagnation and hyperinflation lasting throughout the 1990s due to international sanctions. In 1999, Podgorica was subject to airstrikes during the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia. [24] [25]

Following the results of the independence referendum in May 2006, Podgorica became the official capital of an independent state.

On 13 October 2008, at least 10,000 people protested Kosovo's declaration of independence. [26] In October 2015, protests took place in Podgorica ahead of Montenegro's accession into NATO. After a demonstration of at least 5,000 to 8,000 people, [27] the police used tear gas to disperse demonstrators from the parliament. [28] Protests in the city continued through the 2016 Montenegrin parliamentary election. On 22 February 2018, a Yugoslav Army veteran killed himself at the US embassy in Podgorica.

Geography

Podgorica is located in central Montenegro. The area is crossed with rivers and the city itself is only 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) north of Lake Skadar. The Morača and Ribnica rivers flow through the city, while the Zeta, Cijevna, Sitnica and Mareza flow nearby. Morača is the largest river in the city, being 70 m or 230 ft wide near downtown, and having carved a 20 m or 66 ft deep canyon for the length of its course through the city. [ citation needed ] Except for the Morača and Zeta, other rivers have an appearance of small creeks. The richness in bodies of water is a major feature of the city.

In contrast to most of Montenegro, Podgorica lies in a mainly flat area at the northern end of the Zeta plain, at an elevation of 40 m (130 ft). The only exceptions are hills which overlook the city. The most significant is 130.3 m (427 ft) high Gorica Hill (pronounced  [ˈɡǒrit͜sa] ), city's namesake, which rises above the city centre. The other hills include Malo brdo ("little hill", 205.4 m or 674 ft), Velje brdo ("big hill", 283 m or 928 ft), Ljubović (101 m or 331 ft) and Dajbapska gora (172 m or 564 ft). Podgorica city proper has an area of 108 square kilometres (42 sq mi), while actual urbanized area is much smaller.

Climate

Independence Square. Podgorica, piazza repubblica.JPG
Independence Square.

Under the Köppen climate classification, Podgorica is transitional between a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) and a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Csa), since the driest summer month gets slightly less than 40 millimeters (1.6 in) of precipitation, [29] with summer highs around 30 °C (86 °F) and winter highs around 10 °C (50 °F). Although the city is only some 35 km (22 mi) north of the Adriatic Sea, an arm of the Mediterranean, Mount Rumija acts as a natural barrier, separating Skadar Lake basin and Podgorica area from the sea, thus limiting temperate maritime influence on the local climate.

The mean annual rainfall is 1,659 mm (65.3 in), making Podgorica by far the wettest capital in Europe, Ljubljana being second with 1,362 mm (53.6 in). The temperature exceeds 25 °C (77 °F) on about 135 days each year and the median daily temperature is 15.6 °C (60.1 °F). The number of rainy days is about 120, and those with a strong wind around 60. An occasional strong northerly wind influences the climate in the winter, with a wind chill effect lowering the perceived temperature by a few degrees. [ citation needed ]

The all-time maximum snowfall record was beaten on 11 February 2012, when 58 cm (23 in) of snowfall were measured. Before that, the biggest snowfall in Podgorica was in 1954, when 52 cm (20 in) of snowfall was recorded. Maximum temperature was recorded on 24 August 2007, at 44.8 °C (112.6 °F), while all time minimum was −9.7 °C (14.5 °F), on 4 February 1956.

