This article does not cite any sources . (December 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Polish OOB during the invasion of Poland . In the late thirties Polish headquarters prepared "Plan Zachód" (Plan "West), a plan of mobilization of Polish Army in case of war with Germany. Earlier, the Poles did not regard the Germans as their main threat, priority was given to threat from the Soviets (see: Plan East).
The overall operational plan assumed the creation of 30 infantry divisions, 9 reserve divisions, 11 cavalry brigades, two motorized brigades, 3 mountain brigades and a number of smaller units. Most Polish forces were grouped into 6 armies and a number of corps-sized "Operational Groups". Later in the course of the war other operational units were created.
Created on July 11, 1939, under Major General Kazimierz Fabrycy. Armia Karpaty was created after Germany annexed Czechoslovakia and created a puppet state of Slovakia. The main aim of the army was to secure mountain passes in the Carpathians. Initially the army consisted of 2 improvised mountain brigades and a number of smaller units, but later in the course of war was joined by forces of the withdrawing Armia Kraków.
Additionally, mobilisation plans called for creation of the Tarnów Group consisting of:
Created on March 23, 1939, as the main pivot of Polish defence. Its main task was to delay advancing German troops and withdraw eastwards along the northern line of the Carpathians. It consisted of 5 infantry divisions, 1 mountain infantry division, 1 motorized cavalry brigade, 1 mountain brigade and 1 cavalry brigade under gen. Antoni Szylling.
|Kraków Army||Unit||Polish name||Commander||Remarks|
|Army units – gen. Antoni Szylling|
|6th Infantry Division from Kraków||6 Dywizja Piechoty||Bernard Mond|
|7th Infantry Division from Częstochowa||7 Dywizja Piechoty||gen. bryg. Janusz Gąsiorowski|
|11th Infantry Division from Stanisławów||11 Dywizja Piechoty||gen. bryg. Bronisław Prugar-Ketling|
|Kraków Cavalry Brigade from Kraków||Krakowska Brygada Kawalerii||gen.bryg. Zygmunt Piasecki|
|10th Motorized Cavalry Brigade from Rzeszów||10 Brygada Kawalerii Zmotoryzowanej||płk. Stanisław Maczek|
|Śląsk Operational Group – gen. Jan Jagmin-Sadowski|
|23rd Infantry Division from Katowice||23 Dywizja Piechoty||płk. Władysław Powierza||Upper Silesian|
|55th Infantry Division, reserve division made of several units from the area of Upper Silesia and Jaworzno||55 Dywizja Piechoty||płk. Stanisław Kalabiński||reserve|
|Bielsko Operational Group – gen. Mieczysław Boruta-Spiechowicz|
|21st Mountain Infantry Division from Nowy Sącz and Bielsko-Biała||21 Dywizja Piechoty Górskiej||gen. Józef Kustroń|
|1st Mountain Brigade, made of several National Defence units from Żywiec, Zakopane and Jasło.||1 Brygada Górska||płk Janusz Gaładyk||mostly elite KOP troops|
An improvised army created on September 4 from 1 motorized brigade and various smaller units concentrated around Lublin, Sandomierz and upper Vistula. Commanded by mj. gen. Tadeusz Piskor.
Created on March 23, 1939, under gen. Juliusz Rómmel. Armia Łódź was to become a bolt between Armies "Kraków" and "Poznań". However, because of mistakes committed by Gen. Rómmel, the army was located too close to the German border and joined fighting from the very beginning of the campaign, which deprived it of any possibilities of cooperation with the surrounding units. It consisted of 4 infantry divisions and 2 cavalry brigades.
Created on March 23, 1939, for defence of Warsaw from the north. The army was to defend fortified lines along the border with East Prussia near Mława, and then retreat towards Narew river. Led by brig. gen. Emil Krukowicz-Przedrzymirski. Consisted of 2 infantry divisions and 2 cavalry brigades.
