Pokhara

Last updated
Pokhara Metropolitan City

पोखरा महानगरपालिका
Pokhara.png
(From left) Top: Tal Barahi Temple, Boats in Phewa Lake; Center: View of the Annapurna Range from Pokhara; Bottom: Bindhyabasini temple, Pokhara Town, Shanti Stupa, Pokhara in Pokhara.
Nickname(s): 
City of lakes
Motto(s): 
Clean Pokhara, Green Pokhara
Nepal Gandaki rel location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Pokhara Metropolitan City
Location in Province
Nepal rel location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Pokhara Metropolitan City
Pokhara Metropolitan City (Nepal)
Asia laea relief location map.jpg
Red pog.svg
Pokhara Metropolitan City
Pokhara Metropolitan City (Asia)
Coordinates: 28°12′30″N83°59′20″E / 28.20833°N 83.98889°E / 28.20833; 83.98889 Coordinates: 28°12′30″N83°59′20″E / 28.20833°N 83.98889°E / 28.20833; 83.98889
Country Nepal
Province Gandaki Province
District Kaski District
Incorporated1962
Government
  Type Mayor-council
  Body Pokhara Metro. Municipality
   Mayor Man Bahadur GC
   Deputy Mayor Manju Gurung
Area
  Total464.24 km2 (179.24 sq mi)
  Water4.4 km2 (1.7 sq mi)
Elevation
1,400 m (4,600 ft)
Highest elevation
1,740 m (5,710 ft)
Lowest elevation
827 m (2,713 ft)
Population
 (2020)
  Total523,000 est.
  Density868.074/km2 (2,248.30/sq mi)
  Ethnicities
Brahmin Gurung Chhetri Khas Nepali Magar Newar
  Religions
Hinduism Buddhism Muslim Christian
Demonym(s) Pokhareli
Languages
  Official Nepali and (Other Language)
Time zone UTC+5:45 (NST)
Postal Code
33700 (WRPD), 33702, 33704, 33706, 33708, 33713
Area code(s) 061
Website pokharamun.gov.np

Pokhara (Nepali : पोखरा, Nepali pronunciation:  [ˈpokʰʌɾa] ) is a metropolitan city in Nepal, which serves as the capital of Gandaki Province. [1] It is the country's largest metropolitan city in terms of area and second-largest in terms of population. The city also serves as the headquarters of Kaski District. [2] Pokhara is located 200 kilometres (120 miles) west of the capital, Kathmandu. The altitude varies from 827 metres (2,713 feet) in the southern part to 1,740 metres (5,710 feet) in the north. [3] The Annapurna Range, with three out of the ten highest peaks in the world — Dhaulagiri, Annapurna I and Manaslu — is within 15–35 mi (24–56 km) of the valley. [4] [5]

Contents

Pokhara is considered the tourism capital of Nepal, [6] being a base for trekkers undertaking the Annapurna Circuit through the Annapurna Conservation Area region [7] of the Annapurna ranges in the Himalayas. The city is also home to many of the elite Gurkha soldiers. [8]

Etymology

The Nepali word "Pokhari " (Nepali : पोखरी, Nepali pronunciation:  [ˈpokʰʌɾi] ) means "pond". Pokhara is a variant of Pokhari as the city has numerous ponds.

History

By radiocarbon dating and investigating the alluvial deposits of Pokhara Valley, researchers have found that there were at least three large medieval earthquakes in 1000, 1255, and 1344 AD. Up to 9 cubic kilometres of conglomerates, massive mud and silt show indications of one or several megafloods that emanated from the Sabche Cirque in the Annapurna range. [9]

Pokhara lies on an important old trading route between China and India. In the 17th century, it was part of the Kingdom of Kaski which was one of the Chaubisi Rajya (24 Kingdoms of Nepal, चौबिसे राज्य) ruled by a branch of the Shah Dynasty. Many of the hills around Pokhara still have medieval ruins from this time. In 1786 Prithvi Narayan Shah added Pokhara into his kingdom. It had by then become an important trading place on the routes from Kathmandu to Jumla and from India to Tibet. [10]

The first settlement of the valley is theorized to have taken place when the first King of Kaski, Kulamandan Shah Khad (also called Bichitra Khan and Jagati Khan), made Batulechaur in the northern side of the valley his winter capital during the mid 14th century. The people settled here included Parajuli Brahmins, who were asked to look after the Bindhyabasini temple and were given some land in that locality as Birta. Dhobi Gauda was the first market center developed in Pokhara valley before the last King of Kaski brought sixteen families of Newars from Kathmandu (Bhaktapur) to develop the present-day market (i.e., old market) in the 1770s. Prior to that people were settled in the peripheral hills. [11]

Pokhara was envisioned as a commercial center by the King of Kaski in the mid 18th century A.D. [12] when Newars of Bhaktapur migrated to Pokhara, upon being invited by the king, and settled near main business locations such as Bindhyabasini temple, Nalakomukh and Bhairab Tole. Most of Pokhara, at the time, was largely inhabited by Khas [13] (Brahmin, Chhetri, Thakuri and Dalits), Gurungs, and Magars. [14] [15] At present, the Khas, Gurung (Tamu) and Magar form the dominant community of Pokhara. There is also a sizeable Newari population in the city. [16] Batulechaur in the far north of Pokhara is home to the Gandharvas or Gaaineys (the tribe of the musicians). [17]

Phewa lake in 1982 Pokhara and Phewa Lake.jpg
Phewa lake in 1982

The nearby hills around Pokhara are covered by Gurung villages with few places belonging to Khas community. [18] Small Magar communities are also present mostly in the southern outlying hills. Newar community is almost non-existent in the villages of outlying hills outside the Pokhara city limits.

From 1959 to 1962 approximately 300,000 exiles entered Nepal from neighboring Tibet following its annexation by China. Most of the Tibetan exiles then sought asylum in Dharamshala and other Tibetan exile communities in India. According to UNHCR, since 1989, approximately 2500 Tibetans cross the border into Nepal each year, [19] many of whom arrive in Pokhara typically as a transit to Tibetan exile communities in India. About 50,000–60,000 Tibetan exiles reside in Nepal, and approximately 20,000 of the exiled Tibetans live in one of the 12 consolidated camps, eight in Kathmandu and four in and around Pokhara. The four Tibetan settlements in Pokhara are Jampaling, Paljorling, Tashi Ling, and Tashi Palkhel. These camps have evolved into well-built settlements, each with a gompa (Buddhist monastery), chorten and its particular architecture, and Tibetans have become a visible minority in the city. [20]

Until the end of the 1960s, the town was only accessible by foot and it was considered even more a mystical place than Kathmandu. The first road was completed in 1968 (Siddhartha Highway) [21] after which tourism set in and the city grew rapidly. [22] The area along the Phewa lake, called Lakeside, has developed into one of the major tourism hubs of Nepal. [23]

