Pomerania

Last updated
Pomerania

Pomorze, Pommern, Pòmòrskô
Wappen Pommern.svg
Coat of arms
Pomeraniamap.png
CountriesFlag of Poland.svg  Poland
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
Largest city Szczecin
Demonym(s) Pomeranian
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Contemporary administrative units with Pomerania in the name, not representing the exact historical region Administrative division of pomerania.png
Contemporary administrative units with Pomerania in the name, not representing the exact historical region

Pomerania (Polish : Pomorze; German, Low German and North Germanic languages: Pommern; Kashubian: Pòmòrskô) is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Germany and Poland.

Polish language West Slavic language spoken in Poland

Polish is a West Slavic language of the Lechitic group. It is spoken primarily in Poland and serves as the native language of the Poles. In addition to being an official language of Poland, it is also used by Polish minorities in other countries. There are over 50 million Polish-language speakers around the world and it is one of the official languages of the European Union.

German language West Germanic language

German is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol in Italy, the German-speaking Community of Belgium, and Liechtenstein. It is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are also strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English.

Low German West Germanic language spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands

Low German or Low Saxon is a West Germanic language spoken mainly in Northern Germany and the northeastern part of the Netherlands. It is also spoken to a lesser extent in the German diaspora worldwide.

Contents

The name derives from the Slavic po morze, meaning "by the sea" or "on the sea". [1] Pomerania stretches roughly from the Recknitz and Trebel rivers in the west to the Vistula river in the east. [2] [3]

Slavic languages languages of the Slavic peoples

The Slavic languages are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples. They are thought to descend from a proto-language called Proto-Slavic, spoken during the Early Middle Ages, which in turn is thought to have descended from the earlier Proto-Balto-Slavic language, linking the Slavic languages to the Baltic languages in a Balto-Slavic group within the Indo-European family.

Recknitz river in Germany

The Recknitz is a river in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in northeastern Germany. The Recknitz's glacial valley stretches as far south as the heights at Glasewitz near Güstrow. The river has no definite source, but rather builds up from streams and drainage ditches. The ditches of the Schaalbeke and Pludderbach have their water flow split between Liessow and Laage, but most of the water flows north as the Recknitz, while the lesser flow, called the Augraben, runs south to the river Nebel.

Trebel (river) river in Germany

The Trebel is a river in Western Pomerania, a region of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, some 75 kilometers long. The Poggendorf Trebel and Beek are the sources of the river and merge in Grimmen. The Trebel then runs near Quitzin, merges with the Blinde Trebel near Franzburg, is connected to the Recknitz River by a ditch near Tribsees, merges with the Warbel River near Bassendorf, then constitutes the historical border between Mecklenburg and Pomerania, and merges into the Peene River near Demmin. Ibitzgraben, Ibitzbach, and Roter Brückengraben are ditches connecting the Trebel and Peene rivers near their confluence.

The largest Pomeranian islands are Rügen, Usedom/Uznam and Wolin. The largest Pomeranian city is Gdańsk, or, when using a narrower definition of the region, Szczecin. Outside its urban areas, Pomerania is characterized by farmland, dotted with numerous lakes, forests, and towns. The region was strongly affected by post–World War I and II border and population shifts, with most of its pre-war inhabitants leaving or being expelled after 1945.

Rügen island in the Baltic Sea off the Pomeranian coast of Germany

Rügen is Germany's largest island by area. It is located off the Pomeranian coast in the Baltic Sea and belongs to the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania.

Usedom Baltic Sea island

Usedom is a Baltic Sea island in Pomerania, divided since 1945 between Germany and Poland. It is the second biggest Pomeranian island after Rügen.

Wolin island

Wolin is the name both of a Polish island in the Baltic Sea, just off the Polish coast, and a town on that island. Administratively the island belongs to the West Pomeranian Voivodeship. Wolin is separated from the island of Usedom (Uznam) by the Strait of Świna, and from mainland Pomerania by the Strait of Dziwna. The island has an area of 265 km2 (102 sq mi) and its highest point is Mount Grzywacz at 116 m above sea level

Geography

Historical Pomerania Pomeraniae Ducatus Tabula.jpg
Historical Pomerania

Borders

Pomerania is the area along the Bay of Pomerania of the Baltic Sea between the rivers Recknitz and Trebel in the west and Vistula in the east. [2] [3] It formerly reached perhaps as far south as the Noteć river, but since the 13th century its southern boundary has been placed further north.[ citation needed ]

Bay of Pomerania Basin in the Baltic Sea

The Bay of Pomerania or Pomeranian Bay is a basin in the southwestern Baltic Sea, off the shores of Poland and Germany.