Climate data for Podgorica (1961–1990, extremes 1947–present)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)21.0
(69.8)
27.1
(80.8)
27.4
(81.3)
33.8
(92.8)
35.4
(95.7)
40.5
(104.9)
43.3
(109.9)
44.8
(112.6)
39.6
(103.3)
33.6
(92.5)
27.2
(81.0)
20.8
(69.4)
44.8
(112.6)
Average high °C (°F)9.5
(49.1)
11.3
(52.3)
15.0
(59.0)
19.1
(66.4)
24.3
(75.7)
28.3
(82.9)
31.8
(89.2)
31.6
(88.9)
27.4
(81.3)
21.7
(71.1)
15.5
(59.9)
11.1
(52.0)
20.6
(69.0)
Daily mean °C (°F)5.0
(41.0)
6.8
(44.2)
10.0
(50.0)
13.9
(57.0)
19.0
(66.2)
22.8
(73.0)
26.0
(78.8)
25.6
(78.1)
21.4
(70.5)
15.9
(60.6)
10.5
(50.9)
6.5
(43.7)
15.3
(59.5)
Average low °C (°F)1.4
(34.5)
3.2
(37.8)
5.8
(42.4)
9.2
(48.6)
13.6
(56.5)
17.3
(63.1)
20.3
(68.5)
20.2
(68.4)
16.5
(61.7)
11.6
(52.9)
6.8
(44.2)
2.9
(37.2)
10.7
(51.3)
Record low °C (°F)−9.6
(14.7)
−9.7
(14.5)
−5.6
(21.9)
−0.2
(31.6)
1.2
(34.2)
8.0
(46.4)
12.2
(54.0)
8.8
(47.8)
6.0
(42.8)
0.0
(32.0)
−5.4
(22.3)
−8.0
(17.6)
−9.7
(14.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches)191.6
(7.54)
166.5
(6.56)
159.0
(6.26)
145.2
(5.72)
89.8
(3.54)
63.3
(2.49)
38.5
(1.52)
65.9
(2.59)
119.6
(4.71)
164.2
(6.46)
238.5
(9.39)
217.2
(8.55)
1,659.3
(65.33)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)1212121310956791413122
Average relative humidity (%)72686565636052526268757465
Mean monthly sunshine hours 122.7126.0170.0193.5250.8276.3339.7314.1251.5201.4126.4108.82,481.2
Source: Hydrological and Meteorological Service of Montenegro [30] [31]

Cityscape

Moj grad - panoramio.jpg
Panoramic view
Podgorica.jpg
View from Gorica Hill
Titograd.jpg
Cityscape

Podgorica's mixture of architectural styles reflects the turbulent history of the city and country: as one régime replaced another, the corresponding style was introduced.

As part of the Ottoman Empire until 1878, Podgorica has some examples of Ottoman architecture. [ citation needed ] The oldest parts of the city, Stara Varoš (Old town) and Drač is typical of this, with two mosques, a Turkish clock tower and narrow, winding streets.

Dajbabska Gora Tower at night. Toranj na Dajbabskoj Gori.JPG
Dajbabska Gora Tower at night.
Moraca river. Most Milenijum (Millenium Bridge) (9185505567).jpg
Morača river.

When the city was incorporated to Montenegro, the urban core shifted to the other bank of the Ribnica River, where the town developed in a more European style: wider streets with an orthogonal layout. This part of the city is today traditionally regarded as the city center and is called Nova Varoš (New town)

During World War II, Podgorica was almost razed to the ground, being bombed over 80 times. [15] After liberation, rebuilding began as in other cities of the communist-ruled SFRY. Mass residential blocks were erected, with basic design typical of Eastern bloc countries. [ citation needed ] All that part of the city on the right bank of the Morača River was built this way.

The main contemporary traffic arteries were laid out during this period, which extended the orthogonal street layout of the city center, to the south and west. Residential and infrastructural developments in the SFRY era have mostly shaped the layout of today's Podgorica and accommodated the unprecedented population growth that followed World War II. [ citation needed ]

A major advance in Podgorica architecture began in the late 1990s and, since then, the face of the city has changed rapidly. Residential and business construction are proceeding rapidly, incorporating contemporary glass-and-steel architectural trends. In an effort to create a recognizable and modern state capital, city officials are routing significant investments in the city's public spaces. Thus, the city has gained entirely new squares and some monuments. New landmarks include the Hristovog Vaskrsenja orthodox temple and the Millennium Bridge, the main feature of the Podgorica skyline.

Dva mosta Podgorica banner.jpg
A panoramic view of the Moscow bridge (right) and the Millennium Bridge (left). (Swipe left or right)

Culture

Podgorica is home to many Montenegrin cultural institutions and events. It hosts the Montenegrin National Theatre and a number of museums and galleries. The Montenegrin National Theatre is the most significant theatre not only in Podgorica but in all of Montenegro. Podgorica is also host to the City Theatre (Gradsko pozorište), which includes the Children's Theatre and the Puppet Theatre. Although not as rich in museums and galleries as the historic royal capital Cetinje, there are several noteworthy museums:

