Police of Russia

Last updated
The Police
Полиция
Politsiya
Police emblem of Russia.svg
Russian police Emblem
Nagrudnyi znak sotrudnika Politsii.jpeg
Russian Police badge
MottoСлужим России, служим закону!
We serve Russia, we serve the law!
Agency overview
FormedMarch 1, 2011
Preceding agencies
Employees904,871 (2016)
Jurisdictional structure
National agency
(Operations jurisdiction)
RUS
Operations jurisdiction RUS
Map of Russian districts, 2018-11-04.svg
Map of the Federal districts of Russia
Size17,075,400 km2
Population143,030,106 [1]
Legal jurisdictionFederal law "On police"
Governing body Ministry of Internal Affairs (Russia)
Constituting instrument
  • Law "On Police"
General nature
Operational structure
Overviewed by State Duma's Security Committee
HeadquartersZhitnaya 6, Okhotny Ryad, Moscow

Appointment by the President of Russia responsible
Parent agency MVD
Notables
Anniversary
  • November 10, 1918
Website
https://en.mvd.ru/

Police (Russian :полиция, tr. politsiya,IPA:  [pɐˈlʲitsɨjə] ) is the federal law-enforcement agency in Russia, operating under the Ministry of Internal Affairs. It was established in 2011, replacing the Militsiya, the former police service. It is the federal police service of Russia that operates according to the law on police (Закон "о полиции"), [2] as approved by the Federal Assembly, and subsequently signed into law on February 7, 2011 by then President of the Russian Federation, Dmitry Medvedev.

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.

Romanization of Russian Romanization of the Russian alphabet

Romanization of Russian is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic script into the Latin script.

Law enforcement in Russia

Law enforcement in the Russian Federation is the responsibility of a variety of different agencies. The Russian police are the primary law enforcement agency, the Investigative Committee of Russia is the main investigative agency, and the Federal Security Service is the main domestic security agency.

Contents

History

The existing system of public services for the protection of public order and the fight against crime in the Russian Empire and re-organized from March 1, 2011 of the Russian Federation (with the exception of structures not related to the Ministry of Internal Affairs that already exist or exist before and were called the police).

Russian Empire Former country, 1721–1917

The Russian Empire, also known as Imperial Russia or simply Russia, was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

Ministry of Internal Affairs (Russia) Russian government ministry responsible for security and law enforcement within Russian borders

The Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation is the interior ministry of Russia. Emperor Alexander I of Russia founded its predecessor in 1802 in Imperial Russia. The Ministry has its headquarters in Moscow.

16th century

In 1504, cheval de frise were installed in Moscow, under which the guards were stationed. The guards were kept by the locals. The city was divided into areas, between which gates with lattices were built. It was forbidden to move around the city at night or without lighting. Subsequently, the Grand prince Ivan IV established patrols around Moscow to observe safety.

<i>Cheval de frise</i> medieval defensive obstacle

The cheval de frise was a medieval defensive anti-cavalry measure consisting of a portable frame covered with many projecting long iron or wooden spikes or spears. They were principally intended as an anti-cavalry obstacle but could also be moved quickly to help block a breach in another barrier. They remained in occasional use until they were replaced by wire obstacles just after the American Civil War. During the Civil War, the Confederates used this type of barrier more often than the Union forces. During World War I, armies used chevaux de frise to temporarily plug gaps in barbed wire. Barbed wire chevaux de frise were used in jungle fighting on south Pacific islands during World War II.

Moscow Capital city of Russia

Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities.

The title grand prince or great prince ranked in honour below king and emperor and above a sovereign prince. It also ranked below an Archduke, although this is debatable.

Sudebnik of Ivan IV transferred the cases of “about guided robbers” under the jurisdiction of honorary elders. Prior to this, the Letters of Honor were in the nature of awards, and were given by the petition of the population itself. The lip of the letter gave permission to local society to independently manage in the field of labial work. In cities, police functions were performed by the mayor.

Sudebnik of 1550

Sudebnik of Tsar Ivan IV was an expansion and revision of the Sudebnik of 1497, a code of laws instituted by Ivan the Great, his grandfather. It is considered the result of the first Russian parliament of feudal Estates.

In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town.

Robber administration was first mentioned in 1571 and since then has existed continuously until the 18th century. Since 1539, in Moscow, the boyars are mentioned in written sources, by which robbery is ordered. Konstantin Nevolin believed that it was a temporary commission established to destroy the robberies, which then intensified. But, since the robberies did not stop, the temporary commission turned into a standing commission and thus robber administration appeared.

Boyar

A boyar was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Bulgarian, Kievan, Moscovian, Serbian, Wallachian, Moldavian, and later Romanian aristocracies, second only to the ruling princes from the 10th century to the 17th century. The rank has lived on as a surname in Russia, Ukraine and Romania, and in Finland, where it is spelled Pajari.

