Pola Negri

Last updated

Pola Negri
Pola Negri Ball.jpg
Negri in 1931
Apolonia Chalupec

(1897-01-03)3 January 1897
Died1 August 1987(1987-08-01) (aged 90)
Resting place Calvary Cemetery (Los Angeles), California, U.S.
34°01′42″N118°10′36″W / 34.02833°N 118.17667°W / 34.02833; -118.17667
  • Actress
  • singer
Years active1914–1964
Count Eugeniusz Dąbski
(m. 1919;div. 1922)

Prince Serge Mdivani
(m. 1927;div. 1931)

Pola Negri ( /ˈpləˈnɛɡri/ ; born Apolonia Chalupec [lower-alpha 1] [apɔˈlɔɲa xaˈwupɛt͡s] ; 3 January 1897 [lower-alpha 2] – 1 August 1987) was a Polish stage and film actress and singer. She achieved worldwide fame during the silent and golden eras of Hollywood and European film for her tragedienne and femme fatale roles and was acknowledged as a sex symbol. [9]


Raised in the Congress Kingdom of Poland, Negri's childhood was marked by several personal hardships: After her father was sent to Siberia, she was raised by her single mother in poverty, and suffered tuberculosis as a teenager. Negri recovered, and went on to study ballet and acting in Warsaw, becoming a well-known stage actress there. In 1917, she relocated to Germany, where she began appearing in silent films for the Berlin-based UFA studio. Her film performances for UFA came to the attention of Hollywood executives at Paramount Pictures, who offered her a film contract.

Negri signed with Paramount in 1922, making her the first European actress in history to be contracted in Hollywood. She spent much of the 1920s working in the United States appearing in numerous films for Paramount, establishing herself as one of the most popular actresses in American silent film. In the 1930s, during the emergence of sound film, Negri returned to Europe, where she appeared in multiple films for Pathé Films and UFA, and also began a career as a recording artist. She made only two films after 1940, her last screen credit being in Walt Disney's The Moon-Spinners (1964).

Negri spent her later life largely outside the public sphere. She became a naturalized U.S. citizen in 1951, and spent the remainder of her life living in San Antonio, Texas, where she died of pneumonia secondary to a brain tumor for which she refused treatment, in 1987, aged 90.

Early life

Negri was born Apolonia Chalupec on 3 January 1897 in Lipno, Congress Poland, Russian Empire (present-day Lipno, Poland), the only surviving child (of three) of a Polish mother, Eleonora Kiełczewska (died 24 August 1954). According to Negri, her mother came from impoverished Polish nobility, [10] with her family having lost their fortune over support of Napoléon Bonaparte. [11] Negri's father, Juraj Chalupec (Polish transcription Jerzy Chałupec or Chałupiec, died 1920), was an itinerant Romani-Slovak tinsmith from Nesluša. [12] [13] After her father was arrested by the Russian authorities for revolutionary activities and sent to Siberia, she and her mother moved to Warsaw, where they lived in poverty, [14] with her mother supporting them by working as a cook. [15]

Chalupec was raised Catholic by her mother, who was a lifelong practicing Catholic. [16] In her youth, Chalupec was accepted into Warsaw's Imperial Ballet Academy. [17] Her first dance performance was in the danse des petits cygnes in Tchaikovsky's Swan Lake ; she worked her way up to a solo role in the Saint-Léon ballet Coppélia . However, a bout with tuberculosis forced her to stop dancing; she was sent to a sanatorium in Zakopane to recover. [15] During her three-month convalescence, she adopted the pseudonym Pola Negri, after the Italian novelist and poet Ada Negri; [18] "Pola" was short for her own name, Apolonia (sometimes spelled Apollonia). [19]


Polish theatre and film

Pola Negri is very temperamental, but she has her temper under tight control. She, like other high-strung actresses as Norma Talmadge and Anna Q. Nilsson, resorts to tears if anything goes wrong. These three women I rate as the best on the screen today. It is a joy to direct them: they are so sensitive to impressions. But if any of them is asked to portray a character in a way that she thinks is alien to the part, she will not be able to go on".—Director Herbert Brenon (1880-1958) in Motion Picture Magazine, February 1926. [20]

After Negri returned from the sanatorium, she successfully auditioned at the Warsaw Imperial Academy of Dramatic Arts. Alongside her formal schooling at the academy, she took private classes outside with renowned Polish stage actress and professor Honorata Leszczyńska. She made her theatrical debut before her graduation at The Small Theatre in Warsaw on 2 October 1912.

She made her stage debut in 1913 in Gerhardt Hauptmann's Hannele in Warsaw and appeared the following year in her first film, Niewolnica zmysłów. She continued to perform there while finishing her studies at the academy, graduating in 1914. Her graduating performance was as Hedwig in Ibsen's The Wild Duck , which resulted in offers to join a number of the prominent theatres in Warsaw. [21]

By the end of World War I, Negri had established herself as a popular stage actress. She made an appearance at the Grand Theatre in Sumurun, as well as in the Small Theatre (Aleksander Fredro's Śluby panieńskie), and at the Summer Theatre in the Saxon Garden. She debuted in film in 1914 in Slave to her Senses (Niewolnica zmysłów). She appeared in a variety of films made by the Warsaw film industry, including Bestia (Beast, released in the US as The Polish Dancer), Room No. 13 (Pokój nr 13), His Last Gesture (Jego ostatni czyn), Students (Studenci), and The Wife (Żona). [22]

Ernst Lubitsch and German silent film career

Negri in Sumurun (1920) Pola Negri German movie card (Sumurun).jpg
Negri in Sumurun (1920)

Negri's popularity in Poland provided her with an opportunity to move to Berlin, Germany in 1917, to appear as the dancing girl in a German revival of Max Reinhardt's theatre production of Sumurun. In this production, she met Ernst Lubitsch, [23] who at the time was producing comedies for the German film studio UFA. Negri was first signed with Saturn Films, making six films with them, including Wenn das Herz in Haß erglüht (If the Heart Burns With Hate, 1917). After this, she signed to UFA's roster; some of the films that she made with UFA include Mania (1918), Der Gelbe Schein (The Yellow Ticket, also 1918), and Komtesse Doddy (1919). [24]

In 1918, Lubitsch convinced UFA to let him create a large-scale film with Negri as the main character. The result was Die Augen der Mumie Ma (The Eyes of the Mummy Ma, 1918), which was a popular success and led to a series of Lubitsch/Negri collaborations, each larger in scale than the previous film. The next was Carmen (1918, reissued in the United States in 1921 as Gypsy Blood), which was followed by Madame DuBarry (1919, released in the U.S. as Passion). [25] Madame DuBarry became a huge international success, brought down the American embargo on German films, and launched a demand that briefly threatened to dislodge Hollywood's dominance in the international film market. [26] Negri and Lubitsch made three German films together after this, Sumurun (aka One Arabian Night, 1920), Die Bergkatze (aka The Mountain Cat or The Wildcat, 1921), and Die Flamme (The Flame, 1922), and UFA employed Negri for films with other directors, including Vendetta (1919) and Sappho (1921), many of which were purchased by American distributors and shown in the United States. [27]