Cathedral of the Resurrection of Christ interior. Novi Grad, Podgorica, Montenegro - panoramio (9).jpg
Cathedral of the Resurrection of Christ interior.
Former residence of King Nikola I Petrovic, today an art gallery. Royal Garden in Podgorica.jpg
Former residence of King Nikola I Petrović, today an art gallery.
Montenegrin National Theatre Crnogorsko Narodno Pozoriste.JPG
Montenegrin National Theatre
National Museum of Montenegro Podgorica, museo nazionale, esterno 01.JPG
National Museum of Montenegro

There is a notable art gallery in the Dvorak Petrovića (Petrović Castle) complex in Podgorica's largest public park. King Nicholas's castle, Perjanički Dom (House of the Honour Guard), castle chapel and surrounding buildings were converted to an art gallery in 1984. Since 1995, it has been part of the Modern Arts Centre (Centar savremenih umjetnosti) and houses approximately 1,500 works of art. The historic Cinema of Culture (Kino Kultura), which was founded in 1949, was closed in November 2008 due to continuous financial losses it generated. It was the only cinema in the city for 6 decades. The building of the former cinema will be converted to host the Podgorica City Theatre. Shortly after its closure, a Ster-Kinekor (later acquired by Cineplexx) 6-screen multiplex cinema opened at Delta City shopping mall.

A significant cultural institution of over fifty years' standing is the Budo Tomović Cultural-Informational Centre (KIC Budo Tomović). It is a public institution that organizes various artistic events, including Podgorica Cultural Summer (Podgoričko Kulturno Ljeto), FIAT – International Alternative Theatre Festival (Festival Internacionalnog Alternativnog Teatra), DEUS – December Arts Scene (Decembarska Umjetnička Scena).

Media

Podgorica is the media hub of Montenegro. It is home to the headquarters of the state-owned public television broadcaster RTCG. Commercial broadcasters in Podgorica include RTV A1, TV Vijesti, Nova M and Prva TV. It was announced that the city's local television will be launched soon. [32] Their programmes can be received in much of Montenegro.

All Montenegro's daily newspapers (oldest Montenegrin daily newspaper Pobjeda , Vijesti , Dnevne Novine and Dan ) are published in Podgorica, as the weekly magazines Monitor and Magazin BIT .

Sports

Moraca Sports Center. Novi Grad, Podgorica, Montenegro - panoramio (34).jpg
Morača Sports Center.

The most popular sports by far are football and basketball. Basketball became especially popular with the success in the late 20th and early 21st centuries of KK Budućnost, both in Regional and European competitions.

Football in Podgorica has a long tradition associated with Budućnost. World-famous players Predrag Mijatović and Dejan Savićević were born in Podgorica and made their debut in that team. The club FK Zeta from the Podgorica suburb of Golubovci has also reached the former first league of Serbia and Montenegro. These clubs, along with Sutjeska from Nikšić, usually compete with each other for leading position in the First League of Montenegro. Other clubs from Podgorica and its surroundings play in the Montenegrin First League e.g. OFK Titograd & Kom. One of the most popular clubs from the suburbs is FK Ribnica from Konik, FK Zabjelo from Zabjelo and FK Podgorica from Donja Gorica.

The volleyball team OK Budućnost and the women's handball team ŽRK Budućnost T-Mobile have had significant success in European competition. Budućnost Podgorica is the most important sports club in Podgorica. Its name means Future.

Chess is another popular sport and some famous global chess players, like Slavko Dedić, are born in Podgorica.

Sporting events like the annual Podgorica Marathon and the Morača River jumps attract international competitors. Podgorica was the host of 2009 FINA Men's Water Polo World League.

Venues

Podgorica has a number of sporting venues; some are under reconstruction and expansion. The main ones are:

Almost every football club in Podgorica has its own stadium, although these are often only fields with small stands or no stands at all. Other notable venues are the Stadion malih sportova under Gorica hill and the sport shooting range under Ljubović hill. There are many other sports facilities around the city, most notably indoor soccer fields.

Economy

Central Bank of Montenegro. Podgorica National bank of Montenegro.JPG
Central Bank of Montenegro.
Aerial view of the Plantaze vineyard, this wine field is the largest single one in Europe. Podgorica-Tuzi plantaze wineyard IMG 1318 Cijevna river.JPG
Aerial view of the Plantaže vineyard, this wine field is the largest single one in Europe.