Konstantin Nevolin Russian historian

Konstantin Alekseevich Nevolin (1806–1855) was a Russian legal historian.

17th century

By decree of August 14, 1687, the affairs of the robber administration were transferred to the Zemsky administrations. In April 1649, Gran prince Alexis issued a decree on urban blessing. By decree in the White City, a team was created under the leadership of Ivan Novikov and clerk Vikula Panov. They were betrayed by five lattice clerks and "one person from 10 yards" with roars, axes and water pipes. The detachment was supposed to protect fire safety and order.

Alexis of Russia Tsar of Russia

Aleksey Mikhailovich was the tsar of Russia from 1645 until his death in 1676. His reign saw wars with Poland and Sweden, schism in the Russian Orthodox Church, and the major Cossack revolt of Stenka Razin. Nevertheless, at the time of his death Russia spanned almost 2,000,000,000 acres (8,100,000 km2).

Police officers in large cities called Zemsky Yaryg. In Moscow, they were dressed in red and green clothes. In other cities, the color of clothes could be different. On the chest they had the letters “З” (Z) and “Я” (YA) sewn.

In 1669, instead of elders, detectives were introduced everywhere.

18th century

Dragoon (left) and a police officer. 1718. Postage stamp Russia 2013. Stamp of Russia 2013 No 1747 Police uniform 1718.jpg
Dragoon (left) and a police officer. 1718. Postage stamp Russia 2013.

The police force in Saint Petersburg was established as the Main Police on 1715 by decree from Peter the Great. Initially, the staff of the St. Petersburg police consisted of the deputy general-police chief, 4 officers and 36 lower ranks. The clerical and ten clerks kept office work in the Main Police Station Office. The police not only kept order in the city, but also carried out a number of economic functions, engaged in the improvement of the city — paving streets, draining swampy places, garbage collection, etc.

On June 7, 1718, Adjutant general Anton de Vieira was appointed General Polizeimeister. [3] To solve the tasks, the created Chief Police Office and one army regiment were handed over to the General Polizeimeister. All the ranks of this regiment became police officers. Through the efforts of General de Vieira in 1721, the first lanterns and benches for rest were installed in St. Petersburg.

On January 19, 1722 the Governing Senate established the Moscow Police. The Ober-Polizeimeister was appointed by the emperor from military or civilian ranks. In accordance with the instructions of July 20, 1722, the Ober-Polizeimeister supervised the protection of public peace in Moscow, was the head of the Moscow Police Office. In 1729–1731 and 1762–1764, the head of the Moscow police was called the General Polizeimeister.

On April 23, 1733, Empress Anna signed a decree “On the establishment of police in cities”. The police received the authority of the court and had the opportunity to impose penalties in criminal cases.

19th and 20th century

The Detective Department was founded in 1866 operating under the Police Department of Ministry of Internal Affairs, and by 1907 similar departments had been created in other major cities of the Russian Empire, including Moscow, Kiev, Riga, Odessa, Tiflis, Baku and Rostov-on-Don. Other districts were policed by rural police or gendarmerie units.

The 3,500 strong police force of Petrograd provided the main opposition to the rioting which marked the initial outbreak of the February Revolution. After the army units garrisoning the city defected, the police became the main target of the revolutionaries and a number were killed. The Police of the Russian Empire was dissolved on March 10, 1917, and on April 17 the Provisional Government established the People's Militia (Militsiya) as a new law enforcement body.

Soviet Militsiya

The militsiya was formed on March 10, 1917, which replaced the former police organizations of the Imperial government within Russia. There were detachments of the people's militsiya and the workers' militsiya that were organized as paramilitary police units. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the militsiya in Russia existed until March 1, 2011.

2011 Police reform

Police officer, 2018 Policemanrussia.jpg
Police officer, 2018
Summer uniform of a Russian police officer Rassa-1-1.jpg
Summer uniform of a Russian police officer

Russian police reform (Закон РФ "о полиции" (Zakon RF "O politsii" {Law on police}) is an ongoing effort initiated by former President Dmitry Medvedev to improve the efficiency of Russia's police forces, decrease corruption and improve the public image of law enforcement. On 7 February 2011, amendments were made to laws on the police force, the criminal code and the criminal procedure code. The amendments came into force on 1 March 2011. These changes stipulate a personnel cut of 20% in law enforcement, a renaming of Russian law enforcers from "militsiya" (militia) to "politsiya" (police), substantial increases in wages, centralization of financing, and several other changes. Around 217 billion rubles ($7 billion) have been allocated from the federal budget to finance the reform.