Drawing of Pola Negri by Milena Pavlovic-Barili Pola Negri (M.P.Barili).png
Drawing of Pola Negri by Milena Pavlović-Barili

Hollywood responded to this new threat by buying out key German talent, beginning with the procuration of the services of Lubitsch and Negri. Lubitsch was the first director to be brought to Hollywood, with Mary Pickford calling for his services in her costume film Rosita (1923). Paramount Pictures mogul Jesse Lasky saw the premiere of Madame DuBarry in Berlin in 1919, and Paramount invited Negri to come to Hollywood in 1921. She signed a $3,000 a week contract with Paramount and arrived in New York in a flurry of publicity on 12 September 1922. [28] This made Negri the first-ever Continental star to be imported into Hollywood, [29] setting a precedent for imported European stars that included Vilma Bánky, Greta Garbo, and Marlene Dietrich, among many others. The Hot Dog, a Cleveland monthly publication, in its own promotional advertisement for Paramount in February 1922 claimed Negri's true name was Paula Schwartz, and that she was Jewish, [30] which was completely untrue. [31]

Paramount period

Negri and Rod La Rocque in a publicity portrait for Forbidden Paradise (1924) Pola Negri and Rod La Rocque.jpg
Negri and Rod La Rocque in a publicity portrait for Forbidden Paradise (1924)

Negri ended up becoming one of the most popular Hollywood actresses of the era, and certainly the richest woman of the film industry at the time, [32] living in a mansion in Los Angeles modeled after the White House. While in Hollywood, she started several ladies' fashion trends, some of which are still fashion staples today, including red painted toenails, fur boots, and turbans. [33] Negri was a frequent photography subject of Hollywood portrait photographer Eugene Robert Richee, and several photographs of her were taken during this period. [34] [35]

Negri's first two Paramount films were Bella Donna (1923) and The Cheat (1923), both of which were directed by George Fitzmaurice and were remakes of Paramount films from 1915. Her first spectacle film was the Herbert Brenon-directed The Spanish Dancer (1923), based on the Victor Hugo novel Don César de Bazan. The initial screenplay was intended as a vehicle for Rudolph Valentino before he left Paramount and was reworked for Negri. Rosita , Lubitsch's film with Mary Pickford, was released the same year and happened to be based on Don César de Bazan . According to the book Paramount Pictures and the People Who Made Them, "Critics had a field day comparing the two. The general opinion was that the Pickford film was more polished, but the Negri film was more entertaining." [36]

Initially Paramount used Negri as a mysterious European femme fatale and a clotheshorse as they had done with Gloria Swanson and staged an ongoing feud between the two actresses, which actor Charlie Chaplin recalled in his autobiography as "a mélange of cooked-up jealousies and quarrels." [37] Negri was concerned that Paramount was mishandling her career and image and arranged for her former director Ernst Lubitsch to direct her in the critically acclaimed Forbidden Paradise (1924). It was the last time the two worked together in any film. By 1925, Negri's on-screen continental opulence was starting to wear thin with some segments of the American audience, a situation parodied in the Mal St. Clair-directed comedy A Woman of the World (1925), in which Negri starred. [38]

Negri with Warner Baxter in a publicity still for Three Sinners (1928) Pola Negri and Warner Baxter - Three Sinners 5.jpg
Negri with Warner Baxter in a publicity still for Three Sinners (1928)

In 1926, Negri starred in The Crown of Lies and Good and Naughty , the former of which earned an unfavorable review in Photoplay magazine, which deemed it an "impossible Pola Negri vehicle. If you have nothing else to do—see this and suffer with Pola." [39] Paramount transitioned into casting Negri in international peasant roles the following year in films such as the Mauritz Stiller-directed and Erich Pommer-produced Hotel Imperial (1927), in an apparent effort to give her a more down-to-earth, relatable image. [40] Although Hotel Imperial reportedly fared well at the box office, her next film Barbed Wire (1927), directed by Rowland V. Lee, and a number of subsequent films did not, reportedly due to negative publicity about her behavior at Rudolph Valentino's funeral (she fainted few times and cried exaggeratedly [41] ) and her rebound marriage to Georgian prince Serge Mdivani, [42] although her films continued to fare well internationally. Negri defended herself, saying: "It is difficult for a foreigner coming to America...I had been told so much what not to do. It was particularly difficult for me, a Slav. My emotion seemed exaggerated to Americans. I cannot help that I haven't the Anglo-Saxon restraint and tact." [42]

In 1928 Negri was earning $10,000 a week, [28] and was directed by Rowland V. Lee in another three films ( The Secret Hour , Three Sinners , and Loves of an Actress ), before making her last film for Paramount Pictures, The Woman from Moscow , with Norman Kerry. Negri claimed in her autobiography she opted not to renew her contract with Paramount, choosing to retire from films and live as a wife at the Château de Rueil-Seraincourt, near Vigny that she owned and where she had married her second husband. [43] [21] The same year, her short volume featuring reflections on art and film, La Vie et Le Rêve au Cinéma (lit. English: Life and Dreams of the Cinema), edited by Albin Michel, was published. [44] By 1929, she had reportedly earned $5 million. [28]

Later films; return to UFA

Negri in a publicity portrait from Hi Diddle Diddle (1943) Pola publicilty portrait 5.jpg
Negri in a publicity portrait from Hi Diddle Diddle (1943)

Negri's initial 1928 retirement turned out to be short-lived. Negri miscarried her pregnancy and later learned that her husband was gambling her fortune away on speculative business ventures, which strained their relationship. She went back to acting when an independent production company offered her work in a British film production that was to be distributed by Gaumont-British. Initially the film was to be a filmed version of George Bernard Shaw's Caesar and Cleopatra , and Shaw offered to alter the play to suit the film. [45] When the rights proved to be too expensive, the company settled on an original story and hired German Kammerspielfilm director Paul Czinner to direct. The resulting film, The Way of Lost Souls (also known as The Woman He Scorned), was released in 1929; it was Negri's final silent film. [38]

Negri returned to Hollywood in 1931 to begin filming her first talking film, A Woman Commands (1932). The film itself was poorly received, but Negri's rendition of the song "Paradise", the centerpiece of the film, became a sizable hit in the sheet music format. The song became a minor standard and was covered by many other performers, including Russ Columbo, Louis Prima and Keely Smith. Negri went on a successful vaudeville tour to promote the song. She then was employed in the leading role of the touring theatre production A Trip to Pressburg, which premiered at the Shubert Theatre in New York. However, she collapsed after the final curtain at the production's stop in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, due to gallbladder inflammation, [46] and was unable to complete the tour. [47] Negri returned to France to appear in Fanatisme (Fanaticism, 1934), a historical costume film about Napoleon III. The film was directed by the directorial team of Tony Lekain and Gaston Ravel and released by Pathé. It was her only French film. [38]

