|Bishop of Rome|
|Papacy began||11 April 672|
|Papacy ended||17 June 676|
Rome, Byzantine Empire
|Died||17 June 676|
Rome, Byzantine Empire
|Other popes named Adeodatus|
Pope Adeodatus II (c.621–17 June 676), sometimes called Deodatus, was the bishop of Rome from 672 to his death. He devoted much of his papacy to improving churches and fighting Monothelism.
Born in Rome in c.621,Adeodatus was the son of a man named Jovinianus. He became a Benedictine monk of the Roman cloister of St Erasmus on the Caelian Hill. He became pope on 11 April 672 in succession to Vitalian. His election was ratified by the exarch of Ravenna within weeks, as required during the period of Byzantine papacy. At the time, he was already an old man.
Adeodatus II's pontificate is extremely obscure. It coincided with a surge of passionate interest in Pope Martin I and Maximus the Confessor, who were known for resisting the support of the Eastern Roman emperors for Monothelism. In light of this, Pope Adeodatus rejected the synodical letters sent to him by Patriarch Constantine I of Constantinople. Because of this, his name was excluded from the diptychs in Constantinople.Adeodatus was active in improving monastic discipline and in the repression of Monothelitism and gave Venice the right to choose its doge. During his pontificate the basilica of St. Pietro at the eight milestone of Via Portuense. St Erasmus was also reconstructed. Elected as Pope on 11 April 672, Adeodatus II did not get involved in political events and disengaged himself from the events at the time surrounding Monothelitism.
Pope Adeodatus II devoted his reign to the restoration of churches in disrepair. He protected the Abbey of St. Peter and St. Paul (known as St. Augustine's Abbey), exempted Marmoutier Abbey, Tours (Abbey of St. Martin of Tours) from the authority of the Holy See, and led improvements to St. Erasmus' monastery. He is sometimes called saint and 26 June is given as his feast day, but this is disputed.Adeodatus II's papacy did not contribute by a large amount to society. He died on 17 June 676 and was succeeded by Donus.
Pope Agatho served as the bishop of Rome from 27 June 678 until his death. He heard the appeal of Wilfrid of York, who had been displaced from his See by the division of the Archdiocese ordered by Theodore of Canterbury. During Agatho's tenure, the Sixth Ecumenical Council was convened which dealt with the monothelitism controversy. He is venerated as a saint by both the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches.
Pope Martin I, also known as Martin the Confessor, was the bishop of Rome from 21 July 649 to his death. He served as Pope Theodore I's ambassador to Constantinople and was elected to succeed him as pope. He was the only pope during the Eastern Roman domination of the papacy whose election was not approved by an imperial mandate from Constantinople. For his strong opposition to Monothelitism, Pope Martin I was arrested by Emperor Constans II, carried off to Constantinople, and ultimately banished to Cherson. He is considered a saint and martyr by the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Pope Benedict II was the bishop of Rome from June 26, 684 to his death. Pope Benedict II's feast day is May 7.
Pope Boniface IV was the bishop of Rome from 608 to his death. Boniface had served as a deacon under Pope Gregory I, and like his mentor, he ran the Lateran Palace as a monastery. As pope, he encouraged monasticism. With imperial permission, he converted the Pantheon into a church. In 610, he conferred with Bishop Mellitus of London regarding the needs of the English Church. He is venerated as a saint in the Catholic Church with a universal feast day on 8 May.
Pope Gregory II was the bishop of Rome from 19 May 715 to his death. His defiance of Emperor Leo III the Isaurian as a result of the iconoclastic controversy in the Eastern Empire prepared the way for a long series of revolts, schisms and civil wars that eventually led to the establishment of the temporal power of the popes.
Pope Sergius I was the bishop of Rome from 15 December 687, to his death, and is revered as a saint by the Roman Catholic church. He was elected at a time when two rivals, Paschal and Theodore, were locked in dispute about which of them should become pope. His papacy was dominated by his response to the Quinisext Council, the canons of which he steadfastly refused to accept. Thereupon Emperor Justinian II ordered Sergius' arrest, but the Roman people and the Italian militia of the exarch of Ravenna refused to allow the exarch to bring Sergius to Constantinople.