Baltic Sea A sea in Northern Europe bounded by the Scandinavian Peninsula, the mainland of Europe, and the Danish islands

The Baltic Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Sweden, northeast Germany, Poland, Russia and the North and Central European Plain.

Vistula river in Eastern Europe

The Vistula, the longest and largest river in Poland, is the 9th-longest river in Europe, at 1,047 kilometres in length. The drainage-basin area of the Vistula is 193,960 km2 (74,890 sq mi), of which 168,868 km2 (65,200 sq mi) lies within Poland. The remainder lies in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia.

Landscape

Most of the region is coastal lowland, being part of the Central European Plain, but its southern, hilly parts belong to the Baltic Ridge, a belt of terminal moraines formed during the Pleistocene. Within this ridge, a chain of moraine-dammed lakes constitutes the Pomeranian Lake District. The soil is generally rather poor, sometimes sandy or marshy. [2]

North European Plain

The North European Plain is a geomorphological region in Europe, mostly in Poland, Denmark, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, with small parts of northern France and Czech republic.

Moraine Glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated debris

A moraine is any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris that occurs in both currently and formerly glaciated regions on Earth, through geomorphological processes. Moraines are formed from debris previously carried along by a glacier and normally consisting of somewhat rounded particles ranging in size from large boulders to minute glacial flour. Lateral moraines are formed at the side of the ice flow and terminal moraines at the foot, marking the maximum advance of the glacier. Other types of moraine include ground moraines and medial moraines.

The Pleistocene is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations. The end of the Pleistocene corresponds with the end of the last glacial period and also with the end of the Paleolithic age used in archaeology.

The western coastline is jagged, with many peninsulas (such as Darß Zingst) and islands (including Rügen, Usedom, and Wolin) enclosing numerous bays (Bodden) and lagoons (the biggest being the Lagoon of Szczecin).

Darß peninsula

The Darß or Darss is the middle part of the peninsula of Fischland-Darß-Zingst on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in the German state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. The peninsula's name comes from the names of the three regions making up the peninsula. There is a large forest in the Darß. In recent times, the name "Darß" has also been used to refer to the entire peninsula.

Zingst peninsula in Germany

Zingst is the easternmost portion of the three-part Fischland-Darß-Zingst Peninsula, located in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany, between the cities of Rostock and Stralsund on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea.

Bodden Brackish bodies of water often forming lagoons, along the southwestern shores of the Baltic Sea

Bodden are briny bodies of water often forming lagoons, along the southwestern shores of the Baltic Sea, primarily in Germany's state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. These lagoons can be found especially around the island of Rügen, Usedom and the Fischland-Darss-Zingst peninsula. Some of them are protected reserves, forming the Western Pomerania Lagoon Area National Park.

The eastern coastline is smooth. Łebsko and several other lakes were formerly bays, but have been cut off from the sea. The easternmost coastline along the Gdańsk Bay (with the Bay of Puck) and Vistula Lagoon, has the Hel Peninsula and the Vistula peninsula jutting out into the Baltic.

Subregions

The Pomeranian region has the following administrative divisions:

The bulk of Farther Pomerania is included within the modern West Pomeranian Voivodeship, but its easternmost parts (the Słupsk area) now constitute the northwest of Pomeranian Voivodeship. Farther Pomerania in turn comprises several other historical subregions, most notably the Principality of Cammin, the County of Naugard, the Lands of Schlawe and Stolp, and also the Lauenburg and Bütow Land (the last, however, is sometimes regarded as a part of Pomerelia or Kashubia).

Parts of Pomerania and surrounding regions have constituted a euroregion since 1995. The Pomerania euroregion comprises Hither Pomerania and Uckermark in Germany, West Pomerania in Poland, and Scania in Sweden.