Podgorica is not only the administrative center of Montenegro but also its main economic engine. Most of Montenegro's industrial, financial, and commercial base is in Podgorica. [ citation needed ]

Before World War I, most of Podgorica's economy was in trade and small-scale manufacturing, which was an economic model established during the long rule of the Ottoman Empire. [ citation needed ] After World War II, Podgorica became Montenegro's capital and a focus of the rapid urbanization and industrialization of the SFRY era. Industries such as aluminium and tobacco processing, textiles, engineering, vehicle production, and wine production were established in and around the city. In 1981, Podgorica's GDP per capita was 87% of the Yugoslav average. [33]

In the early 1990s, the dissolution of Yugoslavia, Yugoslav wars, and the UN-imposed sanctions left Podgorica's industries without traditional markets, suppliers, and available funds. This, combined with typical transition pressures, led to a decline of the industrial base, where many industries collapsed leaving thousands of citizens unemployed. [ citation needed ] However, some of the industries, including Podgorica aluminum smelter and Plantaže, managed to survive the turmoil of the 1990s, and are still major contributors to Montenegrin export and industrial output to this day.

As Montenegro began its push for independence from Serbia in the late 1990s, Podgorica greatly benefited from the increased concentration of government and service sectors. [ citation needed ] In addition to almost the entire country's government, Podgorica is home to the Montenegro Stock Exchange and other major Montenegrin financial institutions, along with telecommunications carriers, media outlets, Montenegrin flag carrier airline, and other significant institutions and companies.

The large presence of government and service sectors spared the economy of Podgorica from prolonged stagnation in the late 2000s recession, which hit Montenegro hard. Although in mid-2014, some 30% of Montenegro's citizens lived in Podgorica, the municipality accounted for 44% of the country's employed. Out of the entire mass of paid net salaries in Montenegro in that year, some 47% was paid in Podgorica. The average monthly net salary in May 2014 was €509 in Podgorica municipality. [34]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
194814,369    
195319,868+38.3%
196135,054+76.4%
197161,727+76.1%
198196,074+55.6%
1991117,875+22.7%
2003136,473+15.8%
2011150,977+10.6%

Although medium-sized by European standards, Podgorica is by far the largest city in Montenegro: almost a quarter of Montenegrin citizens live there. According to the 2011 census, there are 185,937 people in Podgorica Capital City, which is analogous to the metropolitan area, and includes the small towns of Tuzi and Golubovci, while 150,977 people live within the city proper.

Out of the total population of Podgorica 48.73% are male and 51.27% are female. The average age of the population is 35.7.

Ethnicity (2011 census)NumberPercentage
Montenegrins 90,97060.25%
Serbs 36,20723.98%
Romani 3,8642.56%
Ethnic Muslims 3,3932.25%
Bosniaks 2,6301.74%
Albanians 1,4770.98%
Croats 6140.41%
Undeclared7,2924.83%
Other1,0870.72%
Language (2011 census)NumberPercentage
Montenegrin 67,09244.43%
Serbian 63,83742.28%
Romani 3,3242.20%
Albanian 2,4741.64%
Bosnian 8610.57%
Croatian 2400.16%
Undeclared6,2694.15%
Other8060.53%

Religion

Cathedral of Podgorica. Podgorica, cattedrale della resurrezione di cristo, esterno 01.JPG
Cathedral of Podgorica.
Dajbabe Monastery. Manastir Dajbabe - panoramio (2).jpg
Dajbabe Monastery.

Podgorica is home to three main religious groups: Orthodox Christians, Sunni Muslims and Catholic Christians.

The Orthodox Christian population mostly originates from the local Montenegrin and Serb population, which accepted Orthodox Christianity in Middle Ages after a major split during The Great Schism. They represent the major religious group. There are various Eastern Orthodox churches in the city including St. George Church which originates from the 13th century, and the Cathedral of the Resurrection of Christ which is the largest church in the city to have been recently erected.

The Muslim population mostly originates from local Bosniaks, as well as Albanians. There are several mosques in Podgorica and Tuzi.

The Catholic population mainly consists of the local Albanian minority. The main religious site for the Catholic population located in the Konik neighbourhood is the Church of the Holy Heart of Jesus constructed in 1966, in Brutalist style which makes this object unique. Other Catholic churches are located in eastern suburb Tuzi.

