Police, West Pomeranian Voivodeship

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Police
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Saints Peter and Paul Gothic Church in Police-Jasienica
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Police herb.svg
West Pomeranian Voivodeship location map.svg
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Police
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Police
Coordinates: 53°32′N14°34′E / 53.533°N 14.567°E / 53.533; 14.567 Coordinates: 53°32′N14°34′E / 53.533°N 14.567°E / 53.533; 14.567
CountryFlag of Poland.svg  Poland
Voivodeship West Pomeranian
County Police County
Gmina Gmina Police
Government
  MayorWładysław Diakun
Area
  Total36.84 km2 (14.22 sq mi)
Population
 (2014)
  Total41,745
  Density1,100/km2 (2,900/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
72-009, 72-010, 72-011
Car plates ZPL
Website www.police.pl

Police (Polish: [pɔˈlʲit͡sɛ] ; Kashubian : Pòlice; formerly German : Pölitz) is a town in the West Pomeranian Voivodeship, in northwestern Poland. It is the capital of Police County and one of the biggest towns of the Szczecin agglomeration.

Contents

The town is situated on the Oder River and its estuary, south of the Szczecin Lagoon and the Bay of Pomerania. The centre of Police is situated about 15 kilometres (9 miles) north of the centre of Szczecin.

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Wyszyńskiego Street in the New Town of Police
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The Public Library of Police County in Police
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Mścięcino Park near the municipal border between Szczecin and Police
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The Police Lapidary, German gravestones

Etymology

The name of the town comes from Proto-Slavic pole, which means field. [1]

History

The settlement was first mentioned in 1243. Pomeranian duke Barnim of Pomerania granted Magdeburg law to the town in 1260. [2] [3] At the end of the 13th century, the town had become a fief of a local dynasty of knights, the Drake family. [4] In 1321, with the death of Otto Drake, the town became a dependency of nearby Stettin (now Szczecin), [4] hindering its growth until the mid-18th century.

Nearby Jasienica Abbey, now within the Police city limits, was secularized during the Protestant Reformation, which was adapted in the Duchy of Pomerania in 1534. After its secularization, the abbey became a ducal domain, and was the site of the treaty that for the first time partitioned the duchy into a western and eastern part (Pomerania-Wolgast and Pomerania-Stettin) in 1569. [5]

From the Treaty of Stettin (1630) until the Treaty of Stockholm (1720), Pölitz was part of Swedish Pomerania, and of Prussian Pomerania thereafter. In 1808, Pölitz became independent from Stettin again. In 1815, Pölitz became part of the restructured Province of Pomerania, administered within Landkreis Randow county. In 1939, this county was dissolved and Pölitz was made part of Groß-Stettin. [6]

German synthetic fuel factory

In 1937, the synthetic fuel plant Hydrierwerke Pölitz AG was founded by IG Farben, Rhenania-Ossag, and Deutsch-Amerikanische Petroleum Gesellschaft [7] which by 1943 was producing 15% of Nazi Germany's synthetic fuels, 577,000 tons. [8] The plant derived its workforce from an adjacent system of camps (Pommernlager, Nordlager, Tobruklager, Wullenwever-Lager, Arbeitserziehungslager Hägerwelle, Dürrfeld Lager) plus a ship moored on the Oder River serving as a camp (Umschulungslager Bremerhaven). In addition, a subcamp of the Stutthof concentration camp was located in Pölitz.

During World War II, the plant made Pölitz a nine-time bombing target of the Allied Oil Campaign from late April 1943 onward, leading to 70% of the town being destroyed. [3] [6]

Post–World War II

The city with the plant was captured by the Soviet Union’s Red Army during the Battle of Berlin on 26 April 1945. While most of the former German territory east of the Oder-Neisse line became Polish, Pölitz, situated on the western bank of the Oder, remained a Soviet-administered exclave: Marshal Zhukov decreed the establishment of a Soviet county with Pölitz, Ziegenort, Jasenitz, Messenthin and Scholwin. [9] 25,000 German workers had to disassemble the plant before it was sent to the USSR. [9]

Gradually, the area without the plant was given to Poland: Mścięcino (formerly Messenthin) on 7 September 1946, and Police (formerly Pölitz) with Jasienica (formerly Jasenitz) on 19 September. On 25 February 1947 the plant also passed to Polish control. As a result, the Soviet Union allowed Polish annexations of German land west of the river Odra, beyond the border as agreed on the Potsdam Conference. [10]

Polish settlers, partially expellees from the east of former Poland, arrived in the region to replace the German population that had fled or were forcibly expelled. They were joined by refugees from Greece and Yugoslav Macedonia in 1953.

The ruins of the plant still remain standing, though they are not secured and are dangerous to visit.

A large chemical plant (Zakłady Chemiczne "Police") was built in the town in 1969 and has grown since to become one of the largest in Poland. It produces mostly titanium dioxide pigments and nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers.

Police was in the Szczecin Voivodeship from 1946 to 1998. Since 1999 the town has been part of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship.

