Pope Anastasius IV

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Pope

Anastasius IV
A02 ANASTASIO IV.jpg
Papacy began8 July 1153 (1153-07-08)
Papacy ended3 December 1154 (1154-12-03)
Predecessor Eugene III
Successor Adrian IV
Orders
Created cardinalDecember 1127
by Pope Honorius II
Personal details
Birth nameCorrado Demetri della Suburra
Bornc.1073
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Died3 December 1154(1154-12-03) (aged 80–81)
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Other popes named Anastasius
Papal styles of
Pope Anastasius IV
Emblem of the Papacy SE.svg
Reference style His Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous stylenone

Pope Anastasius IV (c.1073 [1] – 3 December 1154), born Corrado Demetri della Suburra, was Pope from 8 July 1153 [2] to his death in 1154. He is the last pope to take the name "Anastasius" upon his election.

Pope Leader of the Catholic Church

The pope, also known as the supreme pontiff, is the bishop of Rome, leader of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state representing the Holy See. Since 1929, the pope has official residence in the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican City, the Holy See's city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI.

Contents

Early life

He was a Roman, son of Benedictus de Suburra, probably of the family of Demetri, [3] and became a secular clerk. [4] He was created cardinal-priest of S. Pudenziana by Pope Paschal II no later than in 1114. [5] In 1127 or 1128 Pope Honorius II [6] promoted him to the suburbicarian See of Sabina. [7] He was probably given this position for siding with Honorius II during a dispute over the appointment of a new abbot for Farfa. [8] He had taken part in the double papal election of 1130, had been one of the most determined opponents of Antipope Anacletus II and, when Pope Innocent II fled to France, had been left behind as his vicar in Italy. At the time of his election to the papacy in July 1153 he was Dean of the College of Cardinals and probably the oldest member of that body.[ citation needed ]

Rome Capital of Italy

Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome also serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber. The Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states.

Anacletus II, born Pietro Pierleoni, was an Antipope who ruled in opposition to Pope Innocent II from 1130 until his death in 1138. After the death of Pope Honorius II, the college of cardinals was divided over his successor. A majority of cardinals elected Pietro, while a minority elected Papareschi. This led to a major schism in the Roman Catholic Church. Anacletus had the support of most Romans, and the Frangipani family, and forced Innocent to flee to France. North of the Alps, Innocent gained the crucial support of St. Bernard of Clairvaux, Peter the Venerable, and Emperor Lothar III, leaving Anacletus with few patrons. Anacletus, with little remaining support, died in the middle of the crisis. In 1139 the second Lateran Council ended the schism, though opinion remained divided.

Pope Innocent II 12th-century Catholic pope

Pope Innocent II, born Gregorio Papareschi, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 14 February 1130 to his death in 1143. His election was controversial and the first eight years of his reign were marked by a struggle for recognition against the supporters of Antipope Anacletus II. He reached an understanding with Lothair II, Holy Roman Emperor who supported him against Anacletus and whom he crowned King of the Romans. Innocent went on to preside over the Second Lateran council.

Pontificate

During his short pontificate he played the part of a peacemaker; he came to terms with the Emperor Frederick I in the vexing question of the appointment to the See of Magdeburg and closed the long quarrel, which had raged through four pontificates, about the appointment of William Fitzherbert (commonly known as Saint William of York) to the see of York by sending him the pallium in spite of the continued opposition of the powerful Cistercian order. Anastasius IV also devoted much time and expenses on the Lateran Basilica and Palace back at Rome. [8] Pope Anastasius IV died on 3 December 1154 and was succeeded by Cardinal Nicholas of Albano as Pope Adrian IV. [9] Anastasius IV was laid to rest within the Helena sarcophagus (reportedly believed to be Roman Empress Helena's) which was brought out and reused as his tomb. [8]

Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor

Frederick Barbarossa, also known as Frederick I, was the Holy Roman Emperor from 2 January 1155 until his death. He was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned in Aachen on 9 March 1152. He was crowned King of Italy on 24 April 1155 in Pavia and emperor by Pope Adrian IV on 18 June 1155 in Rome. Two years later, the term sacrum ("holy") first appeared in a document in connection with his empire. He was later formally crowned King of Burgundy, at Arles on 30 June 1178. He was named Barbarossa by the northern Italian cities which he attempted to rule: Barbarossa means "red beard" in Italian; in German, he was known as Kaiser Rotbart, which has the same meaning.

Archbishopric of Magdeburg

The Archbishopric of Magdeburg was a Roman Catholic archdiocese (969–1552) and Prince-Archbishopric (1180–1680) of the Holy Roman Empire centered on the city of Magdeburg on the Elbe River.

York Historic city in the north of England

York is a city and unitary authority area in North Yorkshire, England, the population of the council area which includes nearby villages was 208,200 as of 2017 and the population of the Urban area was 153,717 at the 2011 census. Located at the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss, it is the county town of the historic county of Yorkshire. The city is known for its famous historical landmarks such as York Minster and the city walls, as well as a variety of cultural and sporting activities, which makes it a popular tourist destination in England. The local authority is the City of York Council, a single tier governing body responsible for providing all local services and facilities throughout the city. The City of York local government district includes rural areas beyond the old city boundaries. It is about 25 miles north-east of Leeds.

See also

Notes

  1. This date is according to Encyclopædia Britannica; Klewitz, p. 220 says that he was 80 years old at the time of his election to the papacy
  2. http://www2.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1127.htm#Suburra
  3. Tillmann, H. (1972). "Ricerche sull'origine dei membri del collegio cardinalizio nel XII secolo". RSC . 26: 313–353 [p. 328].
  4. According to older historiography (incl. Klewitz, p. 128 and 220) he was abbot of the Augustinian monastery of St.-Ruf at Avignon, but this view has been recently abandoned (see I.S.Robinson, p. 73)
  5. H.W.Klewitz, p. 128 no. 31; Brixius, p. 36 no. 26. His first subscription of the papal bulls took place on 25 February 1114 (Jaffé, p. 478)
  6. Anastasius IV is sometimes referred to as a nephew of Honorius II, but this is not proven and is very unlikely; Anastasius IV came from Roman aristocracy, while Honorius II was a Bolognese. Brixius, p. 78 rejects the statement about relationship between Anastasius and Honorius as without foundation and adds that it appears for the first time in the 16th century. Hans Walter Klewitz and Helene Tillmann, who have made an extensive study about the origins of the cardinals of the beginning of the 12th century, either deny or do not mention this relationship.
  7. First subscription as cardinal-bishop on 7 May 1128 (Jaffé, p. 549)
  8. 1 2 3 Matthews, Rupert (2013). The Popes: Every Question Answered. New York: Metro Books. p. 158. ISBN   978-1-4351-4571-9.
  9. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Anastasius"  . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

Bibliography

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Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Crescenzio
Cardinal-Bishop of Sabina
1127/28–53
Succeeded by
Gregorio
Preceded by
Eugene III
Pope
1153–54
Succeeded by
Adrian IV

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