Etymology

"Pomerania" and its cognates in other languages are derived from Old Slavic po, meaning "by/next to/along", and morze, meaning "sea", thus "Pomerania" literally means "seacoast" or "land by the sea", referring to its proximity to the Baltic Sea. [4]

Pomerania was first mentioned in an imperial document of 1046, referring to a Zemuzil dux Bomeranorum (Zemuzil, Duke of the Pomeranians). [5] Pomerania is mentioned repeatedly in the chronicles of Adam of Bremen (c. 1070) and Gallus Anonymous (ca. 1113).

Terminology

The term "West Pomerania" is ambiguous, since it may refer to either Hither Pomerania (in historical [6] and German usage) or to the West Pomeranian Voivodeship (in common Polish usage).

The term "East Pomerania" may similarly carry different meanings, referring either to Farther Pomerania (in historical [6] and German usage), or to Pomerelia or the Pomeranian Voivodeship (in Polish usage).

WestPomeraniaEast
Stralsund Anklam Szczecin
Kołobrzeg
Słupsk
Gdynia
Gdańsk
Current regions Vorpommern
(Mecklenburg-Vorpommern)
Zachodniopomorskie
(West Pomeranian Voivodeship)
Pomeranian Voivodeship
German terminology
(corresponding English term)
Pommern [2]
(Pomerania)
Pomerellen, Pommerellen [2]
(Pomerelia) [2]
Westpreussen
(West Prussia)
Kaschubei{{url=https://www.duden.de/rechtschreibung/Kaschubei Duden online Kaschubei | date=June 12, 2019}}
(Kashubia)
Vorpommern
in modern usage excluding Szczecin
(Western Pomerania)
(Hither Pomerania)
Hinterpommern
(Farther/Further Pomerania)
Ostpommern
(Eastern Pomerania)
Polish terminology
(corresponding English term)
Pomorze Zachodnie
(Western Pomerania)
Pomorze Wschodnie
(Eastern Pomerania)
Pomorze Gdańskie
(Gdańsk Pomerania)
before World War II Pomorze [2]
(Pomerelia, [2] literally Pomerania)
Pomorze Przednie
(Hither Pomerania)
Pomorze Tylne
(Farther/Further Pomerania)
Kashubian terminology
(corresponding English term)
Zôpadnô Pòmòrskô
(Western Pomerania)
Pòrénkòwô Pòmòrskô
(Eastern Pomerania)

History

Prehistory to the Middle Ages (circa 400 A.D. - 1400 A.D.)

Settlement in the area called Pomerania for the last 1,000 years started by the end of the Vistula Glacial Stage, some 13,000 years ago. [7] Archeological traces have been found of various cultures during the Stone and Bronze Age, Baltic peoples, Germanic peoples and Veneti during the Iron Age and, in the Dark Ages, Slavic tribes and Vikings. [8] [9] [10] [7] [11] [12] [13] Starting in the 10th century, early Polish dukes on several occasions subdued parts of the region from the southeast, while the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark augmented their territory from the west and north. [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20]

Renaissance (circa 1400 - 1700) to Early Modern Age

In the 12th century, narrow Pomerania became Christian under saint Otto of Bamberg (the Apostle of the Pomeranians); at the same time Pomerelia became a part of diocese of Włocławek. Since then, the Griffin Duchy of Pomerania stayed with the Holy Roman Empire and the Principality of Rugia with Denmark, while Pomerelia, under the ruling of Samborides, was a part of Poland. [21] [22] [22] [23] [24] Pomerania, during its alliance in the Holy Roman Empire, shared borders with Slavic state Oldenburg, as well as Poland and Brandenburg. The Teutonic Knights succeeded in integrating Pomerelia into their monastic state in the early 14th century. Meanwhile, the Ostsiedlung started to turn Slavic narrow Pomerania into an increasingly German-settled area; the remaining Wends and Polish people, often known as Kashubians, continued to settle within Pomerelia. [25] [26] In 1325 the line of the princes of Rügen died out, and the principality was inherited by the Griffins. [27] In 1466, with the Teutonic Order's defeat, Pomerelia became again subject to the Polish Crown as a part of Royal Prussia. [28] While the German population in the Duchy of Pomerania adopted the Protestant reformation in 1534, [29] [30] [31] the Polish (along with Kashubian) population remained with the Roman Catholic Church. The Thirty Years' War severely ravaged and depopulated narrow Pomerania; few years later this same happened to Pomerelia (the Deluge ). [32] With the extinction of the Griffin house during the same period, the Duchy of Pomerania was divided between the Swedish Empire and Brandenburg-Prussia in 1648, while Pomerelia remained in with the Polish Crown.