After this, actor-director Willi Forst brought Negri to Germany appear in the film Mazurka (1935). The film was considered "artistically valuable" (German: künstlerisch wertvoll) by the Reichsfilmkammer. Mazurka gained much popularity in Germany and abroad and became one of Adolf Hitler's favorite films, a fact that, along with her admiring comments about the efficiency of the German film industry, gave birth to a rumor in 1937 of Negri having had an affair with Hitler. Negri sued Pour Vous, the French magazine which had circulated the rumor, for libel, and won. Mazurka was remade (almost shot-for-shot) in the U.S. as Confession (1937), starring Kay Francis. [38]

Martha Scott and Negri in a publicity still from Hi Diddle Diddle (1943) Negri Scott 5.jpg
Martha Scott and Negri in a publicity still from Hi Diddle Diddle (1943)

After the success of Mazurka, Negri's former studio, the now Joseph Goebbels-controlled UFA, signed Negri to a new contract. Negri lived in France while working for UFA, making five films with the company: Moscow–Shanghai (1936), Madame Bovary, Tango Notturno (both 1937), Die fromme Lüge ("The Secret Lie", 1938), and Die Nacht der Entscheidung ("The Night of Decision", 1938).

After the Nazis took over France, Negri fled back to the United States. During her flight, she spent some days in Portugal. She stayed in Monte Estoril, at the Hotel Atlântico, between 28 June and 30 June 1940. [48] The following day she moved to Estoril's Hotel Palácio. She sailed to New York from Lisbon, Portugal, and initially lived by selling off jewelry. She was hired in a supporting role as the temperamental opera singer Genya Smetana for the 1943 comedy Hi Diddle Diddle . After the success of this film, Negri was offered numerous roles which were essentially rehashes of her role in Hi Diddle Diddle, all of which she turned down as derivative. In 1944, Negri was engaged by booking agent Miles Ingalls for a nationwide vaudeville tour. [49] According to her autobiography, she also appeared in a Boston supper club engagement in 1945 for a repertoire centered around the song "Paradise", [21] and retired from the entertainment business altogether.

Retirement and final appearances

In 1948, director Billy Wilder approached Negri to appear as Norma Desmond in the film Sunset Boulevard (1950), after Mae Murray, Mae West, Greta Garbo, Norma Shearer, and Mary Pickford declined the role. Negri reportedly declined the role because she felt that the screenplay was not ready and that Montgomery Clift, who was slated to play the Joe Gillis character at the time, was not a good choice for the character. The role of Gillis eventually went to William Holden, and Gloria Swanson accepted the role of Norma Desmond. [50]

Negri came out of retirement to appear in the Walt Disney film The Moon-Spinners (1964), which starred Hayley Mills and Eli Wallach. Negri's appearance in the film as eccentric jewel collector Madame Habib was shot in London over the course of two weeks. While she was filming The Moon-Spinners she made a sensation by appearing before the London press at her hotel in the company of a feisty cheetah on a steel chain leash. [51] The same year, she received an honorary award from the German film industry for her film work, followed by a Hemis-Film award in San Antonio in 1968. [52] In 1970 she published her autobiography Memoirs of a Star, published by Doubleday. She made an appearance at the Museum of Modern Art on 30 April 1970, for a screening event in her honor, which featured her film A Woman of the World (1925) and selections from her films. [53] Negri was a guest of honor at the 1972 screening of Carmen held at the Witte Museum in San Antonio. [54]

In 1975, director Vincente Minnelli approached Negri to appear as the Contessa Sanziani in A Matter of Time , but Negri did not accept due to poor health. In 1978, Billy Wilder directed Fedora , and although Negri does not appear in the film, the title character was reportedly based largely on her. [50] Her final high-profile coverage in her lifetime was for a "Where Are They Now?" feature on silent film stars, which appeared in Life magazine in 1980. [50]

Personal life

Pola and Charlie 5 2.jpg
Pola and Rudy 5.jpg
Negri's best-known personal relationships were those with Charlie Chaplin (left) and Rudolph Valentino (right).

Negri's first marriage was with Count Eugeniusz Dąbski, and proved to be short-lived. Negri married Dąbski in St Mary's Assumption Church in Sosnowiec on 5 November 1919, thus becoming Countess Apolonia Dąbska-Chałupec. After a long separation period, Negri and Dąbski's union was dissolved in 1922. [55]

After she began working in the United States, she made headlines and gossip columns with a string of celebrity love affairs, most notably with film stars Charlie Chaplin, Rod La Rocque, and Rudolph Valentino. Negri had met Chaplin while in Germany, and what began as a platonic relationship became a well-publicized affair and marriage speculation which received the headline "The Queen of Tragedy to Wed the King of Comedy." [56] The relationship soured, and Negri became involved for a time with actor Rod La Rocque, who appeared as her leading man in Forbidden Paradise (1924). Negri met Rudolph Valentino at a costume party held by Marion Davies and William Randolph Hearst at the San Simeon estate and was reportedly Valentino's lover until his death in 1926. She caused a media sensation at his New York funeral on 24 August 1926, at which she "fainted" several times, and according to actor Ben Lyon, arranged for a large floral arrangement that spelled "P-O-L-A" to be placed on Valentino's coffin. [57] The press dismissed her actions as a publicity stunt. At the time of his death and for the remainder of her life, Negri claimed Valentino was the love of her life. [58]

Negri and second husband Serge Mdivani on their wedding day, 14 May 1927 Pola Mdivani wedding 6.jpg
Negri and second husband Serge Mdivani on their wedding day, 14 May 1927
Negri and Serge Mdivani, in 1930 Bundesarchiv Bild 102-10764, Pola Negri mit Ehemann.jpg
Negri and Serge Mdivani, in 1930

Negri soon married again, to the Georgian self-styled "Prince" Serge Mdivani. This action caused public opinion in the United States to sour against her because it happened so quickly after Rudolph Valentino's death. Negri and Mdivani were married on 14 May 1927 (less than nine months after Valentino's death); shortly after she became pregnant, and Negri, who always wanted a child, started taking better care of her health and even considered retiring from movies in order to be a housewife and mother. However, she reportedly suffered a miscarriage. [44] She grieved the loss of her child for the rest of her life; [44] she and Mdivani divorced on 2 April 1931. [59]

While residing at the Ambassador Hotel in New York in April 1932, Negri performed with Russ Columbo in George Jessel's variety revue at the Schubert Theatre and was briefly involved with Columbo. After her film A Woman Commands premiered in Hollywood, Columbo performed Negri's signature song "Paradise" with his orchestra and dedicated the song to her. Columbo also recorded and released the song as a 78 rpm single that year with slightly altered lyrics, and the single became a huge sensation with audiences across the country. [60]

When Negri returned to the United States in the early 1940s, she became close friends with Margaret West, an oil heiress and vaudeville actress whom she had originally met in the 1930s. The two became housemates, sharing a beachfront home in Los Angeles with Negri's then-88-year-old mother, and later in Bel Air. [61] Negri, who remained a devout Catholic in her later life, spent her time raising funds for Catholic charities with both her mother and West. [61] On 12 January 1951, Negri became a naturalized citizen of the United States. [50] After the death of Negri's mother in 1954 of pancreatic cancer, she and West relocated from Los Angeles to San Antonio, Texas in 1957. [52] Negri lived with West until the latter's death of heart failure in 1963. [62] Negri moved out of the home she had shared with West into a townhouse located at 7707 Broadway in San Antonio, where she spent the remainder of her years, largely out of the public eye.