Geography

Middle Hills Pame-pokhara - Flickr - thapa.laxman.jpg
Middle Hills

Pokhara is in the northwestern corner of the Pokhara Valley, [24] which is a widening of the Seti Gandaki valley that lies in the region (Pahad) of the Himalayas. In this region, the mountains rise very quickly, [25] and within 30 kilometres (19 miles), the elevation rises from 1,000 to 7,500 metres (3,300 to 24,600 feet). As a result of this sharp rise in altitude the area of Pokhara has one of the highest precipitation rates in the country (3,350 mm/year or 131 inches/year in the valley to 5600 mm/year or 222 inches/year in Lumle). [26] Even within the city, there is a noticeable difference in rainfall between the south and the north: The northern part at the foothills of the mountains experiences a proportionally higher amount of precipitation. The Seti Gandaki is the main river flowing through the city. [27] The Seti Gandaki (White Gandaki) and its tributaries have created several gorges and canyons in and around Pokhara that give intriguingly long sections of terrace features to the city and surrounding areas. These long sections of terraces are interrupted by gorges that are hundreds of metres deep. [28] The Seti gorge runs through Pokhara from north to south and then west to east; at places, these gorges are only a few metres wide. In the north and south, the canyons are wider. [29]

In the south, the city borders Phewa Tal (4.4 km2) at an elevation of about 827 metres (2,713 feet) above sea level, while Lumle at 1,740 metres (5,710 feet) in the north touches the base of the Annapurna mountain range. Pokhara, the city of lakes, is the second-largest city of Nepal after Kathmandu. Three 8,000-metre (26,000-foot) peaks (Dhaulagiri, Annapurna, Manaslu) can be seen from the city. [30] The Machhapuchchhre (Fishtail) with an elevation of 6,993 metres (22,943 feet) is the closest to the city. [31]

The porous underground of the Pokhara valley favors the formation of caves and several caves can be found within city limits and neighboring cities as well. In the south of the city, a tributary of the Seti Gandaki River flowing out of the Phewa Lake disappears at Patale Chhango (पाताले छाँगो, Nepali for Hell's Falls, also called Davis Falls, after someone who supposedly fell in) into an underground gorge, to reappear 500 metres (1,600 feet) further south. [32] [33]

Climate

The city has a humid subtropical climate; however, the elevation keeps temperatures moderate. Temperatures in summer average between 25 and 35 °C; in winter around −2 to 15 °C. Pokhara and nearby areas receive a high amount of precipitation. Lumle, 25 miles from Pokhara city center, receives the highest amount of rainfall (> 5600 mm/year or 222 inches/year) in the country. [34] Snowfall is not observed in the valley, but surrounding hills experience occasional snowfall in the winter. Summers are humid and mild; most precipitation occurs during the monsoon season (July–September). Winter and spring skies are generally clear and sunny. [35] The highest temperature ever recorded in Pokhara was 38.5 °C (101.3 °F) on 4 May 2013, while the lowest temperature ever recorded was 0.5 °C (32.9 °F) on 13 January 2012. [36]

Climate data for Pokhara (1981–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)22.0
(71.6)
28.2
(82.8)
33.1
(91.6)
37.4
(99.3)
38.5
(101.3)
33.4
(92.1)
32.4
(90.3)
32.4
(90.3)
31.0
(87.8)
29.8
(85.6)
27.0
(80.6)
23.3
(73.9)
38.5
(101.3)
Average high °C (°F)19.7
(67.5)
22.2
(72.0)
26.7
(80.1)
29.8
(85.6)
30.1
(86.2)
30.6
(87.1)
30.0
(86.0)
30.2
(86.4)
29.3
(84.7)
27.5
(81.5)
24.1
(75.4)
20.7
(69.3)
26.7
(80.1)
Daily mean °C (°F)13.4
(56.1)
15.7
(60.3)
19.8
(67.6)
22.8
(73.0)
24.3
(75.7)
25.8
(78.4)
26.0
(78.8)
26.1
(79.0)
25.1
(77.2)
22.1
(71.8)
18.0
(64.4)
14.4
(57.9)
21.1
(70.0)
Average low °C (°F)7.1
(44.8)
9.2
(48.6)
12.8
(55.0)
15.7
(60.3)
18.4
(65.1)
20.9
(69.6)
22.0
(71.6)
22.0
(71.6)
20.8
(69.4)
16.7
(62.1)
11.9
(53.4)
8
(46)
15.5
(59.9)
Record low °C (°F)0.5
(32.9)
3.0
(37.4)
5.0
(41.0)
6.0
(42.8)
8.0
(46.4)
12.0
(53.6)
13.0
(55.4)
13.8
(56.8)
15.9
(60.6)
10.4
(50.7)
4.0
(39.2)
3.9
(39.0)
0.5
(32.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches)23
(0.9)
35
(1.4)
60
(2.4)
128
(5.0)
359
(14.1)
669
(26.3)
940
(37.0)
866
(34.1)
641
(25.2)
140
(5.5)
18
(0.7)
22
(0.9)
3,901
(153.6)
Source: Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial [37]

Demographics

As per Nepali Census 2011, there were 68,398 households in total with an average household size of 3.87. [38]

Economy

Since the 1990s, Pokhara has experienced rapid urbanization. As a result, service-sector industries have increasingly contributed to the local economy [39] overtaking the traditional agriculture. An effect of urbanization is seen in high real estate prices, among the highest in the country. [40] [41] The major contributors to the economy of Pokhara are manufacturing and service sector including tourism; agriculture and the foreign and domestic remittances. Tourism, service sector and manufacturing contributes approximately 58% to the economy, remittances about 20% and agriculture nearly 16%. [42]

Hydroelectric Power plants

Pokhara has a number of hydroelectric power plants.