Modern Age

The Prussian Province of Pomerania within Prussia and the German Empire circa 1871. German Empire - Prussia - Pomerania (1871).svg
The Prussian Province of Pomerania within Prussia and the German Empire circa 1871.

Prussia gained the southern parts of Swedish Pomerania in 1720, [33] :341–343 invaded and annexed Pomerelia from Poland in 1772, and gained the remainder of Swedish Pomerania in 1815, after the Napoleonic Wars. [33] :363, 364 The former Brandenburg-Prussian Pomerania and the former Swedish parts were reorganized into the Prussian Province of Pomerania, [33] :366 while Pomerelia was made part of the Province of West Prussia. With Prussia, both provinces joined the newly constituted German Empire in 1871. Under the German rule the Polish minority suffered discrimination and oppressive measures aimed at eradicating its culture. Following the empire's defeat in World War I, however, Pomorze Gdańskie/Pomerelia was returned to the rebuilt Polish state as part of the so-called Polish Corridor), while German-majority Gdansk/Danzig was transformed into the independent Free City of Danzig. Germany's Province of Pomerania was expanded in 1938 to include northern parts of the former Province of Posen–West Prussia, and in late 1939 the annexed Pomorze Gdańskie/Polish Corridor became part of the wartime Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia. The Nazis deported the Pomeranian Jews to a reservation near Lublin [34] in Pomerelia. The Polish population suffered heavily during the Nazi oppression; more than 40,000 died in executions, death camps, prisons and forced labour, primarily those who were teachers, businessmen, priests, politicians, former army officers, and civil servants. [35] Thousands of Poles and Kashubians suffered deportation, their homes taken over by the German military and civil servants, as well as some Baltic Germans resettled there between 1940-1943.

After Nazi Germany's defeat in World War II, the German–Polish border was shifted west to the Oder–Neisse line, and all of Pomerania was under Soviet military control. [33] :512–515 [36] :373ff The German citizens of the former eastern territories of Germany and Poles of German ethnicity from Pomerelia were expelled, and the area was resettled primarily with Poles of Polish ethnicity, (some themselves expellees from former eastern Poland) and some Poles of Ukrainian ethnicity (resettled under Operation Vistula) and few Polish Jews. [36] :381ff [37] [38] Most of Hither or Western Pomerania (Vorpommern) remained in Germany, and at first about 500,000 fled and expelled Farther Pomeranians found refuge there, later many moved on to other German regions and abroad. Today German Hither Pomerania forms the eastern part of the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, while the Polish part is divided between the West Pomeranian and Pomeranian voivodeships, with their capitals in Szczecin and Gdańsk. During the 1980s, the Solidarity and Die Wende ("the change") movements overthrew the Communist regimes implemented during the post-war era; since then, Pomerania is democratically governed.

Pomerania still lives in the country of Brazil in a colony where the language is still spoken. The arrival of Pomerania immigrants with Germans and Italians helped form the state of Espírito Santo since the early 1930s, [39] from Gustavo Barreto. Their importance and respect are one of the cultural signatures of the area. The Brazilian city of Pomerode (in the state of Santa Catarina) was founded by Pomeranian Germans in 1861 and is considered the most typically German of all the German towns of southern Brazil.

Demographics

Kashubians in regional dress Dzewus w kaszebsczich ruchnach.jpg
Kashubians in regional dress

Western Pomerania is inhabited by German Pomeranians. In the eastern parts, Poles are the dominating ethnic group since the territorial changes of Poland after World War II, and the resulting Polonization. Kashubians, descendants of the medieval Slavic Pomeranians, are numerous in rural Pomerelia.