Some scholars, such as Rudolph Valentino biographer Emily Leider, have suggested that Negri was bisexual and that she and West were romantic partners. [63] Negri biographer Sergio Delgado contests this, though he notes in his 2016 book Pola Negri: Temptress of Silent Hollywood, that there is "strong anecdotal evidence" that Negri was bisexual. [64]


Crypt of Negri at Calvary Cemetery, bearing her incorrect birthdate Pola Negri Grave.JPG
Crypt of Negri at Calvary Cemetery, bearing her incorrect birthdate

Pola Negri died on 1 August 1987, aged 90 at the Northeast Baptist Hospital in San Antonio, Texas. [28] Her death was caused by pneumonia for which she had been rushed to hospital a week earlier; however, she was also suffering from a brain tumor, for which she had refused treatment for two years. [28] At her wake at the Porter Loring Funeral Home in San Antonio, her body was placed on view wearing a yellow golden chiffon dress with a golden turban to match. Her death received extensive coverage in her hometown newspapers San Antonio Light, [65] and San Antonio Express-News, [66] and in publications such as Los Angeles Times, [67] The New York Times, [51] and Variety . [28]

Negri was interred in Calvary Cemetery, East Los Angeles next to her mother Eleonora, who died in 1954 from pancreatic cancer. [68] As Negri had no children or siblings, she left most of her estate to St. Mary's University, in Texas, including a collection of memorabilia and several rare prints of her films. St. Mary's University also set up a scholarship in her name. [6] In addition, a generous portion of her estate was given to the Polish nuns of the Seraphic Order; a large black and white portrait hangs in the small chapel next to Poland's patron, Our Lady of Częstochowa, in San Antonio.


Signature and prints of Negri's hands and feet in front of Grauman's Chinese Theatre Pola negri chinese theater.jpg
Signature and prints of Negri's hands and feet in front of Grauman's Chinese Theatre

Negri has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for her contribution to Motion Pictures at 6933 Hollywood Boulevard. She was the 11th star in Hollywood history to place her hand and foot prints in front of Grauman's Chinese Theatre. [69] She received a star in Poland's Walk of Fame(pl) in Łódź and Poland's post office issued a postage stamp honoring her in 1996. The Polish Film Festival of Los Angeles remembered her with the Pola Negri Award, given to outstanding film artists, and the Pola Negri Museum in Lipno gives a Polita award for outstanding artist achievement. [ citation needed ]

Negri, with Theda Bara and Mae Murray, were the actresses whose eyes were combined to form the Chicago International Film Festival's logo, a stark, black and white close up of the composite eyes set as repeated frames in a strip of film. It was created by Festival Founder and Artistic Director Michael Kutza. [70]

Pola negri hollywood.JPG
Pola Negri gwiazda Lodz.jpg
Negri's stars in the Hollywood Walk of Fame, and in the Walk of Fame in Łódź, Poland

In 2006, a feature-length documentary about Negri's life, Pola Negri: Life Is a Dream in Cinema , premiered at the Seventh Annual Polish Film Festival of Los Angeles. The film was directed by Negri's biographer, Mariusz Kotowski, [71] and includes in-depth interviews with Hayley Mills and Eli Wallach, who starred in Negri's final film The Moon-Spinners (1964). Pola Negri: Life Is a Dream in Cinema has played at Negri retrospective screenings in Europe and the U.S., most notably at the Museum of Modern Art in New York and at the Cinémathèque Française in Paris. [72]

Kotowski wrote a Polish-language biography of Negri titled Pola Negri: Legenda Hollywood (English title: Pola Negri: Hollywood Legend), released in Poland on 24 February 2011, [73] and an English-language biography Pola Negri: Hollywood's First Femme Fatale, published by the University of Kentucky Press on 8 April 2014. [74] Kotowski produced a 3-disc DVD compilation of early Negri films, Pola Negri, The Iconic Collection: The Early Years (2011). [74]


Dagger-14-plain.pngDenotes a lost or presumed lost film

In Congress Poland and Regency Kingdom

1914Niewolnica zmysłówDagger-14-plain.png Aleksander Hertz Sphinx CompanyAlternate titles: Der Sklave der Sinne, lit. English: Slave of Sin
Poland's first feature film
1915ŻonaDagger-14-plain.pnglit. English: Wife [75]
Czarna książkaDagger-14-plain.pnglit. English: The Yellow Pass
An early version of Der Gelbe Schein (The Yellow Ticket)
1916StudenciDagger-14-plain.pnglit. English: Students [76]
1917 Bestia lit. English: Beast; Alternate titles: The Polish Dancer (U.S. release title), Bad Girl [75]
Tajemnica alei UjazdowskichDagger-14-plain.pnglit. English: Mystery of Uyazdovsky Avenue
Part of the Tajemnice Warszawy (Mysteries of Warsaw) serial
Pokój Nr. 13Dagger-14-plain.pnglit. English: Room #13
Part of the Tajemnice Warszawy (Mysteries of Warsaw) serial
ArabellaDagger-14-plain.pngNote: Though the majority of the film is presumed lost, a short fragment survives, as it was used in Polish film O czym się nie mówi (1939). [78] [77]
Jego ostatni czynDagger-14-plain.pnglit. English: His Last Gesture [79]

In Germany (silent period)