Temples, Gumbas and Churches

World peace pagoda Pokhara world peace pagoda.jpg
World peace pagoda

There are numerous temples, Gumbas (Buddhist monasteries) and Churches in and around Pokhara valley. Many temples serve as combined places of worship for Hindus and Buddhists. [44] [45] Some of the popular temples, Gumbas and Churches are:

Location

Wards of Pokhara Pokhara-Lekhnath Metropolitan Map.jpg
Wards of Pokhara
Ward NoAdministrative WardPopulation (2011 Census)
1 Bagar 15,513
2 Miruwa 8,729
3 Nadipur 9,462
4 Gairapatan 9,119
5 Malepatan 14,803
6 Baidam 14,729
7 Masbar 12,875
8 Shrijana chowk 26,080
9 Naya Bazar 16,626
10Amarsingh18,470
11 Ranipauwa 12,338
12 Sital Devi 11,613
13 Miya Patan 13,154
14Majheripatan6,427
15 Rambazar 17,027
16 Batulechaur 14,950
17Birauta26,752
18 Sarangkot 8,354
19 Lamachaur 10,624
20 Bhalam 4,022
21 Nirmal Pokhari 9,090
22 Pumdi Bhumdi 7,391
23 Chapakot 4,917
24 Kaskikot 5,892
25 Hemja 12,262
26Budhi Bazar11,394
27 Tal Chowk 9,583
28 Kalika 4,727
29Bhandardhik8,961
30 Khudi 10,823
31 Begnas 7,378
32Gagangauda10,677
33 Bharat Pokhari 9806
TOTAL414,141

The municipality of Pokhara spans 12 kilometres (7.5 miles) from north to south and 6 kilometres (3.7 miles) from east to west but, unlike the capital Kathmandu, it is quite loosely built up and still has much green space. [47] Nepal [48] The gorge through which the river flows is crossed at five places: K.I. Singh Pool, Mahendrapul and Prithvi Highway Pool from north to south of the city. The floor of the valley is plain, resembles Terai due to its gravel-like surface, and has slanted orientation from northwest to southeast. The city is surrounded by the hills overlooking the entire valley.

Phewa Lake was slightly enlarged by damming which poses a risk of silting up due to the inflow during the monsoon. [49] The outflowing water is partially used for hydropower generation at Fewa Hydropower Station. [50] The dam collapsed in 1974 which resulted in draining of its water and exposing the land leading to illegal land encroachment; since then the dam has been rebuilt. [51] The power plant is about 100 metres (330 feet) below at the bottom of the Phusre Khola gorge. Water from Phewa is diverted for irrigation into the southern Pokhara valley. The eastern Pokhara Valley receives irrigation water through a canal running from a reservoir by the Seti in the north of the city. Some parts of Phewa lake are used as commercial cage fisheries. The lake is currently being encroached upon by invasive water hyacinth (जलकुम्भी झार). [52]

In 2017, Pokhara Lekhnath Metropolitan City became Nepal's largest metropolitan city by area, occupying 464.24 km2 (179.24 sq mi) — which means the city is nine times larger than Kathmandu, 18 times larger than Lalitpur and 2.5 times larger than Bharatpur. [1]

Pokhara is known to be a popular tourist destination for visitors from all over the world. Every year, many people visit the location in order to travel to the Annapurna range and famous religious place muktinath. [53] [54] The tourist district is along the north shore of the Phewa lake (Baidam, Lakeside, and Damside). It is mainly made up of small shops, non-star tourist hotels, restaurants, and bars. Most upscale and starred hotels are on the southern shore of the Phewa Lake and southeastern fringes of the city where there are more open lands and unhindered view of the surrounding mountains. Most of the tourists visiting Pokhara trek to the Annapurna Base Camp and Mustang. To the east of the Pokhara valley, in Lekhnath municipality, there are seven smaller lakes such as Begnas Lake, Rupa Lake, Khaste lake, Maidi lake, Neureni lake, Dipang lake. Begnas Lake is known for its fishery projects. [55]

Tourism

View of Phewa lake and Pokhara from Shanti Stupa Fewa lake,Pokhara.jpg
View of Phewa lake and Pokhara from Shanti Stupa

After the occupation of Tibet by China in 1950 and the Indo-China war in 1962, the old trading route to India from Tibet through Pokhara became defunct. Today only a few caravans from Mustang arrive in Bagar.

In recent decades, Pokhara has become a major tourist destination: it is considered the tourism capital of Nepal [6] in South Asia, mainly for adventure tourism and the base for the famous Annapurna Circuit trek. Thus, a major contribution to the local economy comes from the tourism and hospitalities industry. Tourism is a major source of income for local people and the city. [56] There are two 5-star hotels and approximately 305 other hotels that includes one 4-star, five 3-star, fifteen 2-star and non-star hotels in the city. [57]

Many medieval era temples such Tal Barahi Temple, Bindhyabasini, Bhadrakali, Talbarahi, Guheshwari, Sitaldevi, Gita mandir and Bhimsen temples and old Newari houses are located in the city. The modern commercial city centres are at Chipledhunga, New Road, Prithvi Chowk and Mahendrapul.[ citation needed ]

International Mountain Museum at Ratopahiro, Pokhara Mountain Museum Pokhara Front.jpg
International Mountain Museum at Ratopahiro, Pokhara

The city promotes two major hilltops as viewpoints to see the city and surrounding panorama: World Peace Pagoda, built-in 1996 A.D. across the southern shore of Phewa lake and Sarangkot, which is northwest of the city. In February 2004, International Mountain Museum (IMM) [58] was opened for public in Ratopahiro to boost the city's tourism attractions. Other museums are Pokhara Regional Museum; an ethnographic museum; Annapurna Natural History Museum [59] which houses preserved specimens of flora and fauna, and contains a particularly extensive collection of the butterflies, found in the Western and Annapurna Conservation Area region of Nepal; and Gurkha Museum featuring the history of the Gurkha soldiers. [60]

Hotels and lodges

There are more than 250 tourist category hotels and lodges in Pokhara. [61]

Cable Car

There are two cable car projects being constructed in Pokhara. One will connect Phewa Lake with World Peace Stupa. [62] The other called Sarangkot Cable Car project will connect Lakeside with Sarangkot. [63] [64] [65]

Military

The Pokhara region has a very strong military tradition with a significant number of its men being employed by the Nepali army. [66] The Western Division HQ [67] of the Nepalese Army is stationed at Bijayapur, Pokhara and its Area of Responsibility (AOR) consists of the entire Western Development Region of Nepal. The AOR of this Division is 29,398 km2 and a total of 16 districts are under the Division. The population of the AOR of Western Division is 4,571,013. Both the British Army and the Indian Army have regional recruitment and pensioners facilitation camps in Pokhara. The British Gurkha Camp [68] is located at Deep Heights in the northeast of the Pokhara city and the Indian Gorkha Pension Camp [69] is on the south-western side of the city, Rambazar.

Electricity and water supply

Electricity in Pokhara is regulated and distributed by the NEA Nepal Electricity Authority. Water supply and sanitation facilities are provided by the Nepal Water Supply Corporation ( NWSC ).

Education

Pokhara has more than eight hundred private and public high educational institutions. There are several institutions of higher learning up to the doctorate level in social sciences, business, and science and technology.