Religion (2011 Census)NumberPercentage
Eastern Orthodoxy 122,96981.45%
Islam 14,9629.91%
Catholicism 2,7351.81%
Other Christian 5300.35%
Agnosticism 2220.15%
Atheism 3,5542.35%
Undeclared3,8922.58%
Other1,9611.05%

Administration

Podgorica City Hall. Podgorica Municipal building.jpg
Podgorica City Hall.
Podgorica urban subdivisions PodgoricaUrbanSubdivisions.png
Podgorica urban subdivisions

The city administration consists of a mayor, city assembly, and a number of secretariats and administrative bodies which together act as a city local government. The city assembly has 59 members, elected directly for four-year terms. The mayor used to be directly elected for a five-year term, but since the new law was introduced in Montenegrin municipalities mayors will be elected by the city assembly and will have to maintain its support during his term. Separate elections are held for the local sub-division of Golubovci since it is part of their administrative autonomy inside Podgorica municipality. Constant questions are raised by various politicians over gaining separate municipality status for Golubovci. In 2018, Tuzi became its own municipality after a vote on the Montenegrin Parliament. [35]

On local elections held on 25 May 2014, the Democratic Party of Socialists won 29 seats in the municipal assembly, one short of 30 needed to form a majority. Democratic Front won 17 seats, SNP won 8 seats, while coalition made of Positive Montenegro and SDP won 5 seats. After lengthy negotiations, SDP dissolved coalition with Pozitivna and made an arrangement on forming a majority with DPS, similar to one they have in national government. While SDP is a longtime partner of DPS at the national level, it has been in opposition to Podgorica municipal assembly in 2010–2014 period. Since October 2014, the position of the mayor is held by DPS official, Slavoljub Stijepović, replacing Podgorica mayor od 14 years, Miomir Mugoša.

City Assembly

Party/CoalitionSeatsLocal government
Democratic Party of Socialists
32 / 61
Government
Democratic Montenegro
13 / 61
Opposition
United Reform Action
4 / 61
Opposition
Democratic Front
6 / 61
Opposition
Socialist People's Party
2 / 61
Opposition
Social Democrats
3 / 61
Government
Albanian Alternative
1 / 61
Government

Local subdivisions

The municipality of Podgorica consists of Podgorica City Proper and one subdivision (called city municipality, градске општине, gradske opštine), which is Golubovci.

The entire municipality of Podgorica is further divided into 57 local communities (мјесне заједнице, mjesne zajednice), bodies in which the citizens participate in decisions on matters of relevance to the local community.

Education

Most of Montenegro's higher education establishments are in Podgorica including the University of Montenegro, the country's most significant university. The university has the following faculties:

The university's scientific research institutes are also in the Podgorica: Institute of Foreign Languages, Institute of Biotechnology and the Institute of History

The Montenegrin Academy of Sciences and Arts (CANU) is in Podgorica, as well as the parallel scholars' academy DANU.

There are a number of private institutions for higher education including the Mediterranean University which was founded in 2006 as the first private university in Montenegro and the University of Donja Gorica. The municipality of Podgorica has 34 elementary schools and 10 secondary schools, including one gymnasium. The first secondary school established in Podgorica is Gymnasium "Slobodan Škerović" which first opened in 1907. The rebuilt economic high school offers new features and higher quality education. The "Radosav Ljumović National Library" is considered the most comprehensive in Montenegro.

Transport

Public transport

Northern entrance to Podgorica (E65, E80). PGWelcome.jpg
Northern entrance to Podgorica (E65, E80).
Millennium Bridge. Millennium Bridge in Podgorica, Montenegro 02.jpg
Millennium Bridge.

Public transport in Podgorica consists of 11 urban and 16 suburban bus lines. [36] The city-owned AD Gradski saobraćaj public transport company used to be the sole bus operator until the 1990s, when private carriers were introduced. The company went bankrupt in 2001, and buses were since operated solely by private carriers.

Public transport faces competition from very popular dispatched taxi services. De-regulation and stiff competition have made taxi services very affordable. [ citation needed ] Over 20 taxi companies are operating in Podgorica with close to 800 vehicles in service. [ citation needed ] Usually, taxi companies provide a high level of service, with relatively new and uniform car fleets and GPS-tracked vehicles.

Roads

Sozina Tunnel shortens the journey from Podgorica to Montenegro's main port Bar, by some 25 km. Sozina-Tunnel.png
Sozina Tunnel shortens the journey from Podgorica to Montenegro's main port Bar, by some 25 km.