1917Nicht lange täuschte mich das GlückDagger-14-plain.pngKurt MatullSaturn-Film AGNegri plays a dual supporting role as a nun and a cabaret dancer [80]
Zügelloses BlutDagger-14-plain.pngUnknown [80]
Küsse, die man stiehlt im DunkelnDagger-14-plain.pnglit. English: Kisses Stolen in the Dark [80]
Die toten AugenDagger-14-plain.pnglit. English: Dead Eyes [80]
When the Heart Burns with Hate Kurt MatullGerman: Wenn das Herz in Haß erglüht
This film survives and has been shown at La Cinémathèque Française in Paris, France, and at the Museum of Cinematography in Łodz, Poland
1918Rosen, die der Sturm entblättertDagger-14-plain.pngUnknown [80]
Mania Eugen Illés UFASet design by Paul Leni
Full title: Mania, Die Geschichte einer Zigarettenarbeiterin (Mania: The Story of a Cigarette Girl).
Die Augen der Mumie Ma Ernst Lubitsch lit. English: The Eyes of Mummy Ma
Co-stars: Harry Liedtke and Emil Jannings
First Negri/Lubitsch collaboration
Der gelbe Schein Victor Janson and Eugen IllésCo-stars: Harry Liedtke and Victor Janson
Alternate title: The Yellow Ticket
Carmen Ernst Lubitsch Co-star: Harry Liedtke
Alternate title: Gypsy Blood (U.S. release)
1919 The Carousel of Life Dagger-14-plain.pngGeorg JacobyCo-star: Harry Liedtke
German:Das Karussell des Lebens ; Alternate title: The Last Payment (U.S. release)
Vendetta Dagger-14-plain.pngCo-stars: Emil Jannings and Harry Liedtke
Alternate title: Blutrache (Blood Revenge)
Dämmerung des TodesDagger-14-plain.png [81]
The Woman at the Crossroads Dagger-14-plain.pngGerman: Kreuziget sie!lit. English: Crucify Them!
Co-stars: Harry Liedtke and Victor Janson
Madame DuBarry Ernst LubitschCo-stars: Emil Jannings and Harry Liedtke
Alternate title: Passion (U.S. release)
Countess Doddy Georg JacobyCo-stars: Harry Liedtke and Victor Janson
Alternate title: Komtesse Dolly
1920 The Marquise of Armiani Dagger-14-plain.png Alfred Halm German: Die Marchesa d'Armiani [25]
Sumurun Ernst LubitschCo-stars: Ernst Lubitsch, Paul Wegener, Harry Liedtke, and Jenny Hasselqvist
Alternate title: One Arabian night (U.S. release)
A film remake of the Max Reinhardt theater production, which also featured Negri and Lubitsch in the same respective roles, this is the only time the two appeared on screen together and is the last time the Lubitsch appeared on-screen as an actor.
Intrigue Dagger-14-plain.png Paul Ludwig Stein German: Das Martyriumlit. English: The Martyrium [25]
The Closed Chain Dagger-14-plain.pngDie geschlossene Kette; Alternate title: Intrigue (U.S. release) [25]
The Red Peacock German: Arme Violettalit. English: Poor Violetta, film was rediscovered in a basement in New York in 2020 [83]
1921 Die Bergkatze Ernst LubitschCo-stars: Victor Janson, Paul Heidemann
lit. English: The Mountain Cat; Alternate title: The Wildcat
A German Expressionist comedy and parody of the Expressionist film genre
Sappho Dimitri Buchowetzki Co-stars: Alfred Abel and Johannes Riemann
Alternate title: Mad Love (U.S. release)
Die Flamme Ernst LubitschErnst Lubitsch Film GmbHlit. English: The Flame
Co-stars: Alfred Abel and Hermann Thimig
Alternate title: Montmartre (U.S. Release)
Ernst Lubitsch's final German film

Paramount period

1923 Bella Donna George Fitzmaurice Famous Players-Lasky/ParamountCo-stars: Conway Tearle, Conrad Nagel, Adolphe Menjou
Remake of the 1915 film Bella Donna starring Pauline Frederick
The Cheat Dagger-14-plain.pngCo-stars: Jack Holt and Charles de Roche
Remake of the 1915 film The Cheat starring Fannie Ward and Sessue Hayakawa
Hollywood Dagger-14-plain.png James Cruze Negri plays a cameo role in this film, which features guest appearances from many other Hollywood stars from the period [84]
The Spanish Dancer Herbert Brenon Co-stars: Antonio Moreno, Wallace Beery and Adolphe Menjou [84]
1924 Shadows of Paris Dagger-14-plain.pngHerbert BrenonCo-stars: Charles de Roche, Adolphe Menjou, and George O'Brien [84]
Men Dagger-14-plain.png Dimitri Buchowetzki [84]
Lily of the Dust Dagger-14-plain.pngCo-stars: Ben Lyon, Noah Beery, and Raymond Griffith [84]
Forbidden Paradise Ernst Lubitsch Co-stars: Rod La Rocque, Adolphe Menjou, Pauline Starke, and Clark Gable (in a bit role).
Only American Lubitsch/Negri collaboration and their final film together
1925 East of Suez Dagger-14-plain.png Raoul Walsh Co-stars: Edmund Lowe and Noah Beery
Negri's only film directed by Raoul Walsh
The Charmer Dagger-14-plain.png Sidney Olcott Co-stars: Wallace MacDonald and Cesare Gravina [84]
Flower of Night Dagger-14-plain.png Paul Bern Co-stars: Warner Oland, Gustav von Seyffertitz [84]
A Woman of the World Malcolm St. Clair Co-stars: Charles Emmett Mack, Holmes Herbert, Chester Conklin [84]
1926 The Crown of Lies Dagger-14-plain.pngDimitri Buchowetzki [85]
Good and Naughty Dagger-14-plain.pngMalcolm St. ClairCo-stars: Ford Sterling and Miss DuPont [86]
1927 Hotel Imperial Mauritz Stiller Co-stars: James Hall, George Siegmann, and Max Davidson
Broke box-office records for highest ticket sales
Barbed Wire Rowland V. Lee
Mauritz Stiller
ParamountCo-stars: Clive Brook, Einar Hanson, and Gustav von Seyffertitz
Mauritz Stiller started the film, but was replaced with Rowland V. Lee early on in the film
The Woman on Trial Dagger-14-plain.pngMauritz StillerNote: While mostly lost, surviving fragments are owned by the Museum of Modern Art. [89] [88]
1928 The Secret Hour Dagger-14-plain.pngRowland V. Lee [88]
Three Sinners Dagger-14-plain.pngCo-stars: Warner Baxter, Paul Lukas, and Olga Baclanova [88]
Loves of an Actress Dagger-14-plain.pngCo-stars: Nils Asther and Paul Lukas
Silent film with soundtrack
The Woman from Moscow Dagger-14-plain.png Ludwig Berger Co-stars: Norman Kerry, Paul Lukas, and Otto Matiesen
Alternate title: Rachel
Silent film with soundtrack

International (sound period)