Transportation

Public transit

Pokhara has extensive privately operated public transportation system running throughout the city, adjoining townships and nearby villages. Pokhara Mahanagar Bus Bebasaya Samiti (green, brown and blue buses), Mama Bhanja Transport (blue buses), Bindabashini Samiti(blue buses), Phewa Bus Bebasaya Samiti(mini micros) and Lekhnath Bus Bebasaya Samiti (green and white buses) are the private companies that provide public bus transportation facility in and around Pokhara Valley. The public transport mainly consists of local and city buses, micros, micro-buses and metered-taxis.

Intercity connections

View of the new Pokhara International Airport Pokhara International Airport.jpg
View of the new Pokhara International Airport

Pokhara is well connected to the rest of the country through permanent road and air links. The main mode of transportation are Cars, Motorbikes, Public Buses, Taxis and the Purano Bus Park is the main hub for buses plying countrywide. The all-season Pokhara Airport with regular flights to Kathmandu, Mustang are operated by various domestic and a few international airlines. A new Pokhara International Airport is being constructed in the southeast of the city. [70] Flight duration from Kathmandu to Pokhara is approximately 30 minutes.

Rivers and lakes

Begnas lake lies in the east of Pokhara valley BegnasLake.jpg
Begnas lake lies in the east of Pokhara valley

Pokhara valley is rich in water sources. The major bodies of water in and around Pokhara are: [71] [72]

Lakes

Rivers

Sports and Recreation

The sporting activities are mainly centered in the multipurpose stadium Pokhara Rangasala (or Annapurna Stadium) in Rambazar. The popular sports are football, cricket, volleyball, basketball, martial arts, etc. The Sahara Club is one of the most active organizations promoting football in the city and organizes a South Asian club-level annual tournament: the Aaha Gold Cup. [73] Additionally, the Kaski District Football Association (KDFA) organizes Safal Pokhara Gold Cup, [74] which is also a South Asian club-level tournament and ANFA organizes local Kaski district club-level Balram KC memorial football tournament. [75] B-13, Sangam & LG are the powerhouse Football club in Pokhara. There are several tennis courts and a golf course [76] in the city. At 1100 meters, on the way, near Sarangkot hill, high mountain sports activity, paragliding is a good attraction for tourists as well as domestic tourists for adventure activities Nearby Sarangkot hill has developed as a good attraction for adventure activities such as paragliding [77] and skydiving. [78] The Pokhara city marathon, high altitude marathon are some activities attracting mass participation. [79] Adventure sports such as base jumping, paragliding, canyoning, rock climbing, bungee jumping, etc. are targeted towards tourists. [80] [81] [82] Pokhara Rhinos represents the city in Everest Premier League.

Music

The universal instruments used in Nepalese music include the madal (small leather drum), bansuri (bamboo flute), and saarangi. These instruments are prominent features of the traditional folk music (lok gít or lok geet) in Pokhara, which is actually the western (Gandaki, Dhaulagiri and Lumbini) branch of Nepali lok geet. Some examples of music of this region are Resham Firiri (रेशम फिरिरी) [83] and Khyalee Tune (ख्याली धुन). [84]

The lok geet started airing in Radio Nepal during the 1950s and artists such as Jhalakman Gandharva, Dharma Raj Thapa are considered pioneers in bringing the lok git into mass media. During early and late 1990s, bands from Pokhara like Nepathya started their very successful fusion of western rock and pop with traditional folk music. [85] Since then several other musical groups in Nepal have adopted the lok-pop/rock style producing dozens of albums every year.

Another important part of cultural music of western Nepal, and hence Pokhara, is the Panché Baaja (पञ्चे बाजा), a traditional musical band performed generally during marriage ceremonies by the damaai musicians. [86]

The musical culture in Pokhara is quite dynamic and in recent years, Western rock and roll, pop, rap and hip-hop are becoming increasingly popular with frequently held musical concerts; however, the traditional lok and modern (semi-classical) Nepali music are predominantly favored by the general population. More musical concerts are held in Pokhara than in any other city in the country. [87] [88]

Media and communications

Media and communication were quite limited until the 1990s. [89] However, in the following decade there has been a proliferation of private media in print, radio and television. There are 19 privately owned local FM stations in the Pokhara valley. An additional 4 FM stations from Kathmandu have their relay broadcast stations in Pokhara. [90] There are six community radio stations and four local television stations.

Approximately 14 national daily newspapers in Nepali are published in the city, [91] [92] [93] along with several other weekly and monthly news magazines. All major national newspapers published in Kathmandu have distributions in Pokhara. A number of online news portals are also updated from Pokhara, as well as some entertainment-based websites. [94] [95] Popular technology based web-magazine TechSansar also started in Pokhara. [96]

Pokhara has got 4G network of Nepal Telecom, Smart Cell and Ncell. The majority of the people in the city access internet through mobiles, numerous cyber cafes, and local wireless ISPs. Most tourist restaurants and hotels also provide WiFi services. Wi-Fi hotspots by Nepal Telecom using Wi-MAX technology [97] were launched in Feb. 2014, and are accessible in most parts of the city for a fee. [98] [99] Subscriber based internet is provided by several private ISP providers.

Notable people from Pokhara

People who live or have lived in Pokhara City are known as Pokhareli. In demographic terms, the Gurung people are the dominant ethnic group hailing from the hills around Pokhara such as Sikles, Armala, Ghalel gaun, Ghandruk, Lumle etc., with Brahmin from syangja, Newar and Magar making up the rest of Pokhara's population. Pokhara also has the highest number of Gurkha soldiers, majority of them belonging to Gurung and Magar ethnic groups who were categorized as martial race by the British Army. [8]

Related Research Articles

Manaslu Eight-thousander and 8th-highest mountain on Earth, located in Nepal

Manaslu is the eighth-highest mountain in the world at 8,163 metres (26,781 ft) above sea level. It is in the Mansiri Himal, part of the Nepalese Himalayas, in the west-central part of Nepal. The name Manaslu means "mountain of the spirit" and is derived from the Sanskrit word manasa, meaning "intellect" or "soul". Manaslu was first climbed on May 9, 1956 by Toshio Imanishi and Gyalzen Norbu, members of a Japanese expedition. It is said that, given the many unsuccessful attempts by the British to climb Everest before Edmund Hilary, "just as the British consider Everest their mountain, Manaslu has always been a Japanese mountain".

Gandaki Zone Zone in Nepal

Gandaki zone (Nepali: गण्डकी अञ्चलListen  was one of the fourteen zones of Nepal, located in the Western Development Region. It was named as Sapta Gandaki after the seven tributaries that makes up the Gandaki River. Pokhara served as its regional and zonal headquarter. It was also the birthplace of Bhanubhakta Acharya, first poet of Nepal.

Kaski District District in Gandaki Province, Nepal

Kaski District (Nepali: कास्की जिल्ला [kaski], a part of Gandaki Province, is one of the seventy-seven districts of Nepal. The name is disambiguated from Kaskikot, the ancient Kaski Kingdom.

