A typical meadow ( polonyna )
Location in Slovakia
|Location||Snina, Prešov, Slovakia|
|Area||29,805 ha (115.08 sq mi)|
|Established||1 October 1997|
|Named for||typical poloniny meadows|
|Operator||Správa NP Poloniny|
Poloniny National Park (Slovak : Národný park Poloniny) is a national park in northeastern Slovakia at the Polish and Ukrainian borders, in the Bukovské vrchy mountain range, which belongs to the Eastern Carpathians. It was created on 1 October 1997 with a protected area of 298.05 km2 (115.08 sq mi) and a buffer zone of 109.73 km2 (42.37 sq mi). Selected areas of the park are included into Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The park is located in the Snina District in the Prešov Region. It is adjacent to Bieszczady National Park in Poland, together they are part of the East Carpathian Biosphere Reserve. The highest point lies at 1,208 m (3,963 ft) AMSL on a point where the borders of Slovakia, Poland and Ukraine meet, near the summit of the mount Kremenec. The National Park is the easternmost and least populated area of the country. Hiking trails starts from several villages, most notably Nová Sedlica but also from Runina, Topoľa and Uličské Krivé.
Forests cover about 80% of the area; beech and beech-fir forests are dominant. The National Park has the highest concentration of old growth forests in Slovakia, which are protected by national nature reserves. Meadows, called poloniny in Eastern Slovak dialects, situated on the main ridge of the Bukovské vrchy mountain range are common.
Many species found in the park are endemic and rare. Altogether, 800 fungi and 100 lichens are native to Poloniny. Poloniny National Park contains about 5,981 known species of invertebrates (for example, 91 molluscs, 1,472 true bugs, 819 butterflies, and 403 spiders) and 294 vertebrates. Among the vertebrates are 13 species of amphibians, 8 reptiles, 198 birds, 55 mammals, including the Eurasian lynx, bear, and others. About 1,000 species of vascular plants have been found in the park. Many of them are endangered and protected. A small herd of wisent (Bison Bonasus) was reintroduced in the area in 2004.
The National Park is open to the public all year with winter (cross-country skiing) as well as summer hiking trails. Besides several mountain trails there is also one connecting outstanding wooden churches from the 18th century in Topoľa, Uličské Krivé, and Ruský Potok.
The primeval beech forests of Havešová, Stužica, and Rožok (all three areas being in the Bukovské vrchy) were designated as a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO on June 28, 2007 because of their comprehensive and undisturbed ecological patterns and processes.Together with another Slovak site in Vihorlat and additional six in Ukraine they form Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians. In order to protect the extraordinary value of these forests, only one of them, namely Stužica, is accessible to the public.
Snina is a town in Slovakia located at the confluence of the Cirocha river and the small river Pčolinka in the valley between the Beskydy foothills and the Vihorlat Mountains. It is the closest town with rail and bus connections to Poloniny National Park.
Tourism in Slovakia offers natural landscapes, mountains, caves, medieval castles and towns, folk architecture, spas and ski resorts.
Runina is a village and municipality in Snina District in the Prešov Region of north-eastern Slovakia. The first written reference of the village dates back to 1569. The municipality lies at an altitude of 550 metres and covers an area of 22.198 km². According to the 2013 census it had a population of 75 inhabitants.
Nová Sedlica is the easternmost village and municipality in Slovakia, in Snina District in the Prešov Region.
Uličské Krivé is a village and municipality in Snina District in the Prešov Region of north-eastern Slovakia. In historical records the village was first mentioned in 1478. The municipality lies at an altitude of 285 metres and covers an area of 19.132 km². According to the 2013 census it had a population of 255 inhabitants.
Ruský Potok is a village and municipality in Snina District in the Prešov Region of north-eastern Slovakia. In historical records the village was first mentioned in 1635. A Rusyn wooden Greek Catholic church dedicated to the Archangel Michael is located in the village, it was built in 1740.
Stakčín is a larger village and a municipality in Snina District in the Prešov Region of north-eastern Slovakia.
Topoľa is a village and municipality situated in the buffer zone of the Poloniny National Park. It offers easy access to most of the National Park's hiking trails. Havesova, a component of the Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians UNESCO World Heritage Site, is also located close to the village.
Vihorlat Mountains or colloquially Vihorlat is a volcanic mountain range in eastern Slovakia and western Ukraine. A part of the range is listed as a World Heritage Site.
Protected areas of Slovakia are areas that need protection because of their environmental, historical or cultural value to the nation. Protected areas in Slovakia are managed by institutions and organizations governed by the Ministry of the Environment.
The East Carpathian Biosphere Reserve is a transboundary protected area, designated as an area of global importance under UNESCO's Programme on Man and the Biosphere.
It is located in the Eastern Carpathians and includes parts of three countries: Poland, Slovakia and Ukraine.
East Carpathians Protected Landscape Area is a protected landscape area in north-eastern Slovakia, in the Prešov Region, in the Carpathian Mountains. The PLA occupies a slice of land along with the border with Poland. The park was first created in 1977, when it was originally larger than today, occupying area of 968.1 km2 (373.8 sq mi) until 1997, when the Poloniny National Park was created in the eastern part, reducing the area into 253.07 km2 (97.7 sq mi).
Stužica is a uniquely preserved and undisturbed primeval beech forest of the Outer Eastern Carpathians. It is located in Slovakia and borders with Poland and Ukraine. The forest has been protected since 1908 and in 1993 the area was upgraded to a National Nature Reserve. In 2007 Stužica and several other locations in the range, including six components in Ukraine, were declared as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Five German components were added in 2011. Together they form Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and the Ancient Beech Forests of Germany WH site with outstanding universal value.
The Bukovec Mountains is a flysch mountain range in north-eastern Slovakia, part of the Eastern Beskids of the Outer Eastern Carpathians.
Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe is a transnational composite nature UNESCO World Heritage site, encompassing forests in 12 European countries.
Poloniny Dark-Sky Park is the first dark sky park in Slovakia. It became the 20th dark sky park in the world.
Uzhanian National Nature Park is a protected area in Ukraine. It is located in Velykyi Bereznyi Raion of Zakarpattia Oblast, at the border with Poland and Slovakia. The park was created on 5 August 1999 and has the area of 39,159.3 hectares (151.195 sq mi). Since 2007, it is part of the World Heritage site Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe. It is also part of the East Carpathian Biosphere Reserve. The park was created to protect pristine beech forest of the Carpathians.
The Eastern Beskids or Eastern Beskyds are a geological group of mountain ranges of the Beskids, within the Outer Eastern Carpathians. As a continuation of the Central Beskids, this mountain range includes the far southeastern corer of Poland, the far eastern corner of Slovakia, and stretches southward through western parts of Ukraine, up to the border of Romania.