1929 The Woman He Scorned Paul Czinner Charles Whittaker Productions UK (Distributed By Warners UK)United KingdomCo-stars: Hans Rehmann, Warwick Ward
Alternate Titles: The Way of Lost Souls, Street of Abandoned Children
Silent film with soundtrack. Negri's final silent film.
1932 A Woman Commands Paul L. Stein RKOUnited StatesCo-stars: Basil Rathbone, Roland Young, H.B. Warner
Alternate title: Maria Draga
Negri's first sound film; features the songs "Paradise", "I Wanna Be Kissed", "Promise You Will Remember Me". "Paradise" was a major hit and a went on to become a standard for many years; it was covered by Russ Colombo and Louis Prima, featured in the television show Adventures in Paradise, and used as soundtrack music for other films from the time.
1934 Fanatisme Tony Lekain, Gaston Ravel PathéFranceNegri's only French film; features her singing three songs [92]
1935 Mazurka Willi Forst Cine-Allianz/Tobis-KlangfilmGermanyCo-stars: Ingeborg Theek, Paul Hartmann, and Albrecht Schoenhals
Features the songs "Je sens en moi", "Mazurka", and "Nur eine Stunde". Remade in 1937 by Warner Brothers as Confession starring Kay Francis and directed by Austrian director Joe May
1936 Moscow–Shanghai Paul Wegener UFACo-star: Gustav Diessl
German: Moskau-Shanghai; Alternate titles: Von Moskau nach Shanghai, Der Weg nach Shanghai, Begegnung in Shanghai, Zwischen Moskau und Shanghai
Features the song "Mein Herz hat Heimweh..."
1937 Madame Bovary Gerhard Lamprecht Negri's only German sound film to be shown in the United States [94]
Tango Notturno Fritz Kirchhoff Co-star: Albrecht Schoenhals
Features the songs "Ich hab an Dich Gedacht" and "Kommt das Glück nicht heut'? Dann kommt es morgen"
1938 The Secret Lie Nunzio Malasomma German: Die fromme Lüge
Co-star: Hermann Braun
The Night of Decision Nunzio MalasommaGerman: Die Nacht der Entscheidung
Co-star: Iván Petrovich
Features the songs "Siehst Du die Sterne am Himmel" and "Zeig' der Welt nicht Dein Herz"

Last films (U.S.)

1943 Hi Diddle Diddle Andrew L. Stone Andrew L. Stone Productions (Distributed by United Artists)Co-stars: Adolphe Menjou, Martha Scott, Billie Burke, Dennis O'Keefe, June Havoc [96]
1964 The Moon-Spinners James Neilson Walt Disney Productions Co-stars: Hayley Mills, Eli Wallach [94]


Negri released a total of ten 78 rpm singles. In 1931, she recorded seven gypsy folk songs in London accompanied by guitars and chorus, six of which were released as the sides of three records on Victor's His Master's Voice imprint. She recorded a French-language version of "Paradise" in Paris in 1933 with "Mes Nuits sont Mortes" as its flip side. (Sheet music was released for the English-language version, but the recorded version only appeared in the 1932 film, A Woman Commands, and was never released as a record.) The remainder of Negri's recordings, cut from 1935 to 1938, centered around songs that she sang in her German sound films. [97] [98]

Matrix No.Single No.LabelSong TitleTime and Place of RecordingNotes
OB-641HMV EK-114 His Master's Voice V chas toski (The Hour of Longing)Small Queen's Hall, London, 12 March 1931Accompanied by Boris Golovka and two others on guitar, with chorus.
OB-642HMV EK-114His Master's VoiceChto nam gore? (Why Are You Sorry?)samesame
OB-643(Not Released)His Master's VoiceYescho raz (Once again)samesame
OB-647HMV B-3820His Master's VoiceOchy Tchornye (Dark Eyes)Small Queen's Hall, London, 13 March 1931same
OB-648HMV EK-115His Master's VoiceWhy Fall in Love?samesame
OB-649HMV B-3820His Master's VoiceAdieu (Farewell, My Gypsy Camp)samesame
OB-650HMV EK-115His Master's VoiceDwe gitary (Two Guitars aka "Gypsy, Sing!")samesame; dedicated to Pola Negri by Boris Golovka
P 76523AP 989UltraphoneMes Nuits sont MortesParis, July 1933
P 76524AP 989UltraphoneParadisParis, July 1933French-language version of "Paradise"; A-side of single AP 989
P Be 10937-30–4723 Odéon Mazurka (Ich Spür' In Mir...)Berlin, 8 April 1935Song from the film Mazurka (1935); orchestra arr. by Peter Kreuder
P Be 10938-30–4723OdéonNur eine StundeBerlin, 8 April 1935Song from the film Mazurka (1935); orchestra arr. by Peter Kreuder
128338R 2271 Parlophone For That One Hour of PassionBerlin, c. early 1936English-language version of "Nur eine Stunde". Original version from the film Mazurka .
128337R 2271ParlophoneStay Close to MeBerlin, c. early 1936English-language version of "Ich Spür' In Mir". Original version from the film Mazurka .
P Be 112410–4736OdéonVergiss deine SehnsuchtBerlin, 17 March 1936Orchestra arranged by W. Schmidt-Boelcke.
P Be 112420–4736OdéonWenn die Sonne hinter den Dächern versinktBerlin, 17 March 1936Orchestra arranged by W. Schmidt-Boelcke.
P Be 11432-20–4742OdéonMein Herz hat Heimweh...Berlin, 2 September 1936Song from the film Moskau-Shanghai (1936). Orchestra arranged by Hans-Otto Borgmann.
P Be 114330–4742OdéonIch möchte einmal nur mein ganzes Herz verschwendenBerlin, 2 September 1936Orchestra arranged by Hans-Otto Borgmann
P Be 118910–4765OdéonIch hab an Dich gedachtBerlin, 15 December 1937Song from the film Tango Notturno (1937). Orchestra arranged by Hans-Otto Borgmann.
P Be 118920–4765OdéonKommt das Glück nicht heut'? Dann kommt es morgenBerlin, 15 December 1937Song from the film Tango Notturno (1937). Orchestra arranged by Hans-Otto Borgmann.
P Be 121710 288233OdéonZeig der Welt nicht Dein HerzBerlin, 30 December 1938Song from the film Die Nacht der Entscheidung (1938). Orchestra arranged by Lothar Bruhne.
P Be 121720 288233OdéonSiehst Du die SterneBerlin, 30 December 1938Song from the film Die Nacht der Entscheidung (1938). Orchestra arranged by Lothar Bruhne.


  1. Pola Negri's original surname was Chalupec or—according to the Polish alphabet's rules—Chałupec. Some sources use polonized form Chałupiec, which doesn't exist in any official documents concerning Pola Negri. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]
  2. Some sources cite 31 December 1896 as Negri's date of birth but the four-day discrepancy is due to the change in styling from the Julian calendar (OS) of Imperial Russia to the Gregorian calendar (NS) in Poland, per biographer Mariusz Kotowski, who uses the 3 January 1897 date in his biography of her life. [7] Negri herself used both dates on different documents, including United States immigration and naturalization paperwork, but liked to use the 31 December date and to state that she was born on the last day of the 19th century, which is why some documents, including Social Security, cite 31 December 1899, as does her crypt, indicating that Negri had made herself three years younger. [8]

Related Research Articles

Rudolph Valentino Italian actor (1895–1926)

Rodolfo Pietro Filiberto Raffaello Guglielmi di Valentina d'Antonguolla, known professionally as Rudolph Valentino and nicknamed The Latin Lover, was an Italian actor based in the United States who starred in several well-known silent films including The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse,The Sheik,Blood and Sand,The Eagle, and The Son of the Sheik.