Polish voivodeship/
German landschaft
CapitalRegistration
plates
Area
(km²)
Population
Polish 31 December 1999
German December 2010
Territorial
code
Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship
(northern half)
Bydgoszcz (Voivod office)
Toruń (Voivod council)
C17,969.722,100,77104
Pomeranian Voivodeship Gdańsk G18,292.882,192,26822
West Pomeranian Voivodeship Szczecin Z22,901.481,732,83832
Polish Pomerania and Kuyavia total59,164.086,025,877
Vorpommern-Greifswald Greifswald VG and locally optional: ANK, GW, HGW, PW, SBG, UEM, WLG3,927245,733
Vorpommern-Rügen Stralsund VR and locally optional: GMN, HST, NVP, RDG, and RÜG3,188230,743
German Pomerania total7,115476,476

Hither Pomerania

German Hither Pomerania had a population of about 470,000 in 2012 (districts of Vorpommern-Rügen and Vorpommern-Greifswald combined) - while the Polish districts of the region had a population of about 520,000 in 2012 (cities of Szczecin, Świnoujście and Police County combined). So overall, about 1 million people live in the historical region of Hither Pomerania today, while the Szczecin metropolitan area reaches even further.

Cities and towns with more than 50,000 inhabitants

Cities in the historical region of Pomerania (with population figures for 2012):

Other cities in the Pomeranian and Kuyavian-Pomeranian voivodeships:

Culture

Languages and dialects

Section of a detailed map from Meyers Kleiner Hand-Atlas published by Julius Meyer in Leipzig and Vienna in 1892. Pommern 1892.jpg
Section of a detailed map from Meyers Kleiner Hand-Atlas published by Julius Meyer in Leipzig and Vienna in 1892.

In the German part of Pomerania, Standard German and the East Low German Mecklenburgisch-Vorpommersch and Central Pomeranian dialects are spoken, though Standard German dominates. Polish is the dominating language in the Polish part; Kashubian dialects are also spoken by the Kashubians in Pomerelia.

East Pomeranian, the East Low German dialect of Farther Pomerania and western Pomerelia, Low Prussian, the East Low German dialect of eastern Pomerelia, and Standard German were dominating in Pomerania east of the Oder-Neisse line before most of its speakers were expelled after World War II. Slovincian was spoken at the Farther Pomeranian–Pomerelian frontier, but is now extinct.

Kashubian and East Low German are also spoken by the descendants of émigrées, most notably in the Americas (e.g. Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Canada).

Cuisine

For typical food and beverages of the region, see Pomeranian cuisine.

Museums

National Museum in Szczecin (Palac Sejmu Stanow Pomorskich, Landeshaus) Wik 22 Szczecin Palac Sejmu Stanow Pomorskich.jpg
National Museum in Szczecin (Pałac Sejmu Stanów Pomorskich, Landeshaus)

The Pomeranian State Museum in Greifswald, dedicated to the history of Pomerania, has a variety of archeological findings and artefacts from the different periods covered in this article. At least 50 museums in Poland cover history of Pomerania, the most important of them The National Museum in Gdańsk, Central Pomerania Museum in Słupsk, [41] Darłowo Museum, [42] Koszalin Museum, [43] National Museum in Szczecin. [44]

Economy

Agriculture primarily consists of raising livestock, forestry, fishery and the cultivation of cereals, sugar beets, and potatoes. Industrial food processing is increasingly relevant in the region. Since the late 19th century, tourism has become an important sector of the economy, primarily in the numerous seaside resorts along the coast. Key producing industries are shipyards, mechanical engineering facilities (i.a. renewable energy components), sugar refineries, paper and wood fabricators. [2] Service industries today are an important economical factor in Pomerania, most notably with logistics, information technology, life sciences/biotechnology/health care and other high tech branches often clustering around research facilities of the Pomeranian universities.