Main changes and aims of the reform

  • Name change. Under the reform, the name of Russian law enforcers was changed from the Soviet-era term "militsiya" (militia) to the more universal "politsiya" (police) on 1 March 2011. [4] [5]
  • Personnel reduction and salary increase. The number of police officers was reduced by 20%, dropping from 1.28 million to 1.1 million by 2012. The reduction was accomplished via a comprehensive evaluation of all officers. The evaluation was conducted before June 2011, and those failing the evaluation will end up losing their jobs. All officers who in the past have received administrative penalties or who have links to the criminal underworld will be fired. [6] For those officers surviving the reduction, salaries will be increased by 30%.
  • Centralisation. As a result of the reform, the Russian police was made a federal-level institution, with funding accomplished fully from the federal budget. Under the old system, police units responsible for public order and petty crimes were under the jurisdiction of regional and city authorities, financed from regional budget and responsible more to the regional governors than to the federal center. [7]
  • Changes to police and detainee rights. According to the new law, the detainee will receive a right to make a telephone call within 3 hours of the detention. They will also receive the right to have a lawyer and interpreter from the moment of their detention, and police must inform the detainee of their rights and duties. The police will lose its right to carry out and demand checks of a company's financial and business activities. Police may also no longer detain a citizen for an hour just to verify his identity. [8]

Central administration

Rashid Nurgaliyev, former Russian Minister for Internal Affairs (2003-2012), who led the dissolution of the Militsiya. Rashid Nurgaliev.jpeg
Rashid Nurgaliyev, former Russian Minister for Internal Affairs (2003–2012), who led the dissolution of the Militsiya.
  1. Criminal Police Service: Criminal Investigations Department (Russian: Уголовный розыск)
    • Main Office for Criminal Investigation
    • Main Office for Combating Economic and Tax Crimes (Russian:Отдел борьбы с экономическими преступлениями)
    • Office for Operational Investigation Information
    • Co-ordination Office of Criminal Police Service
    • Main Office for Public Order Maintenance
    • Main Directorate for Road Traffic Safety (Traffic police) (Russian: Государственная инспекция безопасности дорожного движения)
    • Main Office of the Interior for Restricted Facilities
    • Main Office of Interdepartmental Security Guard Service
    • Co-ordination Office of Public Security Service
    • Main Office of the Interior for Transport and Special Transportation
    • Office for Passports and Visas
    • External Labour Migration Department
    • Legal Office
    • Office for Crisis Situations
    • Office for Resource Provisions
    • Finance and Economy Office
  2. Logistical Service
    • Office for Material and Technical Support
    • Finance and Economy Department
    • Medical Office
    • Office for Communication and Automation
    • Office for Capital Construction
    • Co-ordination Office of Logistical Service
    • General Services Office
  3. Independent Divisions

Equipment

Transportation

A police car, 2018. RE1-86GwGBc.jpg
A police car, 2018.
Ka-226 of the Moscow Police Service in flight, 2008 Kamov Ka-226 Sergei.jpg
Ka-226 of the Moscow Police Service in flight, 2008

Russian police use a number of different models of automobiles which range greatly in age and technical specification.

Patrol Cars

Vans

All Terrain Vehicles

Armoured vehicles

Weaponry

Rank insignia

The Russian Police do not use the rank of corporal.

Private StaffJunior Supervising Staff
Shoulder insignia
for everyday uniform
Russian police private.png Russian police junior sergeant.png Russian police sergeant.png Russian police senior sergeant.png Russian police master sergeant.png Russian police warrant officer.png Russian police senior warrant officer.png
RankPolice Private Police
Junior sergeant
Police Sergeant Police
Senior sergeant
Police Starshina Police Praporshchik Police
Senior praporshchik
Medium Supervising StaffSenior Supervising StaffSupreme Supervising Staff
Shoulder insignia
for every day uniform
Russian police junior lieutenant.png Russian police lieutenant.png Russian police senior lieutenant.png Russian police captain.png Russian police major.png Russian police lieutenant colonel.png Russian police colonel.png Russian police major general.png Russian police lieutenant general.png Russian police colonel general.png Russian police general 1.png
RankPolice
Junior lieutenant
Police Lieutenant Police
Senior lieutenant
Police Captain Police Major Police
Lieutenant colonel
Police Colonel Police
Major General
Police
Lieutenant General
Police
Colonel General
General of the Police of the Russian Federation

It should also be noted that there is a four star police rank, General of the Police of the Russian Federation (Генерал полиции Российской Федерации). The rank is only newly established.

See also

Related Research Articles

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References

  1. 2012 estimate
  2. "Закон РФ "О полиции", N 3-ФЗ".
  3. "Просмотр документа - dlib.rsl.ru". dlib.rsl.ru. Retrieved 2019-01-10.
  4. "Police reform: easy rebranding followed by complicated actions". Russia Today. 18 March 2011.
  5. "Bill Backed by Kremlin Gives Police Officers 'Manna'". The Moscow Times. 23 March 2011.
  6. "Russia's rebranded police initiated with major layoffs". Russia Today. 1 March 2011.
  7. "Will Russian police reforms be more than a name change?", website, RIA Novosti , retrieved 2019-01-10
  8. "Changes to the law "On police"". RIA Novosti. 2010-11-01.