Phewa Lake Lake in Nepal

Phewa Lake, Phewa Tal or Fewa Lake is a freshwater lake in Nepal formerly called Baidam Tal located in the south of the Pokhara Valley that includes Pokhara city; parts of Sarangkot and Kaskikot. The lake is stream-fed but a dam regulates the water reserves, therefore, the lake is classified as semi-natural freshwater lake. It is the second largest lake in Nepal; the largest in Gandaki Pradesh after the Rara lake in the comparison to Nepal's water bodies. It is the most popular and most visited lake of Nepal. It is the only lake in Nepal to have a templeTal Barahi Temple at the central part of lake. Phewa lake is located at an altitude of 742 m (2,434 ft) and covers an area of about 4.43 km2 (1.7 sq mi). It has an average depth of about 8.6 m (28 ft) and a maximum depth of 24 m (79 ft). Maximum water capacity of the lake is approximately 43,000,000 cubic metres (35,000 acre⋅ft). The Annapurna range on the north is only about 28 km away from the lake. The lake is also famous for the reflection of mount Machhapuchhre and other mountain peaks of the Annapurna and Dhaulagiri ranges on its surface. The Tal Barahi Temple is situated on an island in the lake. It is located 4 km from the city's centre Chipledhunga.

Pokhara Valley Valley in the hilly region of western Nepal

Pokhara Valley is the second-largest valley in the hilly region of Nepal. It lies in the western part of Nepal. The cities of Pokhara and Lekhnath are in the valley. It is located in Gandaki zone, 203 kilometres (126 mi) west of Kathmandu Valley. The city of Pokhara is one of the major cities of Nepal and it, like Kathmandu Valley, is extremely vulnerable to earthquakes due to its clay soil and liquefaction potential.

Ghandruk Village Development Committee in Gandaki Province, Nepal

Ghandruk is a Village Development Committee in the Kaski District of the Gandaki province of Nepal. Situated at a distance of 32 kms north-west to Pokhara, the village is readily accessible by public buses and private taxis from the provincial headquarter. At the time of the 1991 Nepal census, it had a population of 4,748 residing in 1,013 individual households.

Puranchaur Village Development Committee in Gandaki Province, Nepal

Puranchaur is a former Village Development Committee in Kaski District in the Gandaki Province of northern-central Nepal. It is now annexed to Pokhara metropolitan city, and is ward no. 19 of it. At the time of the 2011 Nepal census it had a population of 3,597 persons living in 865 individual households.

Saimarang Village Development Committee in Gandaki Zone, Nepal

Saimarang is a town and Village Development Committee in Kaski District in the Gandaki Pradesh of Western Nepal. At the time of the 2011 Nepal census it had a population of 1,171 persons living in 309 individual households. Saimarang owns a famous Temple Bhagawati Temple and hill known as Lamtari there is a famous Devi tample called Lamtari Mai which is in front of Pokhara Valley. We can see the Annapurna Himalayan range at the back and Begnash, Rupa and Fewa lake in the front. Also there are several adventures such as caves, rocky hills. Local people in Warchowk and Togi are working hard to make the Saimarang VDC a good place for Adventurous Tourism. The people there are very helpful.

Sarangkot Subdivision of Pokhara in Gandaki Zone, Nepal

Sarangkot is Ward 18 of Pokhara, Kaski District, Nepal, after it was merged into the city in 2015. It is a popular tourist destination for those who arrive in Pokhara. At the 1991 Nepal census it had a total population of 5,060 with 1,010 individual households.

Kaskikot Subdivision of Pokhara Metropolitan City in Gandaki Pradesh, Nepal

Kaskikot, commonly known as Kaski, is a Ward no. 24 of the Pokhara metropolitan city. It was earlier a part of the village development committee in Kaski District, a region in northern-central Nepal.

Naudanda City in Gandaki Zone, Nepal

Naudanda is a village in Kaski District in the Gandaki Zone of northern-central Nepal. There are views of the Annapurna Range from this area of Pokhara, Nepal. It is on the way to Sarangkot, the world's 5th paragliding spot 6 km away from Pokhara.

Begnas Lake Lake in Kaski district of Nepal

Begnas Lake is a freshwater lake in Pokhara Lekhnath Metropolis of Kaski district of Nepal located in the south-east of the Pokhara Valley. The lake is the third largest lake of Nepal and second largest, after Phewa Lake, among the eight lakes in Pokhara Valley. Water level in the lake fluctuates seasonally due to rain, and utilization for irrigation. The water level is regulated through a dam constructed in 1988 on the western outlet stream, Khudi Khola.

Rupa Lake A freshwater lake in Nepal

Rupa Lake or Rupa Tal is a freshwater lake in Nepal located in the border of Pokhara Metropolitan and Rupa Rural Municipality of Kaski District. It is the third biggest lake in Pokhara valley of Nepal and at an altitude of 600 m (1,969 ft) covering area about 1.35 km2 (0.5 sq mi) with an average water depth 3 m and maximum depth 6 m. The lake is elongated north to south and is fed by perennial streams. Its watershed area is 30 km², where The main inflow of water is from Talbesi stream, whereas Dhovan khola is the feeder stream with its outlet Tal khola at Sistani ghat. It supports a number of floral and faunal species. A total of 36 species of waterbirds have been recorded in the lake which represents about 19 percent of the total 193 wetland-dependent birds found in Nepal.

Seti Gandaki River River in Nepal

The Seti Gandaki River, also known as the Seti River or the Seti Khola, is a river of western Nepal, a left tributary of the Trishuli River. Its gorges around Pokhara are a major attraction for tourists worldwide.

Tal Barahi Temple Hindu temple in Nepal

Tal Barahi Temple, also known as Lake Temple or Barahi Temple is a two-story pagoda temple located in the Kaski District of the Gandaki Zone in western Nepal. It is a hindu temple of the Goddess Durga (Barahi), the protector of gods. It is located in a small island on the south east section of Phewa Lake in Pokhara. The temple is used for worship by Hindus. We have to take a boat from Lakeside to reach Tal Barahi temple.

Paudhur Village in Nepal in Gandaki Pradesh

Paundur (पाउँदुर) is a central village in Kaski district of Gandaki Province of Nepal. It lies about 28 km west of the Pokhara valley and 38 km east of Kushma, Parbat. It is a part of ward no. 3 of Annapurna Gaupalika of Gandaki Pradesh of Nepal, and was the ward no.5 and 8 of the former Dhikurpokhari VDC.It lies west of Nagdanda; nearest sub urban area. There are more than 100 houses in this village.

