|Province||North Central Province|
|Polonnaruwa||Before 1070 AD|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (Sri Lanka Standard Time Zone)|
|Official name||Ancient City of Polonnaruwa|
|Criteria||Cultural: i, iii, vi|
|Inscription||1982 (6th Session)|
Poḷonnaruwa (Sinhala : පොළොන්නරුව, romanized: Poḷonnaruva; Tamil : பொலன்னறுவ, romanized: Polaṉṉaṟuvai) is the main town of Polonnaruwa District in North Central Province, Sri Lanka. Kaduruwela area is the Polonnaruwa New Town and the other part of Polonnaruwa remains as the royal ancient city of the Kingdom of Polonnaruwa.
The second most ancient of Sri Lanka's kingdoms, Polonnaruwa was first established by the Chola dynasty after their successful invasion of the country's then capital, Anuradhapura, in the 10th century. The Ancient City of Polonnaruwa has been declared a World Heritage Site.
Currently the new Polonnaruwa is undergoing a major development project known as the "Awakening of Polonnaruwa" under the concept of former President Maithripala Sirisena. It envisions the development of all sectors in Polonnaruwa including roads, electricity, agriculture, education, health and environment will be developed comprehensively.
The name Polonnaruwa is of unknown origin and was adopted by the traveller James Emerson Tennent.Its Tamil form, Pulainari, is mentioned in Tamil inscriptions found at Polonnaruwa of the Chola period. The name was perhaps a contraction of its ancient name Pulastya nagara or Pulatti nakaram meaning city of the Hindu sage Pulastya.
It was renamed under Chola rule as Jananathapuram or Jananathamangalam.The place was later known as Vijayarajapuram as mentioned in the records of Jayabahu I, which probably was derived from the name of Vijayabahu I.
Polonnaruwa Town is Sinhalese majority. Muslims form second largest group. There are also small numbers of Sri Lankan Tamils and Indian Tamils. Others including Burgher and Malay.
Polonnaruwa was established by the Cholas as capital city under the name Jananathapuram in the 10th century.Under this period systematic destruction of the Buddhist civilisation took place in the northern plains of Sri Lanka. Raja Raja Chola I built Vanavan Mahadevisvaram, a Shiva temple at Polonnaruwa named after his queen, which presently is known as Siva Devale. The temple among other contained Ganesha and Parvati statues of bronze. north and central parts of Sri Lanka was under this period ruled under Rajendra Chola I directly as a Chola province. However, following the year 1070 AD ended the Chola rule in the island, and Polonnaruwa was captured by Vijayabahu I of Polonnaruwa also known as Vijayabahu the great.
Starting from Mahanagakula on the south of the Walawe river, Vijayabahu dispatched three armies to attack Polonnaruwa from three fronts. One army was sent along the western shore of the country to Mahathittha port to deal with any reinforcements arriving from South India. Afterwards, part of this army moved towards Polonnaruwa and attacked from the North-west, while the other part held the ports to prevent reinforcements from arriving. A second army was sent from the east across Magama to attack Polonnaruwa from the east. The third and main force advanced across the country, led by the king. Surrounded by these three armies, Polonnaruwa was besieged for seven months before king Vijayabahu’s forces entered the city. In 1070, Vijayabahu became the ruler of Polonnaruwa.At that time Sri Lanka was known as Thambapanni.
Trade and agriculture flourished under the patronage of the famous grand son of king Vijayabahu I of Polonnaruwa, king Prakramabahu the great, who was so adamant that no drop of water falling from the heavens was to be wasted and each was to be used toward the development of the land.[ citation needed ] Hence, irrigation systems that are far superior to those of the Anuradhapura Age were constructed during Parakramabahu's reign – systems which to this day supply the water necessary for paddy cultivation during the scorching dry season in the east of the country. The greatest of these systems is the Parakrama Samudra or the Sea of Parakrama which were also used as a large sea going ship anchorage via Mahaweli River. The Kingdom of Polonnaruwa was completely self-sufficient during King Parakramabahu's reign.
With the exception of his immediate successor, Nissankamalla I, all other monarchs of Polonnaruwa were slightly weak-willed and rather prone to picking fights within their own court.[ citation needed ] They also went on to form more intimate matrimonial alliances with stronger South Indian kingdoms until these matrimonial links superseded the local royal lineage. This prompted an invasion by the Aryacakravarti dynasty war load Kalinga Magha in 1214, who saw the complete destruction of the metropolises of Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa by burning. Kalinga Magha by the time of his defeat had destroyed the Buddhist civilization in north of Sri Lanka.
