Pope Alexander III

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Pope

Alexander III
Pope Alexander III.jpg
Papacy began7 September 1159
Papacy ended30 August 1181
Predecessor Adrian IV
Successor Lucius III
Orders
Consecration20 September 1159
by  Ubaldo Allucingoli (the future Pope Lucius III).
Created cardinalOctober 1150
by Eugene III
Personal details
Birth nameRoland of Siena
Bornc. 1100–05
Siena, Papal States
Died(1181-08-30)30 August 1181
Civita Castellana, Papal States
Previous post
Other popes named Alexander
Papal styles of
Pope Alexander III
Emblem of the Papacy SE.svg
Reference style His Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous stylenone

Pope Alexander III (c. 1100/1105 – 30 August 1181), born Roland of Siena, [1] was Pope from 7 September 1159 to his death in 1181.

Pope leader of the Catholic Church

The pope, also known as the supreme pontiff, is the Bishop of Rome and ex officio leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. Since 1929, the pope has also been head of state of Vatican City, a city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI.

Contents

Early life and career

Pope Alexander III was born in Siena. From 14th century he is referred to as a member of the aristocratic family of Bandinelli, although this has not been proven. [2] He was long thought to be the 12th-century canon lawyer and theologian Master Roland of Bologna, who composed the "Stroma" or "Summa Rolandi"—one of the earliest commentaries on the Decretum of Gratian—and the "Sententiae Rolandi", a sentence collection displaying the influence of Pierre Abélard, but John T. Noonan and Rudolf Weigand have shown this to be another Rolandus. [3] [4]

Siena Comune in Tuscany, Italy

Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the province of Siena.

<i>Decretum Gratiani</i>

The Decretum Gratiani, also known as the Concordia discordantium canonum or Concordantia discordantium canonum or simply as the Decretum, is a collection of canon law compiled and written in the 12th century as a legal textbook by the jurist known as Gratian. It forms the first part of the collection of six legal texts, which together became known as the Corpus Juris Canonici. It was used by canonists of the Roman Catholic Church until Pentecost 1918, when a revised Code of Canon Law promulgated by Pope Benedict XV on 27 May 1917 obtained legal force.

He probably studied at Bologna, where Robert of Torigni notes that he taught theology. [5] In October 1150, Pope Eugene III created him Cardinal-Deacon of Santi Cosma e Damiano. Later he became Cardinal-Priest of St Mark. [6] In 1153, he became papal chancellor and was the leader of the cardinals opposed to German Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa. [7] He negotiated the Treaty of Benevento, which restored peaceful relations between Rome and the Kingdom of Sicily. [8]

Robert of Torigni 12th-century Norman monk and chronicler

Robert of Torigni (c.1110–1186) was a Norman monk, prior, abbot and twelfth century chronicler.

Pope Eugene III pope

Pope Eugene III, born Bernardo Pignatelli, called Bernardo da Pisa, was Pope from 15 February 1145 to his death in 1153. He was the first Cistercian to become Pope. In response to the fall of Edessa to the Muslims in 1144, Eugene proclaimed the Second Crusade. The crusade failed to recapture Edessa, which was the first of many failures by the Christians in the crusades to recapture lands won in the First Crusade.

Santi Cosma e Damiano church

The basilica of Santi Cosma e Damiano is a church in the Roman Forum, parts of which incorporate original Roman buildings. The circular building at the entrance onto the Forum was built in the early 4th century as a Roman temple, thought to have been dedicated to Valerius Romulus, deified son of the emperor Maxentius. The main building was perhaps the library of an imperial forum.

Disputed election

On 7 September 1159, he was chosen as the successor to Pope Adrian IV, the only Englishman to ever hold the office. A minority of the cardinals, however, elected the cardinal priest Octavian, who assumed the name of Victor IV and became the German Emperor's antipope. The situation was critical for Alexander III, because according to many chronicles of the time (perhaps exaggerating), Barbarossa's antipope received the approval of most of the kingdoms of Europe, with the exception of the kingdoms of Portugal, Sicily and Spain. However, in 1161, King Géza II of Hungary signed an agreement and recognised Alexander III as the rightful pope and declared that the supreme spiritual leader was the only one who could exercise the rite of investiture. [9] This meant that Alexander's legitimacy was gaining strength, as soon proved by the fact that other monarchs, such as the king of France and King Henry II of England, recognized his authority. Because of imperial strength in Italy, Alexander was forced to reside outside of Rome for a large part of his pontificate. [5] When news reached him of the death of Victor in 1164, he openly wept, and scolded the cardinals in his company for rejoicing at the end of the rival antipope. [10]

Pope Adrian IV Pope from 1154 to 1159

Pope Adrian IV, also known as Hadrian IV, was Pope from 4 December 1154 to his death in 1159.

