Pope Celestine III

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Pope

Celestine III
Coelestin III (cropped 2).png
Pope Celestine III, from the Liber ad honorem Augusti (1196)
Papacy began30 March 1191
Papacy ended8 January 1198
Predecessor Clement III
Successor Innocent III
Orders
Ordination13 April 1191
Consecration14 April 1191
by Cardinal Ottaviano
Created cardinalFebruary 1144
by Celestine II
Personal details
Birth nameGiacinto Bobone
Bornc. 1106
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Died(1198-01-08)8 January 1198
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Previous post Cardinal-Deacon of Santa Maria in Cosmedin (1144–1191)
MottoPerfice gressus meos in semitis tuis ("Going in Thy path")
Signature CelestinusIIItitel.jpg
Other popes named Celestine
Papal styles of
Pope Celestine III
Orsini-roma-stemma.jpg
Reference style His Holiness
Spoken styleSanct(issim)e Pater
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous styleNone

Pope Celestine III (Latin : Caelestinus III; c. 1106 – 8 January 1198), born Giacinto Bobone, [1] reigned from 30 March or 10 April 1191 [2] to his death in 1198. He was born into the noble Orsini family in Rome and served as a cardinal-deacon prior to becoming pope. [3] He was ordained as a priest on 13 April 1191 and he ruled the church for six years, nine months, and nine days before he died aged 92. He was buried at the Lateran.

Orsini family noble family

The Orsini family is an Italian noble family that was one of the most influential princely families in medieval Italy and Renaissance Rome. Members of the Orsini family include three popes: Celestine III (1191–1198), Nicholas III (1277–1280), and Benedict XIII (1724–1730). In addition, the family membership includes 34 cardinals, numerous condottieri, and other significant political and religious figures.

Rome Capital city and comune in Italy

Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome also serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber. The Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states.

Priest person authorized to lead the sacred rituals of a religion (for a minister use Q1423891)

A priest or priestess is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities. They also have the authority or power to administer religious rites; in particular, rites of sacrifice to, and propitiation of, a deity or deities. Their office or position is the priesthood, a term which also may apply to such persons collectively.

Contents

Biography

Cardinal

Considered by the Roman Curia as an expert on Spain, Bobone conducted two legatine missions to Spain in (1154–55) and (1172–75) as the Cardinal-Deacon of Santa Maria in Cosmedin. [4]

The Roman Curia comprises the administrative institutions of the Holy See and the central body through which the affairs of the Catholic Church are conducted. It acts in the Pope’s name and with his authority for the good and for the service of the particular Churches and provides the central organization for the Church to advance its objectives.

Spain Kingdom in Southwest Europe

Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.

Santa Maria in Cosmedin church in Rome

The Basilica of Saint Mary in Cosmedin is a minor basilica church in Rome, Italy. It is located in the rione of Ripa.

Pontificate

Celestine crowned the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI on the day after his election in 1191 with a ceremony symbolizing his absolute supremacy, as described by Roger of Hoveden, after Henry VI promised to cede Tusculum. In 1192 he threatened to excommunicate King Tancred of Sicily, forcing him to release his aunt Empress Constance, who was wife of Henry VI and a contender of Sicilian crown, captured by Tancred in 1191, to Rome to exchange for his recognition of Tancred while also put pressure on Henry, but Constance was released by German soldiers on borders of the Papal States before reaching Rome the following summer. He subsequently nearly excommunicated the same Henry VI for wrongfully keeping King Richard I of England in prison. [5] He placed Pisa under an interdict, which was lifted by his successor Innocent III in 1198. [6] He condemned King Alfonso IX of León for his marriage to Theresa of Portugal on the grounds of consanguinity. Then, in 1196, he excommunicated him for allying with the Almohad Caliphate while making war on Castile. [7] Following his marriage with Berengaria of Castile, Celestine excommunicated Alfonso and placed an interdict over León. [8]

Holy Roman Emperor emperor of the Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Emperor, officially the Emperor of the Romans, and also the German-Roman Emperor, was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. The title was, almost without interruption, held in conjunction with title of King of Germany throughout the 12th to 18th centuries.

Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor German noble

Henry VI, a member of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was King of Germany from 1190 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 until his death. From 1194 he was also King of Sicily.

Tusculum ancient Roman city and archeological site in the Alban Hills of Latium, Italy

Tusculum is a ruined Roman city in the Alban Hills, in the Latium region of Italy.

In 1198, Celestine confirmed the statutes of the Teutonic Knights as a military order. [9]

Death

Image of Pope Celestine III (middle) in the east window of York Minster Pope Celestine, St William and an unidentified Prelate, East Window, York Minster.jpg
Image of Pope Celestine III (middle) in the east window of York Minster

Celestine would have resigned the papacy and recommended a successor (Cardinal Giovanni di San Paolo, O.S.B.) shortly before his death, [10] but was not allowed to do so by the cardinals. [11]

Giovanni di San Paolo was a Benedictine monk at San Paolo fuori le Muri in Rome. He was made Cardinal-Deacon on February 20, 1193, then Cardinal Priest of Santa Prisca in May 1193 and finally Cardinal Bishop of Sabina at the end of 1204. He is often referred to as a member of the powerful Roman Colonna family, but modern scholars have established that this is based on the falsehood from the beginning of 16th century. More likely he was nephew of Celestine III and member of the Bobone family. He studied medicine at Amalfi.

See also

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References

  1. The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol.1, Ed. David Luscombe, Jonathan Riley-Smith, (Cambridge University Press, 2004), 417.
  2. http://www2.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1144.htm#Bobone
  3. The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol.1, 417
  4. The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol.1, 417–418.
  5. Sikes, Thomas Burr, History of the Christian Church, from the first to the fifteenth century, (Eliott Stock, 1885), 187.
  6. Clarke, Peter D., The interdict in the thirteenth century: a question of collective guilt, (Oxford University Press, 2007), 118.
  7. Lower 2014, p. 605.
  8. Moore, John Clare, Pope Innocent III (1160/61–1216): to root up and to plant, (Brill Publishers, 2003), 70–71.
  9. Urban, William, The Teutonic Knights, (Greenhill Books, 2003), 12–13.
  10. William Stubbs (editor), Chronica Magistri Rogeri de Houedene Vol. IV (London 1871), pp. 32-33.
  11. Karl Holder, Die Designation deer Nachfolder durch die Päpste (Freiburg Switzerland: B. Veith 1892), pp. 69-70.

Sources

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Clement III
Pope
1191–98
Succeeded by
Innocent III

initial text from the 9th edition (1876) of an old encyclopedia