The Army was created on March 23, 1939, to defend Toruń and Bydgoszcz and to carry out delaying actions in the so-called "Polish Corridor". It was led by Lt.-Gen. Władysław Bortnowski and consisted of five infantry divisions, two National Defence brigades and one cavalry brigade.
|Pomorze Army||Unit||Polish name||Commander||Remarks|
|Army units – gen. Władysław Bortnowski|
|9th Infantry Division from Siedlce||9 Dywizja Piechoty||płk. Józef Werobej|
|15th Infantry Division from Bydgoszcz||15 Dywizja Piechoty||gen. Wacław Przyjałkowski||Greater Polish|
|27th Infantry Division from Kowel||27 Dywizja Piechoty||gen.bryg. Juliusz Drapella|
|Pomeranian National Defence Brigade||Pomorska Brygada Obrony Narodowej|
|Chełmno National Defence Brigade||Chełmska Brygada Obrony Narodowej|
|Operational Group "East" – gen. Mikołaj Bołtuć|
|4th Infantry Division from Toruń||4 Dywizja Piechoty||płk. Rawicz-Mysłowski, płk. Józef Werobej|
|16th Infantry Division from Grudziądz||16 Dywizja Piechoty||płk. Zygmunt Szyszko-Bohusz||Pomeranian|
|Czersk Operational Group – gen.bryg. Stanisław Grzmot-Skotnicki|
|Pomeranian Cavalry Brigade from Bydgoszcz||Pomorska Brygada Kawalerii||gen.bryg. Stanisław Grzmot-Skotnicki|
|Independent Units Chojnice and Kościerzyna||Oddziały Wydzielone "Chojnice" i "Kościerzyna"|
The Armia Poznań led by mj. gen. Tadeusz Kutrzeba was to provide flanking operations in the Grand Poland and withdraw towards lines of defence along the Warta river. It consisted of 4 infantry divisions and 2 cavalry brigades.
Under gen. Stefan Dąb-Biernacki. Created in the summer of 1939 as the main reserve of the Commander in Chief. According to the "Plan West" (Plan Zachód, code name for the Polish mobilization plan) it was to be composed of units mobilized as the second and third waves and its main purpose was to cooperate with the nearby armies "Poznań" and "Kraków".
Mobilized in two groups. Because of fast German advance both groups entered combat separately and most units did not reach full mobilization. It consisted of 6 infantry divisions, 1 cavalry brigade and a battalion of tanks.
|Prusy Army||Unit||Polish name||Commander||Remarks|
|Army units – gen. Stefan Dąb-Biernacki|
|39th Infantry Division, made of several regiments of the Border Defence Corps||39 Dywizja Piechoty||płk. Bruno Olbrycht||reserve|
|44th Infantry Division, made of several regiments of the Border Defence Corps||44 Dywizja Piechoty||płk. Eugeniusz Żongołłowicz||reserve|
|Northern group – gen. Stefan Dąb-Biernacki|
|13th Infantry Division from Rowne||13 Dywizja Piechoty||płk. Władysław Zubosz-Kaliński||Kresowa|
|19th Infantry Division from Wilno||19 Dywizja Piechoty||gen. Józef Kwaciszewski|
|29th Infantry Division from Grodno||29 Dywizja Piechoty||płk. Ignacy Oziewicz|
|Wileńska Cavalry Brigade from Wilno||Wileńska Brygada Kawalerii||płk. Konstanty Drucki-Lubecki|
|1st tank battalion||1 battalion czołgów|
|Southern group – gen. Stanisław Skwarczyński|
|3rd Legions Infantry Division from Zamość||3 Dywizja Piechoty Legionów||płk. Marian Turowski|
|12th Infantry Division from Tarnopol||12 Dywizja Piechoty||gen. Gustaw Paszkiewicz|
|36th Infantry Division, made from troops of Border Defence Corps of the Podole area.||36 Dywizja Piechoty||płk Michał Ostrowski||reserve|
Created on September 10, 1939, from various units in Warsaw and Modlin Fortress area. Initially it consisted of approximately 25 infantry battalions and 40 tanks. Later it was reinforced by forces of Łódź Army and elements of Modlin Army. It was commanded by col. Walerian Czuma, although the nominal commander was gen. Juliusz Rómmel.