See also

Footnotes

  1. Der Name Pommern (po more) ist slawischer Herkunft und bedeutet so viel wie „Land am Meer“. (Pommersches Landesmuseum, German)
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2001-07 Archived August 29, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  3. 1 2 The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, 2000, Pomerania
  4. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, 2000, Pomerania : "Pomerania is the medieval Latin form of German Pommern, itself a loanword in German from Slavic. The Polish word for Pomerania is Pomorze, composed of the preposition po, "along, by," and morze, "sea." The Slavic word for sea, more, which becomes morze in Polish, comes from the Indo-European noun *mori–, "sea," the source of Latin mare, "sea," and the mer- of English mermaid."
  5. Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, pp.23,24, ISBN   3-88680-272-8
  6. 1 2 e.g. here (Sheperd Atlas), or in old Enc Britannica
  7. 1 2 Johannes Hoops, Reallexikon der germanischen Altertumskunde, Walter de Gruyter, p.422, ISBN   3-11-017733-1
  8. From the First Humans to the Mesolithic Hunters in the Northern German Lowlands, Current Results and Trends - THOMAS TERBERGER. From: Across the western Baltic, edited by: Keld Møller Hansen & Kristoffer Buck Pedersen, 2006, ISBN   87-983097-5-7 OCLC   43087092, Sydsjællands Museums Publikationer Vol. 1 "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-09-11. Retrieved 2008-10-01.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  9. Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, 1999, pp.18ff, ISBN   83-906184-8-6
  10. Horst Wernicke, Greifswald, Geschichte der Stadt, Helms, 2000, pp.16ff, ISBN   3-931185-56-7
  11. A. W. R. Whittle, Europe in the Neolithic: The Creation of New Worlds, Cambridge University Press, 1996, p.198, ISBN   0-521-44920-0
  12. Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, pp.22,23, ISBN   3-88680-272-8
  13. Joachim Herrmann, Die Slawen in Deutschland, Akademie-Verlag Berlin, 1985, pp.pp.237ff,244ff
  14. Joachim Herrmann, Die Slawen in Deutschland, Akademie-Verlag Berlin, 1985, pp.261,345ff
  15. Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, 1999, p.32, ISBN   83-906184-8-6 OCLC   43087092:pagan reaction of 1005
  16. Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, p.25, ISBN   3-88680-272-8: pagan uprising that also ended the Polish suzerainty in 1005
  17. A. P. Vlasto, Entry of Slavs Christendom, CUP Archive, 1970, p.129, ISBN   0-521-07459-2: abandoned 1004 - 1005 in face of violent opposition
  18. Nora Berend, Christianization and the Rise of Christian Monarchy: Scandinavia, Central Europe and Rus' C. 900-1200, Cambridge University Press, 2007, p.293, ISBN   0-521-87616-8, ISBN   978-0-521-87616-2
  19. David Warner, Ottonian Germany: The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg, Manchester University Press, 2001, p.358, ISBN   0-7190-4926-1, ISBN   978-0-7190-4926-2
  20. Michael Borgolte, Benjamin Scheller, Polen und Deutschland vor 1000 Jahren: Die Berliner Tagung über den "Akt von Gnesen", Akademie Verlag, 2002, p.282, ISBN   3-05-003749-0, ISBN   978-3-05-003749-3
  21. Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, 1999, pp.35ff, ISBN   83-906184-8-6 OCLC   43087092
  22. 1 2 Gerhard Krause, Horst Robert Balz, Gerhard Müller, Theologische Realenzyklopädie, Walter de Gruyter, 1997, pp.40ff, ISBN   3-11-015435-8
  23. Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, p.34ff,87,103, ISBN   3-88680-272-8
  24. Jan M. Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, 1999, p.43, ISBN   83-906184-8-6 OCLC   43087092
  25. Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, 1999, pp.77ff, ISBN   83-906184-8-6 OCLC   43087092
  26. Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, pp.45ff, ISBN   3-88680-272-8
  27. Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, pp.115,116, ISBN   3-88680-272-8
  28. Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, p.186, ISBN   3-88680-272-8
  29. Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, pp.205–212, ISBN   3-88680-272-8
  30. Richard du Moulin Eckart, Geschichte der deutschen Universitäten, Georg Olms Verlag, 1976, pp.111,112, ISBN   3-487-06078-7
  31. Gerhard Krause, Horst Robert Balz, Gerhard Müller, Theologische Realenzyklopädie, Walter de Gruyter, 1997, pp.43ff, ISBN   3-11-015435-8
  32. Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, pp.263,332,341–343,352–354, ISBN   3-88680-272-8
  33. 1 2 3 4 Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, ISBN   3-88680-272-8
  34. Leni Yahil, Ina Friedman, Haya Galai, The Holocaust: The Fate of European Jewry, 1932-1945, Oxford University Press US, 1991, ISBN   0-19-504523-8, p.138: February 12/13, 1940, 1,300 Jews of all sexes and ages, extreme cruelty, no food allowed to be taken along, cold, some died during deportation, cold and snow during resettlement, 230 dead by March 12, Lublin reservation chosen in winter, 30,000 Germans resettled before to make room
  35. "Poland". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  36. 1 2 Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, ISBN   83-906184-8-6 OCLC   43087092
  37. Tomasz Kamusella in Prauser and Reeds (eds), The Expulsion of the German communities from Eastern Europe, p.28, EUI HEC 2004/1
  38. Philipp Ther, Ana Siljak, Redrawing Nations: Ethnic Cleansing in East-Central Europe, 1944-1948, 2001, p.114, ISBN   0-7425-1094-8, ISBN   978-0-7425-1094-4
  39. "Os pomeranos: um povo sem Estado finca suas raízes no Brasil" (in Portuguese).
  40. Entwicklungsprioritäten der Metropolregion Stettin (German PDF; 1,7 MB)
  41. "Muzeum Pomorza Środkowego - Strona główna". Muzeum.slupsk.pl. Retrieved 2010-07-30.
  42. "Muzeum w Darłowie - Zamek Książąt Pomorskich zaprasza". Muzeumdarlowo.pl. Retrieved 2010-07-30.
  43. "Muzeum w Koszalinie". Muzeum.koszalin.pl. Retrieved 2010-07-30.
  44. "Muzeum Narodowe w Szczecinie - Aktualności". Muzeum.szczecin.pl. Retrieved 2010-07-30.