Pope Sergius III was the bishop of Rome and nominal ruler of the Papal States from 29 January 904 to his death. He was pope during a period of violence and disorder in central Italy, when warring aristocratic factions sought to use the material and military resources of the papacy. Because Sergius III had reputedly ordered the murder of his two immediate predecessors, Leo V and Christopher, and allegedly fathered an illegitimate son who later became pope, John XI, his pontificate has been variously described as "dismal and disgraceful", and "efficient and ruthless".
Pope Eugene I was the bishop of Rome from 10 August 654 to his death. He was chosen to become pope after the deposition and banishment of Martin I by Emperor Constans II over the dispute about Monothelitism.
Pope Leo II was the bishop of Rome from 17 August 682 to his death. He is one of the popes of the Byzantine Papacy. Described by a contemporary biographer as both just and learned, he is commemorated as a saint in the Roman Martyrology on 28 June.
The Third Council of Constantinople, counted as the Sixth Ecumenical Council by the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic Churches, as well by certain other Western Churches, met in 680–681 and condemned monoenergism and monothelitism as heretical and defined Jesus Christ as having two energies and two wills.
Pope Sabinian was the bishop of Rome from 13 September 604 to his death. His pontificate occurred during the Eastern Roman domination of the papacy. He was the fourth former apocrisiarius to Constantinople to be elected pope.
Monothelitism, or monotheletism, is a theological doctrine in Christianity, that holds Christ as having only one will. The doctrine is thus contrary to dyothelitism, a Christological doctrine that holds Christ as having two wills. Historically, monothelitism was closely related to monoenergism, a theological doctrine that holds Jesus Christ as having only one energy. Both doctrines were at the very center of Christological disputes during the 7th century.
Pope Theodore I was the bishop of Rome from 24 November 642 to his death. His pontificate was dominated by the struggle with Monothelitism.
Pope Adeodatus I, also called Deodatus I or Deusdedit, was the bishop of Rome from 19 October 615 to his death. He was the first priest to be elected pope since John II in 533. The first use of lead seals or bullae on papal documents is attributed to him. His feast day is 8 November.
Pope Severinus was the bishop of Rome elected in October 638. He was caught up in a power struggle with Emperor Heraclius, who pressured him to accept Monothelitism. Severinus refused, which for over eighteen months hindered his efforts to obtain imperial recognition of his election. His pontificate was finally sanctioned on 28 May 640, but he died two months later.
Pope Constantine was the bishop of Rome from 25 March 708 to his death. One of the last popes of the Byzantine Papacy, the defining moment of Constantine's pontificate was his 710/711 visit to Constantinople where he compromised with Justinian II on the Trullan canons of the Quinisext Council. Constantine's was the last papal visit to Constantinople until 1967.
Pope Vitalian was the bishop of Rome from 30 July 657 to his death. His pontificate was marked by the dispute between the papacy and the imperial government in Constantinople over Monothelitism, which Rome condemned. Vitalian tried to resolve the dispute and had a conciliatory relationship with Emperor Constans II, who visited him in Rome and gave him gifts. Vitalian's pontificate also saw the secession of the Archbishopric of Ravenna from the papal authority.
Pope John V was the bishop of Rome from 23 July 685 to his death. He was the first pope of the Byzantine Papacy consecrated without prior imperial consent, and the first in a line of ten consecutive popes of Eastern origin. His papacy was marked by reconciliation between the city of Rome and the Empire.
Pope Donus was the bishop of Rome from 676 to his death. Few details survive about him or his achievements beyond what is recorded in the Liber Pontificalis.
The Byzantine Papacy was a period of Byzantine domination of the Roman papacy from 537 to 752, when popes required the approval of the Byzantine Emperor for episcopal consecration, and many popes were chosen from the apocrisiarii or the inhabitants of Byzantine-ruled Greece, Syria, or Sicily. Justinian I conquered the Italian peninsula in the Gothic War (535–554) and appointed the next three popes, a practice that would be continued by his successors and later be delegated to the Exarchate of Ravenna.
|Catholic Church titles|
| Pope |