Districts

Notable buildings from the pre-WW2 era:

The tourist and cultural information office is localised in The Gothic Chapel in Bolesław Chrobry Square in The Old Town of Police

Geography and nature

Oder in Police 0905 Odra Domiaza ZP.JPG
Oder in Police

Police is situated on the Oder River and an estuary of the Oder River - Roztoka Odrzańska, south of the Lagoon of Szczecin and the Bay of Pomerania. The centre of Police Town is situated about 15 km (9 mi) north of the centre of Szczecin. Police is at located in the Ueckermünder Heide (Polish : Puszcza Wkrzańska) with the Świdwie Nature Reserve around Lake Świdwie (Polish : Jezioro Świdwie) near Tanowo and Dobra.

A kayak route follows the Gunica River from Węgornik through Tanowo, Tatynia and Wieńkowo to Police-Jasienica. At the Szczecin Lagoon (Polish : Zalew Szczeciński, German : Stettiner Haff) is a small yacht marina on the mouth of the Łarpia River (part of Oder) - 'Olimpia'. The ruins of the synthetic petrol plant (Hydrierwerke Pölitz – Aktiengeselschaft) are now a habitat of bats (Barbastelle, Greater mouse-eared bat, Daubenton's Bat, Natterer's bat, Brown long-eared bat).

Population

Infrastructure

Major roads under state control connect Police to Trzebież and Nowe Warpno, No. 114; to Tanowo, No. 114; and to Szczecin over Przęsocin.

Main streets in Police include: ul. Tanowska, ul. Bankowa, ul. Grunwaldzka, ul. Kościuszki, ul. Jasienicka, ul. Dworcowa, ul. Piastów, ul. Wojska Polskiego, ul. Asfaltowa, ul. Cisowa, ul. Piłsudskiego, and ul. Wyszyńskiego.

Culture and sport

Hospital

A clinic hospital in Police (Siedlecka Street, The New Town, Osiedle Gryfitów) is a part of The Pomeranian Medical University.

Notable residents

Major corporations

Twinning cities

The sister cities of Police are: [12]

Towns near Police

See also

Related Research Articles

Pomerania Historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe

Pomerania is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Poland and Germany. The western part of Pomerania belongs to the German states of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and Brandenburg, while the eastern part belongs to the West Pomeranian, Pomeranian and Kuyavian-Pomeranian voivodeships of Poland. Its historical border in the west is the Mecklenburg-Western Pomeranian border valley, which now constitutes the border between the Mecklenburgian and Pomeranian part of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, while it is bounded by the Vistula River in the east. The easternmost part of Pomerania is alternatively known as Pomerelia, consisting of four sub-regions: Kashubia inhabited by ethnic Kashubians, Kociewie, Tuchola Forest and Chełmno Land.

Szczecin Capital city of West Pomerania, Poland

Szczecin is the capital and largest city of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in northwestern Poland. Located near the Baltic Sea and the German border, it is a major seaport and Poland's seventh-largest city. As of December 2020, the population was 398,255.

Goleniów Place in West Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland

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Szczecin Lagoon Estuary on the Polish-German border

Szczecin Lagoon, also anglicized to Stettin Lagoon, is a lagoon in the Oder estuary, shared by Germany and Poland. It is separated from the Pomeranian Bay of the Baltic Sea by the islands of Usedom and Wolin. The lagoon is subdivided into the Kleines Haff in the West and the Wielki Zalew in the East. An ambiguous historical German name was Frisches Haff, which later exclusively referred to the Vistula Lagoon.

History of Szczecin

The History of Szczecin dates back to the 8th century. Throughout its history the city has been part of Poland, Denmark, Sweden and Germany. Since the Middle Ages, it is one of the largest and oldest cities in the historic region of Pomerania, and today, is it the largest city in northwestern Poland.

Ina (river)

The Ina is a river in northwestern Poland, a right tributary of the Oder River.

Farther Pomerania

Farther Pomerania, Hinder Pomerania, Rear Pomerania or Eastern Pomerania, is the part of Pomerania which comprised the eastern part of the Duchy and later Province of Pomerania. It stretched roughly from the Oder River in the West to Pomerelia in the East. Since 1945, Farther Pomerania has been part of Poland; the bulk of former Farther Pomerania is within the West Pomeranian Voivodeship, while its easternmost parts are within the Pomeranian Voivodeship. The Polish term Pomorze Zachodnie is colloquially used in contemporary Poland as a synonym for the West Pomeranian Voivodship whose borders do not match the historical ones; in Polish historical usage, it applied to all areas west of Pomerelia.

Ueckermünde Town in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Ueckermünde is a seaport town in northeast Germany, located in the district of Vorpommern-Greifswald, Western Pomerania, near Germany's border with Poland's Police County.

Police County County in West Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland

Police County is a unit of territorial administration and local government (powiat) in West Pomeranian Voivodeship, north-western Poland, on the Polish-German border. It came into being on January 1, 1999, as a result of the Polish local government reforms passed in 1998. Its administrative seat and largest town is Police, which lies 13 kilometres (8 mi) north of the regional capital Szczecin. The only other town in the county is Nowe Warpno, lying 29 km (18 mi) north-west of Police.