Ernst Lubitsch German American actor, screenwriter, producer and film director

Ernst Lubitsch was a German-born American film director, producer, writer, and actor. His urbane comedies of manners gave him the reputation of being Hollywood's most elegant and sophisticated director; as his prestige grew, his films were promoted as having "the Lubitsch touch". Among his best known works are Trouble in Paradise, Design for Living, Ninotchka, The Shop Around the Corner, To Be or Not to Be and Heaven Can Wait.

Emil Jannings German actor

Emil Jannings was a German actor, popular in the 1920s in Hollywood. He was the first recipient of the Academy Award for Best Actor for his roles in The Last Command and The Way of All Flesh. As of 2022, Jannings is the only German ever to have won the category.

Einar Hanson Swedish actor

Einar Hanson, also known as Einar Hansen, was a Swedish silent film actor.

Falcon Lair Estate in Bel Air, California, United States

Falcon Lair is an estate above Benedict Canyon in Bel Air, Los Angeles. The estate was built in 1925 by Rudolph Valentino, who named it Falcon Lair after his unproduced film, The Hooded Falcon. It is better known as a residence of heiress Doris Duke from 1952 until 1998.

<i>Sumurun</i> 1920 film

Sumurun is a 1920 German silent film directed by Ernst Lubitsch based on a pantomime by Friedrich Freksa.

<i>Pola Negri: Life Is a Dream in Cinema</i> 2006 American film

Pola Negri: Life is a Dream in Cinema is a feature-length biographical documentary film by Polish-American director Mariusz Kotowski released in 2006. The film chronicles the life of Polish silent film actress Pola Negri, as told by those who knew her and those who have studied her life and films.

Mariusz Kotowski Polish-born writer and director

Mariusz Kotowski is a Polish-born writer and director. As a director, he has gained a reputation for cinematic portrayals that are atypical of both Hollywood and independent film styles and that cleverly mix different film approaches into a cohesive whole.

<i>Mazurka</i> (film) 1935 film

Mazurka is a 1935 German drama film directed by Willi Forst and starring Pola Negri, Albrecht Schoenhals, and Ingeborg Theek. A woman is put on trial for murdering a predatory musician. It takes its name from the Mazurka, a Polish folk dance.

<i>Lily of the Dust</i> 1924 film by Dimitri Buchowetzki

Lily of the Dust is a 1924 American silent drama film directed by Dimitri Buchowetzki, starring Pola Negri, produced by Famous Players-Lasky, and distributed by Paramount Pictures. This movie was based on the 1908 novel The Song of Songs by Hermann Sudermann and the 1914 Broadway play The Song of Songs by Edward Sheldon.

Bright Shining City Productions is an independent film and media production company established in Austin, Texas by Polish-American film director and producer Mariusz Kotowski in 2005. The company's initial film project was the full-length documentary Pola Negri: Life is a Dream in Cinema, highlighting the career of Polish silent film star Pola Negri. The production company went on to release the narrative films Forgiveness and Deeper and Deeper (2010), the latter starring Emmy-winning actor David Lago. All three of the films have also been released on DVD.

<i>Der Gelbe Schein</i> 1918 film

Der Gelbe Schein is a 1918 German silent film starring Pola Negri in a double role as Lea and her mother Lydia, Victor Janson as Ossip Storki, and Harry Liedtke as Dimitri. It was directed by Victor Janson and Eugen Illés.

<i>Die Augen der Mumie Ma</i> 1918 film

Die Augen der Mumie Ma is a 1918 German silent film directed by Ernst Lubitsch. The film stars Pola Negri as Ma, Emil Jannings as Radu, and Harry Liedtke as Wendland. It was the first collaboration between Lubitsch and Negri, a pairing that would go on to make worldwide successes such as Carmen (1918), Madame DuBarry (1919), and Sumurun (1920).

<i>Loves of an Actress</i> 1928 film

Loves of an Actress is a lost 1928 American silent romantic drama film directed by Rowland V. Lee and starring Pola Negri. It was produced by Adolph Zukor and Jesse Lasky with the distribution through Paramount Pictures. The film had a soundtrack of either Vitaphone or Movietone of music and sound effects.

<i>Vendetta</i> (1919 film) 1919 German silent drama film written and directed by Georg Jacoby

Vendetta or Blood Revenge is a 1919 German silent drama film directed by Georg Jacoby starring Pola Negri, Emil Jannings and Harry Liedtke.

Margaret West was a Texan heiress, vaudeville performer and later radio hostess.

The Woman at the Crossroads is a 1919 German silent film directed by Georg Jacoby and starring Pola Negri, Harry Liedtke and Albert Patry. It is now believed to be a lost film.

Intrigue or The Martyrium is a 1920 German silent drama film directed by Paul L. Stein and starring Pola Negri and Eduard von Winterstein.

The Closed Chain is a 1920 German silent film directed by Paul L. Stein and starring Pola Negri, Aud Egede-Nissen, and Carl Ebert.

Florence Hein was a Scottish-born American screenwriter in the silent film era, and later worked as actress Pola Negri's personal secretary.