Internet directories

Culture and history

Maps of Pomerania

Coordinates: 54°17′N18°09′E / 54.29°N 18.15°E / 54.29; 18.15

Related Research Articles

Szczecin Capital city in West Pomeranian, Poland

Szczecin is the capital and largest city of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland. Located near the Baltic Sea and the German border, it is a major seaport and Poland's seventh-largest city. As of December 2018, the population was 402,465.

Swedish Pomerania historical domain of Sweden

Swedish Pomerania was a Dominion under the Swedish Crown from 1630 to 1815, situated on what is now the Baltic coast of Germany and Poland. Following the Polish War and the Thirty Years' War, Sweden held extensive control over the lands on the southern Baltic coast, including Pomerania and parts of Livonia and Prussia.

Pomerelia

Pomerelia, also referred to as Eastern Pomerania or as Danzig Pomerania, is a historical region in northern Poland. Pomerelia lay on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea, west of the Vistula river and east of the Łeba river. Its biggest city was Gdańsk. Since 1999 the region has formed the core of the Pomeranian Voivodeship. Gdańsk Pomerania is traditionally divided into Kashubia and Kociewie.

History of Pomerania aspect of history

The history of Pomerania starts shortly before 1000 AD with ongoing conquests by newly arrived Polans rulers. Before that the area was recorded nearly 2000 years ago as Germania, and in modern-day times Pomerania is split between Germany and Poland. The name Pomerania comes from the Slavic po more, which means Land at the Sea.

Gdańsk Pomerania

For the medieval duchy, see Pomeranian duchies and dukes

Farther Pomerania geographic region

Farther Pomerania, Further Pomerania, Transpomerania or Eastern Pomerania, is the part of Pomerania which comprised the eastern part of the Duchy and later Province of Pomerania. It stretched roughly from the Oder River in the West to Pomerelia in the East. Since 1945, Farther Pomerania has been part of Poland; the bulk of former Farther Pomerania is within the West Pomeranian Voivodeship, while its easternmost parts are within the Pomeranian Voivodeship. The Polish term Pomorze Zachodnie, in modern Polish usage, is a synonym to the West Pomeranian Voivodship; in Polish historical usage it applied to all areas west of Pomerelia.

Province of Pomerania (1815–1945) a province of Prussia, 1815–1945

The Province of Pomerania was a province of Prussia from 1815 to 1945. Pomerania was established as a province of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1815, an expansion of the older Brandenburg-Prussia province of Pomerania, and then became part of the German Empire in 1871. From 1918, Pomerania was a province of the Free State of Prussia until it was dissolved in 1945 following World War II, and its territory divided between Poland and Allied-occupied Germany.

Wolin (town) Place in West Pomeranian, Poland

Wolin is a town situated on the southern tip of the Wolin island off the Baltic coast of Pomerania, modern Poland. The island lies at the edge of the strait of Dziwna in Kamień Pomorski County in the West Pomeranian Voivodeship.

Bishopric of Cammin

The Bishopric of Cammin was both a former Roman Catholic diocese in the Duchy of Pomerania from 1140 to 1544, and a secular territory of the Holy Roman Empire (Prince-Bishopric) in the Kolberg (Kołobrzeg) area from 1248 to 1650.