|Warszawa Army||Unit||Polish name||Commander||Remarks|
|Modlin Fortress – gen. Wiktor Thommée|
|2nd Legions Infantry Division from Kielce||2 Dywizja Piechoty Legionów||płk Antoni Staich||elements|
|8th Infantry Division from Modlin||8 Dywizja Piechoty||płk Tadeusz Wyrwa-Furgalski||elements|
|28th Infantry Division from Warszawa||28 Dywizja Piechoty||płk Broniewski||elements|
|30th Infantry Division from Kobryn||30 Dywizja Piechoty||gen. Leopold Cehak||elements|
|Western Approach – płk Marian Porwit|
|13th Infantry Division from Rowne||13 Dywizja Piechoty||płk Władysław Zubosz-Kalinski||reinforced|
|15th Infantry Division from Bydgoszcz||15 Dywizja Piechoty||gen. Zdzisław Przyjałkowski||reinforced|
|25th Infantry Division from Kalisz||25 Dywizja Piechoty||gen. Franciszek Alter||elements|
|Combined Cavalry Brigade||Zbiorcza Brygada Kawalerii||gen. Roman Abraham||combined|
|Eastern Approach – gen. Juliusz Zulauff|
|5th Infantry Division from Lwów||5 Dywizja Piechoty||gen. Juliusz Zulauff||elements, 1 regiment|
|8th Infantry Division from Modlin||8 Dywizja Piechoty||płk Tadeusz Wyrwa-Furgalski||routed, 1 regiment under Sosabowski|
|20th Infantry Division from Baranowicze||20 Dywizja Piechoty||płk Wilhelm Liszka-Lawicz|
|44th Infantry Division||44 Dywizja Piechoty||płk Eugeniusz Żongołłowicz||reserve, routed|
|1st "Defenders of Praga" Infantry Regiment||1 pułk piechoty Obrońców Pragi||płk Stanisław Milian||improvised|
|2nd "Defenders of Praga" Infantry Regiment||2 pułk piechoty Obrońców Pragi||płk Stefan Kotowski||improvised|
Was one of the reserves of the northern front of Polish defences, created on September 1, 1939. According to Plan West, it was supposed to defend the line of the Narew river from Wehrmacht units advancing from East Prussia. Due to rapid German advance, the group withdrew towards the Bug river, and on September 11, Polish Commander in Chief Edward Rydz-Śmigły ordered General Wincenty Kowalski, commandant of Operational Group Wyszków, to merge his unit with Northern Front under General Stefan Dąb-Biernacki.
It consisted of the following units:
Consisted of 2 infantry divisions and 2 cavalry brigades:
Naval and river support
The Prusy Army was one of the Polish armies to fight during the Invasion of Poland in 1939. Created in the summer of 1939 as the main reserve of the Commander in Chief, it was commanded by Gen. Stefan Dąb-Biernacki. The word Prusy in the Polish language means Prussia, but this name only served as a codename and the region of operations of this army was far from East Prussia. This is in contrast to other Polish armies in 1939 which were named after the geographical regions where they formed. The Prusy Army, whose original name was Warszawa Army, was named so after a folwark in central Poland called Prusy, which served as the headquarters of General Dąb-Biernacki.
The 10th Cavalry Brigade was a Polish military unit in World War II. It was the only fully operational Polish motorized infantry unit during the Invasion of Poland, as Warsaw Armoured Motorized Brigade was not completed by September 1, 1939.
The Battle of Jordanów took place on 1–3 September 1939, during the Invasion of Poland and the opening stages of World War II. It was fought between the German XVIII Panzer Corps of Gen.E.Beyer and the Polish 10th Motorized Cavalry Brigade under Col. Stanisław Maczek.
Kraków Army was one of the Polish armies which took part in the Polish Defensive War of 1939. It was officially created on March 23, 1939 as the main pivot of Polish defence. It was commanded by Gen. Antoni Szylling. Originally, Kraków Army was to be made of seven infantry divisions, two cavalry brigades and one mountain brigade. On September 1, 1939, General Szylling had the force which consisted of five infantry divisions, two cavalry brigades and one brigade of mountain infantry. Altogether, the army was made of 59 battalions, 29 squadrons, 352 cannons, 90 tanks, two armoured trains and 44 planes. These forces were not enough to halt German advance, especially in the area north of Częstochowa, where Kraków Army connected with Łódź Army. Main thrust of Wehrmacht panzer units was directed there, and this area was defended only by the Polish 7th I.D., which was destroyed in the early days of September 1939, opening the way towards central Poland.
