Pope Clement III

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Pope

Clement III
A08 CLEMENTE III.jpg
Papacy began19 December 1187
Papacy ended20 March 1191
Predecessor Gregory VIII
Successor Celestine III
Orders
Created cardinalMarch 1179
by Alexander III
Personal details
Birth namePaulino or Paolo Scolari
Born1130
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Died20 March 1191 [1]
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Other popes named Clement

Pope Clement III (Latin : Clemens III; 1130 – 20 March 1191), born Paulino (or Paolo) Scolari, [2] reigned from 19 December 1187 to his death.

Contents

Cardinal

A Roman by birth, Pope Alexander III appointed him in succession Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian Basilica, Cardinal-deacon of Sergio e Bacco, and finally Cardinal bishop of Palestrina in December 1180. He appears as signatory of the papal bulls issued between 15 October 1179 and 11 December 1187.[ citation needed ]

Pope Alexander III 12th-century Pope

Pope Alexander III, born Roland of Siena, was Pope from 7 September 1159 to his death in 1181.

Papal bull type of letters patent or charter issued by a Pope of the Catholic Church

A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church. It is named after the leaden seal (bulla) that was traditionally appended to the end in order to authenticate it.

Pope

Shortly after his accession at the conclusion of the papal election of December 1187, Clement succeeded in allaying the conflict which had existed for half a century between the popes and the citizens of Rome, with an agreement by which the citizens were allowed to elect their magistrates, while the nomination of the governor of the city remained in the hands of the pope. On 31 May 1188 he concluded a treaty with the Romans which removed long standing difficulties, thus returning the papacy to Rome. [3] [4]

Magistrate Officer of the state, usually judge

The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law. In ancient Rome, a magistratus was one of the highest ranking government officers, and possessed both judicial and executive powers. In other parts of the world, such as China, a magistrate was responsible for administration over a particular geographic area. Today, in some jurisdictions, a magistrate is a judicial officer who hears cases in a lower court, and typically deals with more minor or preliminary matters. In other jurisdictions, magistrates may be volunteers without formal legal training who perform a judicial role with regard to minor matters.

Clement also inherited a depleted college of cardinals, consisting of no more than twenty cardinals. He orchestrated three series of promotions (March 1188, May 1189 and October 1190) that resulted in over thirty new cardinals. [5]

He pushed King Henry II of England and King Philip II of France to undertake the Third Crusade. [6] In April 1189, Clement made peace with the Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa.

Henry II of England 12th-century King of England, Duke of Aquitaine, and ruler of other European lands

Henry II, also known as Henry Curtmantle, Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as King of England, Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, Count of Anjou, Maine, and Nantes, and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also partially controlled Scotland, Wales and the Duchy of Brittany. Before he was 40 he controlled England, large parts of Wales, the eastern half of Ireland and the western half of France—an area that would later come to be called the Angevin Empire.

Philip II of France King of France from 1180 to 1223

Philip II, known as Philip Augustus, was King of France from 1180 to 1223, the seventh from the House of Capet. His predecessors had been known as kings of the Franks, but from 1190 onward, Philip became the first French monarch to style himself "King of France". The son of King Louis VII and his third wife, Adela of Champagne, he was originally nicknamed Dieudonné (God-given) because he was a first son and born late in his father's life. Philip was given the epithet "Augustus" by the chronicler Rigord for having extended the crown lands of France so remarkably.

Third Crusade attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin

The Third Crusade (1189–1192) was an attempt by the leaders of the three most powerful states of Western Christianity to reconquer the Holy Land following the capture of Jerusalem by the Ayyubid sultan, Saladin, in 1187. It was partially successful, recapturing the important cities of Acre and Jaffa, and reversing most of Saladin's conquests, but it failed to recapture Jerusalem, which was the major aim of the Crusade and its religious focus.

He settled a controversy with King William I of Scotland concerning the choice of the archbishop of St Andrews, and on 13 March 1188 removed the Scottish church from the legatine jurisdiction of the Archbishop of York, thus making it independent of all save Rome. [3] [7]

Archbishop bishop of higher rank in many Christian denominations

In Christianity, an archbishop is a bishop of higher rank or office. In some cases, such as the Lutheran Church of Sweden and the Church of England, the title is borne by the leader of the denomination. Like popes, patriarchs, metropolitans, cardinal bishops, diocesan bishops, and suffragan bishops, archbishops are in the highest of the three traditional orders of bishops, priests, and deacons. An archbishop may be granted the title or ordained as chief pastor of a metropolitan see or another episcopal see to which the title of archbishop is attached.

St Andrews Town in Fife, Scotland

St Andrews is a town on the east coast of Fife in Scotland, 10 miles (16 km) southeast of Dundee and 30 miles (50 km) northeast of Edinburgh. St Andrews has a recorded population of 16,800 in 2011, making it Fife's fourth largest settlement and 45th most populous settlement in Scotland.

Church of Scotland national church of Scotland

The Church of Scotland, also known by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. It is Presbyterian and adheres to the Bible and Westminster Confession; the Church of Scotland celebrates two sacraments, Baptism and the Lord's Supper, as well as five other rites, such as confirmation and matrimony. It is a member of the World Communion of Reformed Churches.

In spite of agreeing to crown Henry VI as Holy Roman Emperor, Clement III angered him by bestowing Sicily on Tancred, son of Roger III, Duke of Apulia. [8] The crisis was acute when the Pope died in the latter part of March 1191. [3]

See also

Notes

  1. About the date of his death see Katrin Baaken: Zu Wahl, Weihe und Krönung Papst Cölestins III. Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters Volume 41 / 1985, pp. 203-211
  2. Cheetham, Nicolas, Keepers of the Keys, (Charles Scribner's Sons, 1982), 325.
  3. 1 2 3 Rockwell 1911.
  4. Luscombe, David; Riley-Smith, Jonathan, eds. (2004). The New Cambridge Medieval History. 1. Cambridge University Press. p. 402.
  5. Robinson, Ian Stuart, The papacy 1073–1198: continuity and innovation, (Cambridge University Press, 1990), 55.
  6. Reston, James, Warriors of God: Richard the Lionheart and Saladin in the Third Crusade, (Random House Inc., 2001), 106.
  7. Blair, D. Oswald Hunter, History of the Catholic Church of Scotland, (Willian Blackwood and Sons, 1887), 329.
  8. Benson, Robert Louis and Robert Charles Figueira, Plenitude of power: the doctrines and exercise of authority in the Middle Ages, (Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2006), 40.

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References

Attribution:

Further reading

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Gregory VIII
Pope
1187–91
Succeeded by
Celestine III