Podgorica's location in central Montenegro makes it a natural hub for rail and road transport. Roads in Montenegro (especially those connecting Podgorica to northern Montenegro and Serbia) are usually inferior to modern European roads. Both major Montenegrin motorway projects, Bar-Boljare motorway and Nudo–Božaj motorway, will pass near Podgorica. The newly built Sozina tunnel (4.2 km) shortened the journey from Podgorica to Bar (Montenegro's main seaport) to under 30 minutes. Also, a new road bypass has been constructed in 2011, to remove transport routes from north to south of the country, out of the city center. A south-western bypass has also been planned [ citation needed ], with the same goal of moving heavy transport out of the city core. Podgorica is also characteristic of its extensive network of multi-lane boulevards which make inner-city transport quick and effective. Traffic over the Morača River also goes fluently since river banks are very well connected with 6 vehicular and 3 pedestrian bridges.

The main transit connections of Podgorica are:

Rail

Podgorica Rail Station 01.10.13 Podgorica 6111.101 & 461.040 (10101220063).jpg
Podgorica Rail Station

Podgorica is a hub of the X-shaped Montenegrin rail network. The Belgrade–Bar line converges with the line to Nikšić and line to Shkodër at the Podgorica Rail Station. The station itself is located 1.5 km (0.93 mi) to the southeast of the main city square. Podgorica's main railway link (for both passenger and freight traffic) is Belgrade–Bar. The link to Nikšić was recently under reconstruction (electrification); [37] afterwards, passenger service started in October 2012. The rail link to Shkodër is used as freight-only.

Air

Podgorica Airport near Golubovci. Podgorica airport.jpg
Podgorica Airport near Golubovci.

Podgorica Airport is located in Zeta Plain, 11 km (6.8 mi) south of Podgorica City centre, and is Montenegro's main international airport. The airport is locally known as Golubovci Airport (Аеродром Голубовци / Aerodrom Golubovci), as it is located within the administrative boundaries of the town of Golubovci. The IATA code of the airport is still TGD because Podgorica was named Titograd, during which time the airport opened. It is the main hub for Montenegro Airlines and Di Air.

Twin towns – sister cities

Podgorica is twinned with: [38]

Partner cities

Notable people

Below are some of the most notable people who were either born or spent most of their lives in Podgorica:

Related Research Articles

The history of Montenegro begins in the Early Middle Ages, into the former Roman province of Dalmatia that forms present-day Montenegro. In the 9th century, there were three principalities on the territory of Montenegro: Duklja, roughly corresponding to the southern half, Travunia, the west, and Rascia, the north. In 1042, Stefan Vojislav led a revolt that resulted in the independence of Duklja and the establishment of the Vojislavljević dynasty. Duklja reached its zenith under Vojislav's son, Mihailo (1046–81), and his grandson Bodin (1081–1101). By the 13th century, Zeta had replaced Duklja when referring to the realm. In the late 14th century, southern Montenegro (Zeta) came under the rule of the Balšić noble family, then the Crnojević noble family, and by the 15th century, Zeta was more often referred to as Crna Gora. Large portions fell under the control of the Ottoman Empire from 1496 to 1878. Parts were controlled by the Republic of Venice. From 1515 until 1851 the prince-bishops (vladikas) of Cetinje were the rulers. The House of Petrović-Njegoš ruled until 1918. From 1918, it was a part of Yugoslavia. On the basis of an independence referendum held on 21 May 2006, Montenegro declared independence on 3 June of that year.

Nikšić Town and municipality in Montenegro

Nikšić, is the second largest city in Montenegro, with a total population of 56,970 located in the west of the country, in the centre of the spacious Nikšić field at the foot of Trebjesa Hill. It is the center of Nikšić Municipality with population of 72,443 according to 2011 census, which is the largest municipality by area and second most inhabited after Podgorica. It was also the largest municipality by area in the former Yugoslavia. It is an important industrial, cultural, and educational center.

FK Zeta Montenegrin association football club

FK Zeta is a football club from Golubovci, a suburb of Podgorica, the capital of Montenegro. It plays in the Montenegrin First League, of which it was the inaugural champion in 2006–07.

Cem (river) River in Montenegro and Albania

The Cem, also known as the Cijevna, is a river that rises in Kelmend, Albania and after nearly half of its length crosses into Montenegro, where it flows into the River Morača near the capital Podgorica.

Podgorica Capital City Municipality of Montenegro

Podgorica Capital City is one of the territorial subdivisions of Montenegro. The seat of municipality is the city of Podgorica. Podgorica municipality covers 10.4% of Montenegro's territory and is home to 29.9% of the country's population. It is the nation's administrative centre and its economic and educational focus.