Annapurna Rural Municipality, Kaski Gaunpalika in Gandaki, Nepal

Annapurna Rural Municipality, Kaski is a Gaunpalika in Kaski District in Gandaki Province of Nepal. In 12 march 2017, the government of Nepal implemented a new local administrative structure, with the implementation of the new local administrative structure, VDSs have been replaced with municipal and Village Councils. Annapurna is one of these 753 local units.

Yamdi Khola(Nepali : यामदी खोला) is a tributary of Seti Gandaki River in Pokhara.

References

  1. 1 2 "Pokhara Lekhnath becomes largest metropolitan city". The Kathmandu Post. 13 March 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
  2. "Places proposed for temporary capitals of all seven provinces". kathmandutribune.com. 2 January 2018. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
  3. Earthquake Risk Reduction and Recovery Preparedness Programme for Nepal: UNDP/ERRRP – Project Nep/07/010 (2009). "Report on Impact of Settlement Pattern, Land Use Practice and Options in High Risk Areas: Pokhara Metropolitan City" (PDF). Kathmandu: UNDP, Nepal. p. 10. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 October 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
  4. United Nations Field Coordination Office (UNFCO) (7 June 2011). "An Overview of the Western Development Region of Nepal" (PDF). Bharatpur, Nepal: United Nations: Nepal Information Platform. pp. 1–9.
  5. Pradhan, Pushkar Kumar (1982). "A Study of Traffic Flow on Siddartha and Prithvi Highway". The Himalayan Review. 14: 38–51. Archived from the original on 23 October 2013.
  6. 1 2 Nepal, S. K.; Kohler, T.; Banzhaf, B. R. (2002). Great Himalaya: tourism and the dynamics of change in Nepal. Zürich, Switzerland: Swiss Foundation for Alpine Research. ISBN   978-3-85515-106-6.
  7. Holden, Andrew; Sparrowhawk, John (2002). "Understanding the motivations of ecotourists: the case of trekkers in Annapurna, Nepal". International Journal of Tourism Research. 4 (6): 435–446. doi:10.1002/jtr.402. ISSN   1522-1970.
  8. 1 2 Gray, Denis (7 July 2016). "Nepal's legendary Gurkhas face an uncertain future". Nikkei. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  9. Schwanghart, W.; Bernhardt, Anne; Stolle, Amelie; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Andermann, Christoff; Tofelde, Stefanie; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver (7 January 2016). "Repeated catastrophic valley infill following medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya". Science. 351 (6269): 147–150. Bibcode:2016Sci...351..147S. doi:10.1126/science.aac9865. PMID   26676354. S2CID   206641303.
  10. Furer-Haimendorf, Christoph von (1978). "Trans-Himalayan Traders in Transition". In Fisher, James F. (ed.). Himalayan Anthropology. Great Britain: Mouton Publishers. p. 339. ISBN   978-90-279-7700-7.
  11. Adhikari, Jagannath (2017). Pokhara - Urbanization, Environment and Development. Amazon.com. pp. Location 42 - Kindle Ed.
  12. Blaikie, P. M.; Cameron, John; Seddon, John Davis (2005). "The Growth of Towns in West-Central Nepal". Nepal in Crisis: Growth and Stagnation at the Periphery. New Delhi, India: Adroit Publishers. pp. Chapter 6. ISBN   978-81-87392-19-4.
  13. Onta, Pratyoush; Liechty, Mark; Tama, Seira (December 2005). "Studies in Nepali History and Society". ResearchGate. Mandala Book Point, Kathmandu: Centre for Social Research and Development, Nepal Studies Group. 10 (2): 290. ISSN   1025-5109.
  14. Whelpton, John (2005). A History of Nepal. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-0-521-80026-6.
  15. Ragsdale, Tod Anthony (1989). Once a hermit kingdom: ethnicity, education and national integration in Nepal. Kathmandu: Manohar Publ. ISBN   978-81-85054-75-9.
  16. Genetti, Carol (2007). "Context: The distribution of Newars throughout Nepal". A Grammar of Dolakha Newar. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, GmbH & Co., KG. p. 12. ISBN   978-3-11-019303-9.
  17. Adhikari, Jagannath; Seddon, David (2002). Pokhara: biography of a town. Kathmandu, Nepal: Mandala Publications. ISBN   978-9993310143.
  18. Ragsdale, Tod A. (January 1990). "Gurung, Gorkhalis, Gurkhas: Speculations on a Nepalese Ethno-History" (PDF). CNAS Journal. 17 (1): 1–24. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 June 2013.
  19. Frechette, Ann (2002). Tibetans in Nepal: The Dynamics of International Assistance Among a Community in Exile (Studies in forced Migration  Vol. 11 ed.). USA: Berghahn Books. p.  136. ISBN   978-1-57181-157-8.
  20. Chhetri, Ram, B. (July 1990). Adaptation of Tibetan Refugees in Pokhara, Nepal: A Study on Persistence and Change. Theses for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy (University of Hawaii at Manoa) No. 2542 (Thesis). hdl:10125/9334.
  21. Regmi Research Project (1979). Nepal Press Digest (Vol. 20, Issue 20 ed.). Regmi Research (Private) Ltd. p. 13.
  22. Bindloss, Joe; Holden, Trent; Mayhew, Bradley (2009). Nepal (8th ed.). Melbourne, Australia: Lonely Planet Publications. pp. 235–270. ISBN   9781741048322.
  23. Sharma, Pitamber (2000). "Phewa Lakeside: Problems of tourism and common property resources". Tourism as Development: Case Studies from the Himalaya. Kathmandu: Himal Books. p. 53. ISBN   978-99933-13-00-7.
  24. Gurung, Harka B. (2001). Pokhara Valley: A Geographical Survey. pokhara, Nepal: Nepal Geographical Society.
  25. Joshi, S. C.; Haigh, M. J.; Pangtey, Y. P. S.; Joshi, D. R.; Dani, D. D. (1986). Joshi, S. C (ed.). Nepal Himalaya: geo-ecological perspectives. Naini Tal, India: Himalayan Research Group. pp. 78–80.
  26. Bezruchka, Stephen; Lyons, Alonzo (2011). Trekking Nepal: A Traveler's Guide (8th ed.). Seattle, Washington, USA: The Mountaineers Books. p. 34. ISBN   978-0-89886-613-1.
  27. Tripathi, M. P.; Singh, S. B. (1996). "Histogenesis and Functional Characteristics of Pokhara, Nepal". New Perspectives in Urban Geography. New Delhi, India: M D Publications Pvt. Ltd. pp. 51–60. ISBN   978-81-7533-014-6.
