|Bishop of Rome|
Pope Celestine III, from the Liber ad honorem Augusti (1196)
|Papacy began||30 March 1191|
|Papacy ended||8 January 1198|
|Ordination||13 April 1191|
|Consecration||14 April 1191|
by Cardinal Ottaviano
|Created cardinal||February 1144|
by Celestine II
|Birth name||Giacinto Bobone|
Rome, Papal States
|Died||8 January 1198|
Rome, Papal States
|Previous post||Cardinal-Deacon of Santa Maria in Cosmedin (1144–1191)|
|Motto||Perfice gressus meos in semitis tuis ("Going in Thy path")|
|Other popes named Celestine|
Pope Celestine III (Latin : Caelestinus III; c. 1106 – 8 January 1198), born Giacinto Bobone, was the head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 30 March or 10 April 1191 to his death. He had a tense relationship with several monarchs, including Emperor Henry VI, King Tancred of Sicily, and King Alfonso IX of León.
Giacinto Bobone was born into the noble Orsini family in Rome and served as a cardinal-deacon prior to becoming pope.He was ordained as a priest on 13 April 1191. Considered by the Roman Curia as an expert on Spain, Bobone conducted two legatine missions to Spain in (1154–55) and (1172–75) as the Cardinal-Deacon of Santa Maria in Cosmedin.
Celestine crowned Emperor Henry VI on the day after his election in 1191 with a ceremony symbolizing his absolute supremacy, as described by Roger of Hoveden, after Henry VI promised to cede Tusculum. In 1192 he threatened to excommunicate King Tancred of Sicily, forcing him to release his aunt Empress Constance, wife of Henry VI and a contender of Sicilian crown, captured by Tancred in 1191, to Rome to exchange for his recognition of Tancred while also put pressure on Henry, but Constance was released by German soldiers on borders of the Papal States before reaching Rome the following summer. He subsequently nearly excommunicated Henry VI for wrongfully keeping King Richard I of England in prison.He placed Pisa under an interdict, which was lifted by his successor, Innocent III in 1198. He condemned King Alfonso IX of León for his marriage to Theresa of Portugal on the grounds of consanguinity. Then, in 1196, he excommunicated him for allying with the Almohad Caliphate while making war on Castile. Following his marriage with Berengaria of Castile, Celestine excommunicated Alfonso and placed an interdict over León.
In 1198, Celestine confirmed the statutes of the Teutonic Knights as a military order.
Celestine would have resigned the papacy and recommended a successor (Cardinal Giovanni di San Paolo, O.S.B.) shortly before his death,but was not allowed to do so by the cardinals.
The Orsini family is an Italian noble family that was one of the most influential princely families in medieval Italy and Renaissance Rome. Members of the Orsini family include three popes: Celestine III (1191–1198), Nicholas III (1277–1280), and Benedict XIII (1724–1730). In addition, the family included 34 cardinals, numerous condottieri, and other significant political and religious figures.
Pope Alexander III, born Roland, was the head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 7 September 1159 until his death. A native of Bologna, Alexander became pope after a contested election, but had to spend much of his pontificate outside Rome while several rivals, supported by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, claimed the papacy. Alexander rejected Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos' offer to end the East–West Schism, sanctioned the Northern Crusades, and held the Third Council of the Lateran.
Pope Clement III, born PaulinoScolari, was the head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 19 December 1187 to his death.
Pope Innocent II, born Gregorio Papareschi, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 14 February 1130 to his death in 1143. His election as pope was controversial and the first eight years of his reign were marked by a struggle for recognition against the supporters of Anacletus II. He reached an understanding with King Lothair III of Germany who supported him against Anacletus and whom he crowned as Holy Roman emperor. Innocent went on to preside over the Second Lateran council.
Pope Innocent III, born Lotario dei Conti di Segni, held office from 8 January 1198 to his death.
Alfonso IX was king of León and Galicia from the death of his father Ferdinand II in 1188 until his own death.
Tancred was King of Sicily from 1189 to 1194. He was born in Lecce an illegitimate son of Roger III, Duke of Apulia by his mistress Emma, a daughter of Achard II, Count of Lecce. He inherited the title "Count of Lecce" from his grandfather and is consequently often referred to as Tancred of Lecce. Due to his short stature and unhandsome visage, he was mocked by his critics as "The Monkey King".
Constance I was Queen regnant of Sicily in 1194–98, jointly with her spouse from 1194 to 1197, and with her infant son Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, in 1198, as the heiress of the Norman kings of Sicily. She was also Holy Roman Empress by marriage to Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor.
Sancha of Castile was the only surviving child of King Alfonso VII of Castile by his second wife, Richeza of Poland. On January 18, 1174, she married King Alfonso II of Aragon at Zaragoza; they had at least eight children who survived into adulthood.
Sibylla of Acerra (1153–1205) was Queen of Sicily as the wife of King Tancred. She was regent in 1194 for their son, King William III. She was the sister of Count Richard of Acerra.
The December 1187 papal election was convoked after the death of Pope Gregory VIII. It resulted in the election of Cardinal Paolo Scolari, who took the name of Clement III.
The 1154 papal election followed the death of Pope Anastasius IV and resulted in the election of Pope Adrian IV, the only Englishman to become pope.
The 1145 papal election followed the death of Pope Lucius II and resulted in the election of Pope Eugene III, the first pope of the Order of Cistercians.
Pope Lucius II (1144–1145) created eleven cardinals in two consistories.
Henry VI, a member of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was King of Germany from 1169 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 until his death. From 1194 he was also King of Sicily.
The 1191 papal election took place after the death of Pope Clement III and chose the 85-year-old Cardinal Giacinto Bobone Orsini, who took the name Celestine III.
Bobone may refer to:
Events during the year 1106 in Italy.
Soffredo was an Italian cardinal. His name is also given as Soffredo Errico Gaetani, whilst his Christian name is also spelled Soffrido or Goffredo in some sources.
The Siege of Naples was a siege in 1191 during the expedition of Emperor Henry VI aiming to conquer Kingdom of Sicily. It lasted three months before Henry abandoned his expedition after suffering a heavy loss due to disease; after his retreat the Sicilians set a counterattack that reconquered his Italian conquests and captured his wife Empress Constance.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Celestine (popes) .|
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initial text from the 9th edition (1876) of an old encyclopedia