Lands of Schlawe and Stolp

The Lands of Schlawe and Stolp or Land of Słupsk-Sławno are a historical region in Pomerania, centered on the towns of Sławno (Schlawe) and Słupsk (Stolp) in Farther Pomerania, in present-day Poland.

Pomerania during the Early Middle Ages

Pomerania during the Early Middle Ages covers the History of Pomerania from the 7th to the 11th centuries.

Early history of Pomerania

After the glaciers of the Ice Age in the Early Stone Age withdrew from the area, which since about 1000 AD is called Pomerania, in what are now northern Germany and Poland, they left a tundra. First humans appeared, hunting reindeer in the summer. A climate change in 8000 BC allowed hunters and foragers of the Ertebølle-Ellerbek culture to continuously inhabit the area. These people became influenced by farmers of the Linear Pottery culture who settled in southern Pomerania. The hunters of the Ertebølle-Ellerbek culture became farmers of the Funnelbeaker culture in 3000 BC. The Havelland culture dominated in the Uckermark from 2500 to 2000 BC. In 2400 BC, the Corded Ware culture reached Pomerania and introduced the domestic horse. Both Linear Pottery and Corded Ware culture have been associated with Indo-Europeans. Except for Western Pomerania, the Funnelbeaker culture was replaced by the Globular Amphora culture a thousand years later.

History of Pomerania (1806–1933)

History of Pomerania (1806–1933) covers the history of Pomerania from the early 19th century until the rise of Nazi Germany.

History of Pomerania (1945–present)

History of Pomerania (1945–present) covers the history of Pomerania during World War II aftermath, the Communist and since 1989 Democratic era.

Medieval Pomerania was converted from Slavic paganism to Christianity by Otto von Bamberg in 1124 and 1128, and in 1168 by Absalon.

Marianowo, West Pomeranian Voivodeship Village in West Pomeranian, Poland

Marianowo is a village in Stargard County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, in north-western Poland. It is the seat of the gmina called Gmina Marianowo. It lies approximately 17 kilometres (11 mi) east of Stargard and 46 km (29 mi) east of the regional capital Szczecin.

Pomerania-Stolp

Pomerania-Stolp was one of the partitions of the Duchy of Pomerania. Centered in Słupsk, it was created from another partition of the Duchy of Pomerania, Pomerania-Wolgast, to satisfy Bogislaw V, Duke of Pomerania in 1368, and existed until 1459, when it was inherited by Eric II of Pomerania-Wolgast. In 1474, it was merged to the partition of Bogislaw X, Duke of Pomerania, who four years later became the sole duke of Pomerania.

The Duchy of Pomerania was partitioned several times to satisfy the claims of the male members of the ruling House of Pomerania dynasty. The partitions were named after the ducal residences: Pomerania-Barth, -Demmin, -Rügenwalde, -Stettin, -Stolp, and -Wolgast. None of the partitions had a hereditary character, the members of the House of Pomerania inherited the duchy in common. The duchy thus continued to exist as a whole despite its division. The only exception was made during a war with the Margraviate of Brandenburg, when in 1338 Barnim III of Pomerania-Stettin was granted his partition as a fief directly from the Holy Roman Emperor, while Pomerania-Wolgast remained under formal Brandenburgian overlordship. However, already in 1348, German king and later emperor Charles IV again granted the Duchy of Pomerania as a whole and the Principality of Rügen as a fief to the dukes of both Pomerania-Stettin and Pomerania-Wolgast, nullifying Brandenburg's claims by granting Imperial immediacy.

The Prissani or Pyritzans were a medieval tribe in Pomerania. They were first mentioned as "Prissani" with 70 civitas by the Bavarian Geographer, ca. 845. They are associated with the Pomeranians, and were based in the lower Oder region around the modern town of Pyrzyce (Pyritz). The mention in the Bavarian Geographer is the only written record referring to the tribe.

The Treaty of Pyzdry (Peisern) was signed on 2 November 1390 between Jogaila, king of Poland and Wartislaw VII of Pomerania-Stolp. The treaty, signed in Pyzdry, contained an oath of vassalage of Wartislaw to Jogaila, the obligation to support the latter in the Polish-Teutonic War, and mutual trade alleviations for Pomeranian and Polish merchants. Wartislaw VII, who with his brothers was allied with the Teutonic Order before, received the Polish castellany of Nakło (Nakel) and probably some adjacent areas as a fief.