  1. "Ancestry Library Edition". Ancestrylibrary.proquest.com. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
  2. "Pola Negri's birth certificate from 1978" . Retrieved 28 August 2016.
  3. "Pola Negri's birth certificate from 1960" . Retrieved 28 August 2016.
  4. Kotowski, Mariusz. Pola Negri: Life is a Dream in Cinema, Bright Shining City Productions (2006), DVD
  5. Martin Votruba (12 April 2013). "Pola Negri". Slovak Studies Program. University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved 22 January 2015. The exact spelling of her and her parents' names is complicated by the mandated use of Russian in government records in that part of [partitioned] Poland, when she was born. For instance, her father's last name is recorded as Халупец at the Lipno Office of Vital Records, which can be rendered in Polish as Chalupec, Chałupec, Chalupiec, or Chałupiec.
  6. 1 2 Long, Christopher. "Chalupec, Barbara Apalonia (Pola Negri)". Texas State Historical Society. Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
  7. Kotowski 2014, p. 5.
  8. Kotowski 2014, p. 6.
  9. Mariusz Kotowski (2014). Pola Negri: Hollywood's First Femme Fatale. University Press of Kentucky. p. 277. ISBN   9780813144894 . Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  10. Negri 1970, pp. 16, 22, 87–90.
  11. Delgado 2016, p. 9.
  12. Votruba, Martin. "Pola Negri". Slovak Studies Program. University of Pittsburgh . Retrieved 29 March 2009.
  13. Łanucha, Jan. "Od Apolonii do Poli zwanej Politą". Forum Polonijne. 3 (2007): 23. ISSN   1234-2807.
  14. Negri 1970, pp. 20, 61.
  15. 1 2 Delgado 2016, p. 11.
  16. Delgado 2016, p. 164.
  17. Adam Mickiewicz Institute (2011). "Pola Negri profile". Resource Library. Culture.pl. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  18. Delgado 2016, pp. 12–13.
  19. Bock 2009, p. 338.
  20. Koszarski, 1976 p. 126
  21. 1 2 3 Negri 1970, pp. 318–19.
  22. Beinhorn 1975, p. 8.
  23. 1978 interview with Pola Negri Archived 25 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine , Polanegri.com; accessed 29 March 2015.
  24. Kreimeier 1999, pp. 19–22, 119–21.
  25. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Delgado 2016, p. 18.
  26. Kotowski 2014, p. 34.
  27. Kreimeier 1999, p. 92.
  28. 1 2 3 4 5 6 McCarthy, Todd (5 August 1987). "Femme Fatale Silent Film Star Pola Negri Succumbs in Texas". Variety . p. 4.
  29. Gladysz, Thomas (4 December 2017). "Pola Negri: Her films were silent. She wasn't". The Huffington Post . Retrieved 1 March 2018.
  30. Dinsmore, Jack (February 1922). "Pola Negri". Hot Dog: 26. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
  31. Gasten, David. "Pola Negri biodata". La Cinémathèque Française. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
  32. Biskupski, M.B.B. (2010) Hollywood's War With Poland 1939–1945, p. 12, University Press of Kentucky; ISBN   978-0-8131-2559-6
  33. Taylor, Angela. "Pola Negri's Memoirs: Best Roles Were Played in Real Life", The New York Times, 24 April 1970, p. 30.
  34. Kotowski 2014, p. 86.
  35. Delgado 2016, p. 91.
  36. Edmonds & Mimura 1980, p. 112.
  37. Chaplin 1964, p. 300.
  38. 1 2 3 4 Pola Negri at IMDb
  39. "The Crown of Lies". Photoplay. Brief Reviews of Current Pictures: 8. September 1926 via Internet Archive. Open Access logo PLoS transparent.svg
  40. Hotel Imperial on DVD, Polanegri.com; accessed 17 May 2014.
  41. Winnicka, Ewa (2013). Nowy Jork zbuntowany. Miasto w czasach prohibicji, jazzu i gangsterów. PWN. p. 116.
  42. 1 2 Kotowski 2014, p. 145.
  43. Kotowski 2014, pp. 158–60.
  44. 1 2 3 Kotowski 2014, p. 159.
  45. "Pola Negri To Screen Shaw's 'Cleopatra'." The New York Times, 1 December 1928, p. 14.
  46. "Pola Negri Collapses". The New York Times. 13 November 1933. p. 21.
  47. "Pola Negri Left Behind". The New York Times. 14 November 1933. p. 22.
  48. Exiles Memorial Center.
  49. Billboard, 29 January 1944, p. 22.
  50. 1 2 3 4 Pola Negri FAQ, Polanegri.com; accessed 17 May 2014.
  51. 1 2 Krebs, Albin (3 August 1987). "Pola Negri, a Vamp of the Silent Screen, Dies at 88". The New York Times. p. D11.
  52. 1 2 Gonzales, Br. Alexis; Dispenza, Joseph (29 March 1970). "The Imperial Pola Negri". The Sunday Express-News. pp. 2, 15.
  53. "Pola Negri, Famous Silent Film Star, Will Make Guest Appearance At Museum", Press Release from the Museum of Modern Art (1970); accessed 25 January 2011.
  54. Greg Barrios, "Negri Called S.A. Home", The Sunday Express-News (San Antonio, TX), 2 August 1987, p. 4-A.
  55. Kotowski 2014, p. 206.
  56. Bodeen, DeWitt, and Gene Ringgold. "Pola Negri", Screen Facts #15, vol 3, #3 (1967), p. 14.
  57. Ben Lyon interview in Hollywood: Swanson and Valentino, directed by Kevin Brownlow for Thames Television (1980).
  58. Delgado 2016, p. 108.
  59. "Pola Negri Divorce Granted in Paris". The New York Times . 3 April 1931. p. 35.
  60. Lanza & Penna 2002, p. 247.
  61. 1 2 Delgado 2016, p. 165.
  62. Delgado 2016, p. 166.
  63. Delgado 2016, p. 167.
  64. Delgado 2016, pp. 168–9.
  65. San Antonio Light, 9 August 1987, pp. J-11, J-14.
  66. The Sunday Express-News, 2 August 1987, p. 4-A.
  67. Los Angeles Times, 3 August 1987, pp. 3, 13.
  68. Wilson, Scott. Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons (3rd ed.). Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland.
  69. Life is a Dream in Cinema by Pola Negri, Polish Cultural Institute.com, retrieved 13 November 2013.
  70. About Our Logo, chicagofilmfestival.com; accessed 29 July 2014.
  71. "Polish Film Festivals" Archived 7 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine , Polish Music News, April 2006, vol 12, #4; ISSN 1098-9188. Los Angeles: Polish Music Center, University of Southern California.
  72. Pola Negri: Life is a Dream in Cinema page, Polanegri.com; accessed 29 July 2014.
  73. "Pola Negri: new biog salutes Polish star", Polski Radio, 25 February 2011; accessed 2 March 2011.
  74. 1 2 Pola Negri newspage Archived 10 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine ; updated 26 November 2013.
  75. 1 2 3 Haltof 2002, p. 6.
  76. Delgado 2016, p. 15.
  77. 1 2 3 Haltof 2002, p. 20.
  78. (1939) O czym się nie mówi 04/10 on YouTube
  79. Delgado 2016, p. 16.
  80. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Delgado 2016, p. 17.
  81. 1 2 Kotowski 2014, p. 214.
  82. 1 2 3 Delgado 2016, p. 19.
  83. https://www.nitrateville.com/viewtopic.php?f=1&t=30944
  84. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Kotowski 2014, p. 215.
  85. Delgado 2016, pp. 56, 96.
  86. Delgado 2016, p. 97.
  87. Kotowski 2014, p. 207.
  88. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Kotowski 2014, p. 153.
  89. "The Woman on Trial / Mauritz Stiller [motion picture]". American Silent Feature Film Survival Database. Library of Congress . Retrieved 22 December 2017. Open Access logo PLoS transparent.svg
  90. Kotowski 2014, p. 163.
  91. Kotowski 2014, p. 168.
  92. Kotowski 2014, p. 208.
  93. Kotowski 2014, p. 173.
  94. 1 2 3 4 Kotowski 2014, p. 217.
  95. 1 2 Kotowski 2014, p. 180.
  96. Kotowski 2014, p. 184.
  97. Rust, Brian A., and Allen G. Debus. The complete entertainment discography, from the mid-1890s to 1942. Arlington House, 1973, p. 499.
  98. Unknown author, liner notes of Pola Negri and Rudolph Valentino CD. Chansophone [France], 1995, pp. 2,3.

Works cited

Further reading