Today the ancient city of Polonnaruwa remains one of the best planned archaeological relic cities in the country, standing testimony to the discipline and greatness of the Kingdom's first rulers. Its beauty was also used as a backdrop to filmed scenes for the Duran Duran music video Save a Prayer in 1982. The ancient city of Polonnaruwa has been declared a World Heritage site by UNESCO.
Near the ancient city, there is a small town with several hotels (especially for tourists) and some glossy shops, and places to fulfill day-to-day needs. There are government institutions in a newly built area called “new town,” about 6 km away from the town and the main road. The largest school in the district, Polonnaruwa Royal Central College is situated at new town.
Polonnaruwa is the second largest city in North Central Province, but it is known as one of the cleanest and more beautiful cities in the country. The green environment, amazing ancient constructions, Parakrama Samudra (a huge lake built in 1200), and attractive tourist hotels and hospitable people, attract tourists.
Another draw for tourists is the city's population of toque macaques. The monkeys have been living in the ruins since human occupation and continue to thrive here long after the humans left.
Batticaloa is a major city in the Eastern Province, Sri Lanka, and its former capital. It is the administrative capital of the Batticaloa District. The city is the seat of the Eastern University of Sri Lanka and is a major commercial centre. It is on the east coast, 111 kilometres (69 mi) south of Trincomalee, and is situated on an island. Pasikudah is popular tourist destinations situated 35 km (22 mi) northwest with beaches and flat year-round warm-water shallow-lagoons.
Ellalan was a member of the Tamil Chola dynasty, also known as "Manu Needhi Cholan", who upon capturing the throne became king of the Anuradhapura Kingdom, in present-day Sri Lanka, from 205 BCE to 161 BCE.
Queen Lilavati was the fourth woman in Sri Lankan history to rule as sovereign in her own right. Lilavati rose to prominence as the wife of Parakramabahu I, king of the Kingdom of Polonnaruwa. Being of royal descent herself, she then ruled as sole monarch on three occasions in the near-anarchy following Parakramabahu's death, with the backing of various generals. The primary source for her life is the Culavamsa, specifically chapter LXXX.
Kalinga Magha also known as Magha the Tyrant. Some historians identify him to the Kulankayan Cinkai Ariyan mentioned by the Jaffna tamil chronicles stating that Kulankayan is actually a corruption of Kalinga. He was an invader from the Kingdom of Kalinga who usurped the throne from Parakrama Pandyan II of Polonnaruwa, in 1215. His reign saw the massive migration of Sinhalese to the south and west of Sri Lanka, and into the mountainous interior, in a bid to escape his power. Magha was the last ruler to have his seat in the traditional northern seat of native power on the island, known as Rajarata; so comprehensive was his destruction of Sinhalese power in the north that all of the successor kingdoms to Rajarata existed primarily in the south of the island.
Parākramabāhu I was the king of the Kingdom of Polonnaruwa from 1153 to 1186. He oversaw the expansion and beautification of his capital, constructed extensive irrigation systems, reorganised the country's army, reformed Buddhist practices, encouraged the arts and undertook military campaigns in South India and Burma. The adage "not even a little water that comes from the rain must flow into the ocean without being made useful to man" is one of his most famous utterances.
the Kingdom of Polonnaruwa was the kingdom that ruled the island of Sri Lanka and several overseas territories, from 1070 until 1232. The kingdom started expansion as an empire overseas during the reign of Parakramabahu the Great.
Vijayabahu I was a medieval king of Sri Lanka. Born to a royal bloodline, he grew up at a time when, part of the country was occupied by invaders from the Chola Kingdom or Empire of Southern India. He assumed rulership of the Ruhuna principality in the southern parts of the country in 1055. Following a seventeen-year-long campaign, he successfully drove the Cholas out of the island in 1070, reuniting the country for the first time in over a century. During his reign, he re-established Buddhism in Sri Lanka and repaired much of the damage caused to infrastructure during the wars. He offered the Thihoshin Pagoda(Lord of Sri Lanka Buddha image) to Burma king Alaungsithu and it is now still in Pakokku.
The current capital of Sri Lanka is Colombo (legislative) and [[Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte] _administrative capital]. In the course of history, the national capital has been in many locations other than Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte.
Nissanka Malla, also known as Keerti Nissanka and Kalinga Lokesvara was a king of Polonnaruwa who ruled the country from 1187 to 1196. He is known for his architectural constructions such as the Nissanka Lata Mandapaya, Hatadage and Rankot Vihara, as well as for the refurbishment of old temples and irrigation tanks.