Antipope Person who holds a significantly accepted claim to be pope, without being recognized as pope

An antipope is a person who, in opposition to the one who is generally seen as the legitimately elected pope, makes a significantly accepted competing claim to be the pope, the Bishop of Rome, and leader of the Roman Catholic Church. At times between the 3rd and mid-15th centuries, antipopes were supported by a fairly significant faction of religious cardinals and secular or anti-religious monarchs and kingdoms. Persons who claim to be pope, but have few followers, such as the modern sedevacantist antipopes, are not classified with the historical antipopes.

Géza II of Hungary King of Hungary and Croatia

Géza II was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1141 to 1162. He was the oldest son of Béla the Blind and his wife, Helena of Rascia. When his father died, Géza was still a child and he started ruling under the guardianship of his mother and her brother, Beloš. A pretender to the throne, Boris Kalamanos, who had already claimed Hungary during Béla the Blind's reign, temporarily captured Pressburg with the assistance of German mercenaries in early 1146. In retaliation, Géza, who came of age in the same year, invaded Austria and routed Henry Jasomirgott, Margrave of Austria, in the Battle of the Fischa.

However, the dispute between Alexander III, Antipope Victor IV and his successors Antipope Paschal III and Antipope Calixtus III (who had the German imperial support) continued until Frederick Barbarossa's defeat at the Legnano in 1176, after which Barbarossa finally (in the Peace of Venice of 1177) recognized Alexander III as pope. [6] On 12 March 1178, Alexander III returned to Rome, which he had been compelled to leave twice: the first time between 1162 and 23 November 1165. When Alexander was arrested by supporters of the imperialist Antipope Victor IV, Oddone Frangipane freed him and sent to safety in Campania. Alexander again left Rome in 1167. At first he went to Benevento, later moving to various strongholds such as of Anagni, Palestrina, Ferentino, Tusculum, and Veroli. [5]

Antipope Paschal III Italian priest and diplomat

Antipope Paschal III was, from 1164 to 20 September 1168, the second of the antipopes to challenge the reign of Pope Alexander III.

Battle of Legnano middle ages battle

The Battle of Legnano was fought on May 29, 1176, between the forces of the Holy Roman Empire, led by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, and the Lombard League. The Imperial army suffered a major defeat.

Oddone Frangipane was an Italian lord and military leader in the service of the Papacy in the 12th century.

Alexander's politics

Frederick Barbarossa submits to the authority of Pope Alexander III (fresco in the Palazzo Pubblico in Siena, by Spinello Aretino). B alexander III2.jpg
Frederick Barbarossa submits to the authority of Pope Alexander III (fresco in the Palazzo Pubblico in Siena, by Spinello Aretino).

Alexander III was the first pope known to have paid direct attention to missionary activities east of the Baltic Sea. He had created the Archbishopric of Uppsala in Sweden in 1164, [11] probably at the suggestion of his close friend Eskil, Archbishop of Lund – exiled in Clairvaux, France, due to a conflict with the Danish king. The latter appointed a Benedictine monk Fulco as a bishop in Estonia. In 1171, Alexander became the first pope to address the situation of the Church in Finland, with Finns allegedly harassing priests and only relying on God in time of war. [12] In the bull Non parum animus noster , in 1171 or 1172, he gave papal sanction to ongoing crusades against pagans in northern Europe, promising remission of sin for those who fought there. In doing so, he legitimized the widespread use of forced conversion as a tactic by those fighting in the Baltic. [13]

Eskil was a 12th-century Archbishop of Lund, in Skåne, Denmark.

Ville-sous-la-Ferté Commune in Grand Est, France

Ville-sous-la-Ferté is a commune in the Aube department in the Grand Est region in north-central France.

Estonia Republic in Northern Europe

Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia, is a country in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland with Finland on the other side, to the west by the Baltic Sea with Sweden on the other side, to the south by Latvia (343 km), and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia (338.6 km). The territory of Estonia consists of a mainland and 2,222 islands in the Baltic Sea, covering a total area of 45,227 km2 (17,462 sq mi), water 2,839 km2 (1,096 sq mi), land area 42,388 km2 (16,366 sq mi), and is influenced by a humid continental climate. The official language of the country, Estonian, is the second-most-spoken Finnic language.

Allegorical sculpture of Pope Alexander III and Saint Bernard of Clairvaux crowning Afonso I King of Portugal, in the Alcobaca Monastery Sala de Reis - Mosteiro de Alcobaca.JPG
Allegorical sculpture of Pope Alexander III and Saint Bernard of Clairvaux crowning Afonso I King of Portugal, in the Alcobaça Monastery

Besides checkmating Barbarossa, Alexander humbled King Henry II of England for the murder of Thomas Becket in 1170, to whom he was unusually close, later canonizing Becket in 1173. [14] This was the second English saint canonized by Alexander, the first being Edward the Confessor in 1161. [14] Nonetheless, he confirmed the position of Henry as Lord of Ireland in 1172.