Przęsocin is a small village south of the town of Police, Poland

Ueckermünde Heath

Ueckermünde Heath is a large area of forest and heath, 1,000 km² in area, in northeastern Germany and northwestern Poland, on the Oder river and the Szczecin Lagoon. In 1945, the eastern part went to Poland and is now called the Puszcza Wkrzańska. Świdwie Lake near Tanowo is the site of a nature reserve and Ramsar site.

Gmina Police is an urban-rural gmina in Police County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, in north-western Poland, on the German border. Its seat is the town of Police, which lies approximately 13 kilometres (8 mi) north of the regional capital Szczecin.

Trzebież Village in West Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland

Trzebież is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Police, within Police County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, in north-western Poland, close to the German border. It lies approximately 15 kilometres (9 mi) north of Police and 28 km (17 mi) north of the regional capital Szczecin.

Jasienica, Police

Jasienica is a district of Police, Poland, a town in the Pomerania Region. In the High and Late Middle Ages, the village was the site of Jasenitz Abbey, now in ruins.

History of Pomerania (1945–present)

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Policki Park Przemysłowy - an industrial park in Police, a district town in north-west Poland. The total area is about 140 ha. In the area: Zakłady Chemiczne Police SA, ship, road and rail transport, Szczecin-Goleniów "Solidarność" Airport (Goleniów) and a centre of Police.

Oder River in Central Europe

The Oder is a river in Central Europe. It is Poland's second-longest river in total length and third-longest within its borders after the Vistula and Warta. The Oder rises in the Czech Republic and flows 742 kilometres (461 mi) through western Poland, later forming 187 kilometres (116 mi) of the border between Poland and Germany as part of the Oder–Neisse line. The river ultimately flows into the Szczecin Lagoon north of Szczecin and then into three branches that empty into the Bay of Pomerania of the Baltic Sea.

Western Pomerania Historical region in present-day northeast Germany

Historical Western Pomerania, also called Fore Pomerania, Front Pomerania or Hither Pomerania, is the western extremity of the historic region of the Duchy, later Province of Pomerania, nowadays divided between the states of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and Brandenburg in Germany and West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland.

Szczecin metropolitan area

Szczecin agglomeration or Stettin agglomeration is the urban agglomeration of the city of Szczecin and surrounding towns in the Polish-German border area.

Bus transport in Szczecin

Bus transport in Szczecin – part of public transport, which connects city districts and city Szczecin with Police, Dobra, Kołbaskowo, Police, Kobylanka and Goleniów. Szczecin buses are operated by four companies on behalf of the ZDiTM. The bus system has been in operation since 1928. Nowadays, in Szczecin and the surrounding area 73 bus lines are running, including 54 normal lines, 5 fast lines and 14 night lines.

References

Notes
  1. Kazimierz Rymut, Nazwy miast Polski (Names of towns of Poland), Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich, 1980, pg. 189
  2. Rudolf Benl, Die Gestaltung der Bodenrechtsverhältnisse in Pommern vom 12. bis zum 14. Jahrhundert, Böhlau, 1986, p.240, ISBN   3-412-01586-5: "Die deutsche Stadt Pölitz war 1260 von Barnim I. gegründet..."
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Thomas Gallien, Reno Stutz, Geschichtswerkstatt Rostock, Landesheimatverband Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Landeskundlich-historisches Lexikon Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Hinstorff, 2007, p.503
  4. 1 2 Peter Johanek et al.: Städtebuch Hinterpommern Ausg. 2-3, Kohlhammer Verlag, 2003, p.268, ISBN   3-17-018152-1
  5. Dietmar Willoweit, Hans Lemberg, Reiche und Territorien in Ostmitteleuropa: historische Beziehungen und politische Herrschaftslegitimation, Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, 2006, p.96, ISBN   3-486-57839-1
  6. 1 2 Johannes Hinz, Pommern Lexikon, Kraft, 1994, p.236, ISBN   3-8083-1164-9
  7. Rainer Karlsch, Raymond G. Stokes, Faktor Öl: die Mineralölwirtschaft in Deutschland 1859-1974, C. H. Beck, 2003, pp.193ff, ISBN   3-406-50276-8
  8. Rainer Karlsch, Raymond G. Stokes, Faktor Öl: die Mineralölwirtschaft in Deutschland 1859-1974, C.H.Beck, 2003, p.196, ISBN   3-406-50276-8
  9. 1 2 Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeit, 1999, p.380, ISBN   978-83-906184-8-7
  10. Michael A. Hartenstein (1997). Die Oder-Neisse-Linie: Geschichte der Aufrichtung und Anerkennung einer problematischen Grenze. Hänsel-Hohenhausen. p. 100.
  11. 1 2 3 4 Rocznik Statystyczny 1981, Główny Urząd Statystyczny, Warszawa 1981, Rok XLI
  12. "Miasta partnerskie" (in Polish). bip.police.pl. Retrieved 2015-01-05.
  13. http://www.slagelse.dk/media/8605243/nordiske-venskabsbyer.pdf [ bare URL PDF ]