  28. Fort, Monique (2010). "The Pokhara Valley: A Product of a Natural Catastrophe". In Migoń, Piotr (ed.). Geomorphological Landscapes of the World . London: Springer. pp.  265–274. ISBN   978-90-481-3054-2.
  29. Paudel, Lalu Prasad; Arita, Kazunori (April 2000). "Tectonic and polymetamorphic history of the Lesser Himalaya in central Nepal". Journal of Asian Earth Sciences. 18 (5): 561–584. Bibcode:2000JAESc..18..561P. doi:10.1016/S1367-9120(99)00069-3. ISSN   1367-9120.
  30. Herzog, Maurice (1952). Annapurna: The First Conquest of an 8,000-meter Peak (Kindle Edition in 2011 ed.). New York, NY, USA: E. P. Dutton & Co. Inc. ISBN   978-1-4532-2073-3.
  31. Negi, S. S. (1998). "Geographical Profile". Discovering the Himalaya. New Delhi, India: Indus Publishing Company. pp. 9–55. ISBN   978-81-7387-079-8.
  32. Gautam, Pitamber; Pant, Surendra Raj; Ando, Hisao (July 2000). "Mapping of subsurface karst structure with gamma ray and electrical resistivity profiles: a case study from Pokhara valley, central Nepal". Journal of Applied Geophysics. 45 (2): 97–110. Bibcode:2000JAG....45...97G. doi:10.1016/S0926-9851(00)00022-7. hdl: 2115/42497 . ISSN   0926-9851.
  33. Thapa, Netra Bahadur; Thapa, D. P. (1969). Geography of Nepal: physical, economic, cultural & regional. Bombay, India: Orient Longmans. p. 186.
  34. Kansakar, Sunil R; Hannah, David M.; Gerrard, John; Rees, Gwyn (2004). "Spatial pattern in the precipitation regime of Nepal". International Journal of Climatology. 24 (13): 1645–1659. Bibcode:2004IJCli..24.1645K. doi:10.1002/joc.1098. ISSN   1097-0088.
  35. Taylor, Chris (1998–1999). "The High Mountain Valleys and Passes". Traveler's Companion Nepal. France: Allan Amsel Publishing. pp. 184–190. ISBN   978-0-7627-0231-2.
  36. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 27 February 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link). Retrieved 27 February 2016.
  37. NEPAL-POKHARA AIRPORT Archived 11 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine . Centro de Investigaciones Fitosociológicas. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
  38. "National Population and Housing Census 2011" (PDF). unstats.un.org. 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 June 2020. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  39. Thapa, Ram Bahadur (2004). "Financial Resource Mobilization in Pokhara Municipal Corporation". Journal of Nepalese Business Studies. 1 (1): 81–84. doi: 10.3126/jnbs.v1i1.42 .
  40. Piipuu, Merilin (10 September 2014). "Pokhara tries to save its famous paddy" (723). Nepali Times.
  41. Himalayan News Service (17 May 2013). "Project Pokhara". The Himalayan Times.
  42. Baniya, Lal Bahadur (2004). "Human Resource Development Practice in Nepalese Business Organizations: A Case Study of Manufacturing Enterprises in Pokhara". Journal of Nepalese Business Studies. 1 (1): 58–68. doi: 10.3126/jnbs.v1i1.39 .
  43. "Bijaypur Khola-2 Hydropower Project". Nepal Water Resource Portal. 2 July 2020. Archived from the original on 2 July 2020. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  44. Boke, Charis (2008). "Faithful Leisure, Faithful Work: Religious Practice as an Act of Consumption in Nepal". Himalayan Research Papers Archive: 1–21.
  45. Adhikari, Jagannath (2004). "A socio-ecological analysis of 'the loss of public properties in an urban environivient: a case study of Pokhara, Nepal" (PDF). Contributions to Nepalese Studies. 31 (1): 85–114.
  46. Barclay, John (2009). "The Church in Nepal: Analysis of its Gestation and Growth". International Bulletin of Missionary Research. 33 (4): 189–194. doi:10.1177/239693930903300406. ISSN   0272-6122. S2CID   149187834.
  47. Poudel, Khagendra Raj (8 August 2019). Peskova, Katerina (ed.). Tour Guide Team | Private Trekking Tours in Nepal, Nepal (PDF). Nepal tour guide team. ISBN   978-80-254-1340-1.
  48. Nakanishi, Masami; Watanabe, M. M.; Terashima, A.; Sako, Y.; Konda, T.; Shrestha, K.; Bhandary, H. K.; Ishida, Y. (2019). "Studies on Some Limnological Variables in Subtropical Lakes of the Pokhara Valley, Nepal". Japanese Journal of Limnology. 49 (2): 71–86. doi: 10.3739/rikusui.49.71 . ISSN   0021-5104.
  49. Ross, Jamie; Gilbert, Robert (February 1999). "Lacustrine sedimentation in a monsoon environment: the record from Phewa Tal, middle mountain region of Nepal". Geomorphology. 27 (3–4): 307–323. Bibcode:1999Geomo..27..307R. doi:10.1016/S0169-555X(98)00079-8. ISSN   0169-555X.
  50. Rai, Ash Kumar (2008). "Environmental Impact from River Damming for Hydroelectric Power Generation and Means of Mitigation" (PDF). Hydro Nepal: Journal of Water, Energy and Environment. 1 (2): 22–25. doi:10.3126/hn.v1i0.881. ISSN   1998-5452. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
  51. Pokharel, Shailendra (2008). "Conservation of Phewa Lake of Pokhara, Nepal". The Research Center for Sustainability and Environment, Shiga University.
  52. Shrestha, M. K.; Batajoo, R. K.; Karki, G. B. (2002). "Prospects of fisheries enhancement and aquaculture in lakes and reservoirs of nepal". In Petr, T.; Swar, D. B (eds.). Cold Water Fisheries in the Trans-Himalayan Countries. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome: FAO Fisheries Technical Papers 431. p. 289. ISBN   978-92-5-104807-8.
  53. Hall, C. Michael; Page, Stephen (2011). "18: Tourism in Nepal, Bhutan and Tibet: contrasts in the facilitation, constraining and control of tourism in the Himalayas  Nepal". Tourism in South and South East Asia: Issues and Cases. New York: Routledge. pp. 256–264. ISBN   9780750641289.
  54. Kantipur News Service (1 January 2014). "Pokhara tourism expects 2014 to herald new era of growth". Kantipur.
  55. Rai, Ash Kumar (2000). "Evaluation of natural food for planktivorous fish in Lakes Phewa, Begnas, and Rupa in Pokhara Valley, Nepal". Limnology. 1 (2): 81–89. doi:10.1007/s102010070014. S2CID   23782376.
  56. Zurick, D. N. (1992). "Adventure Travel and Sustainable Tourism in the Peripheral Economy of Nepal". Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 82 (4): 608–628. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8306.1992.tb01720.x.