In March 1177, on his way to Venice to meet the Emperor, Alexander spent four days in the city of Zadar on the Dalmatian coast. Zadar was at that time a vassal of the Republic of Venice. [15]

Through the Papal bull Manifestis Probatum , issued on 23 May 1179, he also recognized the right of Afonso I to proclaim himself King of Portugal – an important step in the process of Portugal becoming a recognized independent Kingdom (Afonso had been using the title of King since 1139). [16]

Efforts at reform

Even as a fugitive, Alexander enjoyed the favour and protection of Louis VII of France.[ citation needed ]

In 1163 Alexander summoned clergy and prelates from England, France, Italy, and Spain to the Council of Tours to address, among other things, the unlawful division of ecclesiastical benefices, clerical usury, and lay possession of tithes. [5]

In March 1179, Alexander III held the Third Council of the Lateran, one of the most important mediaeval church councils, reckoned by the Catholic Church as the eleventh ecumenical council. Its acts embodied several of the Pope's proposals for the betterment of the condition of the Church, among them the law requiring that no one could be elected pope without the votes of two-thirds of the cardinals. [17] The rule was altered slightly in 1996, but was restored in 2007. This synod marked the summit of Alexander III's power.[ citation needed ]

Nevertheless, soon after the close of the synod, the Roman Republic forced Alexander III to leave the city, which he never re-entered, and on 29 September 1179, some nobles set up the Antipope Innocent III. By the judicious use of money, however, Alexander III got him into his power, so that he was deposed in January 1180. In 1181, Alexander III excommunicated King William I of Scotland and put the kingdom under an interdict. [18]

He died at Civita Castellana on 3 August 1181.

See also

Notes

  1. In Italian Rolando or Orlando.
  2. Maleczek, W. (1984). Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216 (in German). Wien. p. 233 note 168. ISBN   978-3-7001-0660-9.
  3. See Noonan, John T. (1977). "Who was Rolandus?". In Pennington, Kenneth; Somerville, Robert (eds.). Law, Church, and Society: Essays in Honor of Stephan Kuttner. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 21–48. ISBN   978-0-8122-7726-5.
  4. Weigand, Rudolph (1980). "Magister Rolandus und Papst Alexander III". Archiv für Katholisches Kirchenrecht. 149: 3–44. Reprinted in idem, Glossatoren des Dekrets Gratians [Goldbach: Keip, 1997], pp. 73*–114* , ISBN   3-8051-0272-0.
  5. 1 2 3 4 Pennington, Kenneth. "Pope Alexander III", The Great Popes through History: An Encyclopedia, (Frank J. Coppa, ed.), Westport: Greenwood Press, (2002) 1.113-122 Archived 5 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  6. 1 2 Loughlin, James. "Pope Alexander III." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. 27 July 2015
  7. J. P. Adams, Sede Vacante 1159, retrieved: 18 March 2017.
  8. I. S. Robinson, The Papacy, 1073-1198: Continuity and Innovation, (Cambridge University Press, 1990), 147.
  9. Bodri Ferenc: Lukács érsek és kora. Kossuth, 2003
  10. The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church-Momticelli; S. Miranda
  11. "Papal Letters to Scandinavia and their Preservation", Anders Winroth, Charters, Cartularies and Archives: The Preservation and Transmission of Documents in the Medieval West, ed. Adam J. Kosto and Anders Winroth (Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 2002), 178.
  12. "Letter by Pope Alexander III to the Archbishop of Uppsala" (in Latin). National Archives of Finland. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007.
  13. Christiansen, Eric. The Northern Crusades. London: Penguin Books. pg. 71
  14. 1 2 Norton, Christopher (2006). St. William of York. Rochester, NY: Boydell Press. p. 193. ISBN   978-1-903153-17-8.
  15. "The visit of Pope Alexander III (1177)", Zadar Tourist Board
  16. Peter Linehan and Janet Laughland Nelson, The Medieval World, Vol.10, (Routledge, 2001), 524.
  17. Joseph F. Kelly, The Ecumenical Councils of the Catholic Church: A History, (Liturgical Press, 2009), 83.
  18. Philip J. Potter, Gothic Kings of Britain: The Lives of 31 Medieval Rulers, 1016-1399, (McFarland & Company, Inc., 2009), 148.

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References

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Adrian IV
Pope
1159–81
Succeeded by
Lucius III