Podgorica City Stadium Football stadium in Montenegro

Podgorica City Stadium is an all-seater multi-purpose stadium in Podgorica, Montenegro. Although its seating capacity changed over the years due to several renovations, as of 2019 it has 15,230 seats. The stadium is the home ground of the Montenegrin national football team and Budućnost.

KK Budućnost Basketball club in Podgorica, Montenegro

KK Budućnost, currently known as Budućnost VOLI for sponsorship reasons, is a professional basketball club based in Podgorica, Montenegro. The club competes in Montenegrin Basketball League, Adriatic League and Eurocup. It is a part of the Budućnost Sports Society. The club is a founding member and shareholder of the Adriatic Basketball Association.

Sport in Montenegro revolves mostly around team sports, such as water polo, football, basketball, handball, and volleyball. Other sports involved are boxing, tennis, swimming, judo, karate, athletics, table tennis, and chess.

Montenegro was independent from the late middle ages until 1918, when it declared its union with Serbia and, subsequently, became part of various incarnations of Yugoslavia and the state union of Serbia and Montenegro. During this time, football in Montenegro was part of the wider Yugoslavian structures. As a result of the Montenegrin independence referendum held on May 21, 2006, Montenegro declared independence two weeks later, on June 3, and formed its own football association.

Montenegrin First League Football league

The First League of Montenegro is the top football league in Montenegro. Founded in 2006, competition is headed by the Football Association of Montenegro. 10 teams participate in this league. The winner of the Montenegrin First League starts the qualifications for the UEFA Champions League from the second round. The second and third placed team and Montenegrin Cup winner play in the qualifying rounds of the UEFA Europa League. The last placed team is directly relegated to the Montenegrin Second League, and the two others are playing in Montenegrin First League playoffs.

OFK Titograd Montenegrin association football club

OFK Titograd is a professional football club based in Podgorica, Montenegro. Founded in 1951, they play in the Second League of Montenegro. The team has one league trophy and two Montenegrin Cup trophies. OFK Titograd is a member of the European Club Association.

Municipality of Podgorica is divided into 57 local communities, bodies in which the citizens participate in making decisions about matters of relevance to the community in which they live.

The Montenegrin Cup is the national football cup played in Montenegro, established in 2006. The winner of the cup is awarded a spot in the second qualifying round of the UEFA Europa League if they have not already gained a spot in the UEFA Champions League.
Most successful participant until now was FK Rudar with four titles, followed by FK Budućnost with three and OFK Titograd who won it twice.

Konik is a suburb of Podgorica, Montenegro, and is its largest suburb.

The Titograd District was a former district within Montenegro. The administrative centre of the Titograd District was Titograd

Donji Kokoti Suburb in Podgorica, Montenegro

Donji Kokoti is a suburb located five kilometers of Podgorica, Montenegro. According to the 2011 census, it had a population of 1,073, the majority of which identified as Montenegrins. It is on the banks of rivers Morača and Sitnica.

Montenegrin Derby

The Montenegrin Derby is the main football match in Montenegro, between the teams from the two biggest Montenegrin cities. Rivals are FK Budućnost from Podgorica and FK Sutjeska from Nikšić, two most popular sports societies in Montenegro. The rivalry is present in football and basketball.
Two clubs played their derbies in Montenegrin Championship, First League of SFR Yugoslavia, FR Yugoslavia and Serbia and Montenegro, and today, four times on one season, in Montenegrin First League.

After the end of every competitive season, football clubs from Montenegro play in European competitions.
Teams from Montenegro have been playing on the international scene since they represented SFR Yugoslavia during the 1970s. Since 2006, Montenegrin teams have played as representatives of independent Montenegro, and qualified through the Montenegrin First League and Montenegrin Cup.
Currently, four Montenegrin clubs take part in UEFA European Cups. The champion of the First Montenegrin League plays in UEFA Champions League qualifiers. The second and third placed team from the First League play in UEFA Europa Conference League qualifiers. The winner of the Montenegrin Cup also plays in the Europa Conference league.

The 2018–19 Montenegrin Cup was the 12th edition of the football tournament in Montenegro. The cup began on 28 August 2018 and ended on 30 May 2019. The winners of this competition earned a place in the UEFA Europa League.

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