  57. Adhikari, B. (2011). "Tourism Strategy of Nepalese Government And Tourist's Purpose of Visit in Nepal". Aichi Shukutoku Knowledge Archive. 7: 79–94. hdl:10638/4985. ISSN   1881-0373.
  58. Himalayan News Service (18 December 2011). "Pokhara gets another key attraction". The Himalayan Times. Kathmandu. Archived from the original on 15 May 2012. Retrieved 8 April 2012.
  59. Smith, C. (1989). Butterflies of Nepal (Central Himalaya): a colour field guide including all the 614 species recorded up-to-date. Bangkok, Thailand: Tecpress Service. p. 351. ISBN   9789748684932.
  60. Official Website. "The Gurkha Memorial Museum". Gurkha Memorial Museum Nepal.
  61. Sedai, R. C. (2011). "Tourist Accommodation Facilities in the major Tourist Areas of Nepal". Nepal Tourism and Development Review. 1 (1): 102–123. doi: 10.3126/ntdr.v1i1.7374 .
  62. "2 new cable car lines to be built in Pokhara". webcache.googleusercontent.com. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  63. "Chitawon Co-E Group". www.chitawoncoe.com.np. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  64. Sapkota, Shreya (27 November 2017). "Sarangkot Cable Car Line to be Built in Pokhara". TechLekh: Latest Tech News, Reviews, Startups and Apps in Nepal. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  65. "Sikles-Annapurna Cable Car". Issuu. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  66. Heide, Susanne von der; Hoffman, Thomas (2001). Aspects of Migration and Mobility in Nepal. Portland, OR, USA: Hawthorne Blvd Books. ISBN   978-9993303619.
  67. Official Website, Nepalese Army. "Western Division". Kathmandu: Nepalese Army (नेपाली सेना). Archived from the original on 16 April 2012. Retrieved 8 April 2012.
  68. Official Website, Brigade of Gurkhas. "British Gurkhas Recruiting". UK: British Army. Archived from the original on 14 March 2012.
  69. Official Website. "Pension Paying Office at Pokhara". India: Indian Embassy, Nepal. Archived from the original on 16 October 2011.
  70. Himalayan News Service (15 October 2011). "Pokhara to have international airport". The Himalayan Times. Kathmandu.
  71. Thapa, Gopal B.; Weber, Karl E. (June 1992). "Deforestation in the Upper Pokhara Valley, Nepal". Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography. 12 (1): 52–67. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9493.1991.tb00028.x.
  72. Bisht, Ramesh Chandra (2008). International Encyclopaedia of Himalayas (Vol. 4, Nepal Himalayas ed.). Mittal Publications. ISBN   978-81-8324-269-1.
  73. Himalayan News Service (29 January 2012). "Sahara set for Aaha Gold Cup". The Himalayan Times. Kathmandu.
  74. Himalayan News Service (24 October 2011). "Safal Pokhara Cup in November". The Himalayan Times. Kathmandu.
  75. Republica Sports (26 December 2009). "Pokhara Valley win football tournament". Republica. Kathmandu.
  76. "A Golfing High at Pokhara's Himalayan Golf Course". Himalayan Golf Course Pokhara.
  77. Goldberg, Kory; Décary, Michelle (2009). "Kathmandu  Pokhara". Along the Path  The Mediator's Companion to the Buddha's Land. Onalaska, WA, USA: Pariyatti Press. pp. 326–329. ISBN   978-1-928706-56-4.
  78. Himalayan News Service (1 November 2010). "Pokhara skies offer divers a swell time". The Himalayan Times. Kathmandu.
  79. "Annapurna marathon begins Thursday". Republica. Kathmandu, Nepal. 27 April 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
  80. Neupane, Kul Chandra (11 January 2004). "Paragliding lures more tourists to Pokhara". The Kathmandu Post.
  81. Sharma, Lal Prasad (8 March 2012). "Pokhara entrepreneurs trying to lure more domestic tourists". e-Kantipur (Kantipur Publications).
  82. Sharma, Shiva (22 September 2014). "High Ground introduces bungy jumping in Pokhara" (XXII (216), pp. 13–14). The Kathmandu Post. Kantipur News Service. Archived from the original on 14 October 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
  83. Gandharva, Tirtha Bd. "Resham Firiri". MetaLab & MusicNepal.
  84. Nepali, Ram Sharan. "Khyalee Tune". MetaLab & MusicNepal.
  85. Greene, Paul D. (2002–2003). "Nepal's "Lok Pop" Music: Representations of the Folk, Tropes of Memory, and Studio Technologies". Asian Music. 34 (1): 43–65. JSTOR   834421.
  86. Tingey, Carol (1994). Auspicious music in a changing society: The Dāmai musicians of Nepal. New Delhi, India: Heritage Publishers. ISBN   978-8170261933.
  87. Acharya, Madhu Raman (2002). Nepal culture shift!: Reinventing Culture in the Himalayan Kingdom. New Delhi, India: Adroit Publishers. ISBN   978-8-18-739226-2.
  88. Wallach, Jeremy; Berger, Harris M.; Greene, Paul D. (2011). "Metal and the Nation" . Metal Rules the Globe: Heavy Metal Music Around the World. Durham, NC, USA: Duke University Press. p.  107. ISBN   978-0-8223-4733-0.
  89. Wilmore, Michael (2008). Developing Alternative Media Traditions in Nepal. Langam, MD, USA: Lexington Books. ISBN   978-0-7391-2525-0.
  90. Lin, Kong Yen; Dixit, Kunda (1–7 May 2009). "Women on air". Nepali Times. Archived from the original on 4 May 2009. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
  91. "समाचारपाटी डटकम (पोखराबाट संचालित राष्ट्रिय स्तरको अनलाइन पत्रिका)".
  92. "आदर्श समाज राष्ट्रिय दैनिक".
  93. "समाधान राष्ट्रिय दैनिक". Archived from the original on 19 April 2012. Retrieved 8 April 2012.
  94. "गन्थन डट कम".
  95. Kshetri, Indra Dhoj (2008). "Online News Portals in Nepal: An Overview". Bodhi. 2 (1): 260–267. doi: 10.3126/bodhi.v2i1.2876 . ISSN   2091-0479.
  96. "About TechSansar". About TechSansar. 17 October 2014. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
  97. "List & Location of available NT WiFi Hotspots". TechSansar.com. 15 March 2015. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
  98. Bhuju, Kriti (9 February 2014). "NT offers free Wi-Fi for a month". My Republica. Archived from the original on 2 November 2014. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
  99. Nepal Telecom. "WiMAX : Wireless Broadband Internet Service: List of NT WiFi Hotspots". www.ntc.net.np. Nepal Telecom. Archived from the original on 5 March 2014. Retrieved 24 September 2014.