The 7th Infantry Division was the name of several units of the Polish Army.
The 16th Pomeranian Infantry Division is a military unit of the Polish Army. It was first raised on 16 August 1919 during the Polish uprising, before going on to serve during the subsequent war with the Bolsheviks. At the start of World War II the division fought briefly against the advancing German Army before being destroyed on 19 September 1939 after being surrounded in the Kampinos Forest. The Division was raised once more in 1945 following the Soviet take over of Poland, however, it did not see further action during the war. Afterwards it continued to serve, undergoing a number of changes in name and role. Today, it exists as the 16th Mechanised Division.
The Warszawa Army was one of the Polish armies to take part in the Polish Defensive War of 1939. Created on 8 September, eight days after the invasion begun, it was an improvised formation charged with the defence of the Polish capital of Warsaw (Warszawa).
Karpaty Army was formed on 11 July 1939 under Major General Kazimierz Fabrycy after Nazi Germany created a puppet state of Slovakia and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia was proclaimed after the events that lead to the breakup of Czechoslovakia. According to Polish historians Czesław Grzelak and Henryk Stańczyk, it consisted of two mountain brigades, Lwów Brigade of National Defence and a Battalion Węgry (Hungary). Altogether, Karpaty Army was made of 26 battalions, 160 cannons and 16 planes.
Army Poznań led by Major General Tadeusz Kutrzeba was one of the Polish Armies during the Invasion of Poland in 1939.
Lublin Army was an improvised Polish Army created on September 4, 1939 from the Warsaw Armoured Motorized Brigade and various smaller units concentrated around the cities of Lublin, Sandomierz and upper Vistula river. It was commanded by Maj. Gen. Tadeusz Piskor. Lublin Army was not part of prewar Polish operational plans. It was improvised when it became obvious that quickly advancing Wehrmacht armored and motorized units would reach the Vistula river line.
Plan East was a Polish defensive military plan, created in the 1920s and 1930s in case of war with the Soviet Union. Unlike Plan West, it was being prepared during the whole interwar period, as the government of the Second Polish Republic treated the Soviet Union as the greatest potential military threat, which was capable of initiating a full-scale war. However, only a few loose historical documents remain of the original plan today.
Modlin Army was one of the Polish armies that took part in the Invasion of Poland in 1939. After heavy casualties in the battle of Mława, the Army was forced to abandon its positions near Warsaw around September 10; eventually it took part in the battle of Tomaszów Mazowiecki and surrendered afterwards.
Independent Operational Group Narew was one of the Polish Army Corps that defended Poland during the Invasion of Poland in 1939. It was created on 23 March 1939 and was commanded by general Czesław Młot-Fijałkowski.
The 25th Infantry Division was a unit of the Polish Army in the interbellum period, created in 1921 with headquarters in Kalisz. It consisted of the following regiments:
Wielkopolska Cavalry Brigade was a cavalry unit of the Polish Army in the interbellum period. It was created on April 1, 1937 out of the Cavalry Brigade "Poznań". Its headquarters were stationed in Poznań and the brigade consisted of these units:
The 11th Carpathian Infantry Division, was a tactical unit of the Polish Army in the interbellum period, which fought in the Invasion of Poland in 1939. Elements of the unit would go on to serve in the Polish Armed Forces in the East.
Podolska Cavalry Brigade was a cavalry unit of the Polish Army in the interbellum period. It was created on April 1, 1937 out of the 6th Independent Cavalry Brigade. Its headquarters were stationed in Stanisławów and the brigade consisted of these units:
15th Poznań Uhlans Regiment – unit of Polish cavalry, part of Greater Polands Army, Polish Army of Second Republic and Polish Armed Forces in the West during World War II.
35th Infantry Division was a reserve unit of the Polish Army in the Second Polish Republic. It did not exist in peacetime organization of the army, and was formed between August 31 - September 4, 1939, during the Invasion of Poland.