Lankapura Dandanatha, more commonly referred to as simply Lankapura, was a Senapati of the Sinhala Army during the reign of King Parakramabahu I. He led an expeditionary force to South India in support of the Pandyan king Parakrama Pandyan I, bringing parts of South India under their control. Lankapura succeeded in restoring the Pandyan prince to the throne, and ordered the use of Sri Lankan currency in areas under his control. Whether he died during the invasion is unclear, since Sri Lankan sources claim that Lankapura returned to Sri Lanka as a war hero, while Indian sources say that he was killed.
The Anuradhapura period was a period in the history of Sri Lanka of the Anuradhapura Kingdom from 377 BC to 1017 AD. The period begins when Pandukabhaya, King of Upatissa Nuwara moved the administration to Anuradhapura, becoming the kingdom's first monarch. Anuradhapura is heralded as an ancient cosmopolitan citadel with diverse populations.
The statue near the Potgul Vehera in Polonnaruwa, commonly known as the statue of Parakramabahu I, is a stone sculpture dating back to the Polonnaruwa period of ancient Sri Lanka. Its identity is uncertain, although the widely accepted theory is that it is a statue of Parakramabahu I. However, it has also been suggested as the statue of a sage. Carved on a large boulder, the statue depicts a majestic figure with a grave expression, holding a book or yoke in his hands.
The Chola conquest and occupation of Anuradhapura Kingdom was a military invasion of the Anuradhapura Kingdom by the Chola Empire. It initially began with the invasion of the Anuradhapura Kingdom in 993 AD by Rajaraja I when he sent a large Chola army to conquer the kingdom and absorb it into the Chola Empire. Most of the island was subsequently conquered by 1017 and incorporated as a province of the vast Chola empire during the reign of his son Rajendra Chola I. The Chola occupation would be overthrown in 1070 through a campaign of Sinhalese Resistance led by Prince Kitti, a Sinhalese royal. The Cholas fought many subsequent wars and attempted to reconquer the Sinhalese kingdom as the Sinhalese were allies of their arch-enemies, the Pandyas. The period of Chola entrenchment in northern Sri Lanka lasted in total about three-quarters of a century, from roughly 993 to 1070, when Vijayabahu I recaptured the north and expelled the Chola forces restoring Sinhalese sovereignty.
Parakrama Pandyan II, also Pandu Parakramabahu of Polonnaruwa or Parakrama Pandu, was a Pandyan king who invaded the Kingdom of Polonnaruwa in the thirteenth century and ruled from 1212 to 1215 CE. His namesake royal Parakrama Pandyan I had ruled in Madurai fifty years earlier and had sought help from his contemporary Parakramabahu I of Polonnaruwa when faced with a Pandyan civil war. Parakrama Pandyan II came to the throne deposing Lilavati—ruling monarch, consort and successor of Parakramabahu I—as king of Polonnaruwa. He ruled for three years until Polonnaruwa was invaded and he was taken captive by Kalinga Magha, who succeeded him.
When to date the start of the history of the Jaffna kingdom is debated among historians.
The Pandyan Civil War from 1169 to 1177 was precipitated by rival claims of succession to the Pandyan throne between Parakrama Pandyan I and his son Vira Pandya with Kulasekhara. The war gradually spread to the rest of Southern India when the Chola King Rajadhiraja Chola II and the Sinhalese King Parakramabahu I of Polonnaruwa entered the fray and took opposing sides in the conflict, eager to increase their influence in the Pandya kingdom.
Rajarata [rā dja ra tə] was one of three historical regions of the island of Sri Lanka for about 1,700 years from the 6th century BCE to the early 13th century CE. Several ancient cities, including Tambapanni, Upatissa Nuwara, Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa, were established as capitals within the area by successive rulers. Rajarata was under the direct administration of the King. Two other areas, Malayarata and Ruhunurata, were ruled by the king's brothers "Mapa" and "Epa". The Magha invasion in the 13th century brought about the end of the Rajarata kingdom.
The Polonnaruwa period was a period in the history of Sri Lanka from 1017, after the Chola conquest of Anuradhapura and when the center of administration was moved to Polonnaruwa, to the end of the Kingdom of Polonnaruwa in 1232.
Velgam Vehera is a historical Buddhist temple situated in Kanniya, Trincomalee District, Sri Lanka. It also known to Hindus as Natanar Kovil. Historically Velgam Vehera was one of important Buddhist temples in the country, worshiped by both Sinhala and Tamil Buddhists.
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