Pope Damasus II

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Pope

Damasus II
B Damasus II1.jpg
Papacy began17 July 1048
Papacy ended9 August 1048
Predecessor Benedict IX
Successor Leo IX
Personal details
Birth namePoppo de' Curagnoni
BornPildenau, Duchy of Bavaria, Holy Roman Empire
Died(1048-08-09)9 August 1048
Palestrina, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Other popes named Damasus
Papal styles of
Pope Damasus II
Emblem of the Papacy SE.svg
Reference style His Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous stylenone

Pope Damasus II ( /ˈdæməsəs/ ; died 9 August 1048, born Poppo de' Curagnoni [1] ) was Pope from July 17 1048 to his death on 9 August that same year. He was the second of the German pontiffs nominated by Emperor Henry III. A native of Bavaria, he was the third German to become Pope and had one of the shortest papal reigns. [2]

Pope Leader of the Catholic Church

The pope, also known as the supreme pontiff, is the bishop of Rome and leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. Since 1929, the pope has also been head of state of Vatican City, a city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI.

Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor

Henry III, called the Black or the Pious, was Holy Roman Emperor from 1046 until his death in 1056. A member of the Salian Dynasty, he was the eldest son of Emperor Conrad II of Germany and Gisela of Swabia.

Bavaria State in Germany

Bavaria, officially the Free State of Bavaria, is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner. With an area of 70,550.19 square kilometres, Bavaria is the largest German state by land area comprising roughly a fifth of the total land area of Germany. With 13 million inhabitants, it is Germany's second-most-populous state after North Rhine-Westphalia. Bavaria's main cities are Munich, Nuremberg and Augsburg.

Contents

Upon the death of Clement II, envoys from Rome were sent to the Emperor to ascertain who should be named pope. Henry named the Bishop of Brixen, Poppo de' Curagnoni. While the envoys were away, former pope Benedict IX reasserted himself and with the assistance of the disaffected Margrave of Tuscany once again assumed the papacy. Henry ordered Margrave Boniface to escort Bishop Poppo to Rome, but Boniface declined, pointing out that the Romans had already enthroned Benedict. Enraged, the Emperor ordered the Margrave to depose Benedict or suffer the consequences. Poppo became Pope in mid-July but died of malaria less than a month later, in Palestrina, where he had gone to avoid the heat of the city.

Early life

Poppo was a younger son belonging to a Bavarian noble family. He became the Bishop of Brixen in Tyrol in 1040. Poppo was also a key advisor to King Henry III of Germany and travelled with him to Italy for his coronation as Holy Roman Emperor in 1046. [3]

Imperial nomination

Given the display of imperial power Henry III had inflicted on the Romans in intervening against Pope Gregory VI and installing Clement II, it is not surprising that on Christmas Day of 1047, an emissary was sent by the Roman people bringing news of Clement II's death to Henry III and asking him, in his position as Patricius of the Romans, to appoint a successor. Henry had been engaged in an indecisive campaign in Frisia, and was in his palace at Pöhlde in Saxony when the embassy found him. The envoys, according to their instructions, suggested as a suitable candidate the handsome Halinard, Archbishop of Lyon, who was a fluent speaker of Italian, and was well respected in Rome. [4] >

Pope Gregory VI Pope from 1045 to 1046

Pope Gregory VI, born John Gratian in Rome, was Pope from 1 May 1045 until his abdication at the Council of Sutri on 20 December 1046.

Patrician (post-Roman Europe) post-Roman European social class; a formally defined class of governing upper classes found in metropolitan areas (Venice, Florence, Genoa, Amalfi) and Free cities of Germany (Nuremberg, Ravensburg, Augsburg, Konstanz, Lindau, Bern, Basel, Zurich)

Patricianship, the quality of belonging to a patriciate, began in the ancient world, where cities such as Ancient Rome had a class of patrician families whose members were initially the only people allowed to exercise many political functions. In the rise of European towns in the 12th and 13th century, the patriciate, a limited group of families with a special constitutional position, in Henri Pirenne's view, was the motive force. In 19th century central Europe, the term had become synonymous with the upper Bourgeoisie and can't be compared with the medieval patriciate in Central Europe. In the German-speaking parts of Europe as well as in the maritime republics of Italy, the patricians were as a matter of fact the ruling body of the medieval town and particularly in Italy part of the nobility.

Frisia coastal region on the North Sea in the Netherlands and Germany formerly a historic region with its own language

Frisia is a coastal region along the southeastern corner of the North Sea in what today is mostly a large part of the Netherlands, including modern Friesland and smaller parts of northern Germany. Frisia is the traditional homeland of the Frisians, Germanic people who speak Frisian languages, which together with Anglic languages form the Anglo-Frisian language group.

Henry was unwilling to rush matters, and so asked Wazo of Liège, the most independent bishop within the empire, who ought to be made pope. After careful consideration, Wazo declared that the most appropriate candidate for the vacant papal throne was the man the Emperor had removed – Gregory VI. Wazo's deliberations had taken time, and Henry soon lost patience. Henry instead appointed Poppo, Bishop of Brixen in Tyrol, a proud man of distinguished learning [5] who had taken part in the Synod of Sutri. This decision antagonized the Romans, who were still pushing for Halinard to become the new Pope. Nevertheless, Henry sent the Roman envoys back to Rome with presents to prepare for the arrival of their new Pope.

Liège Municipality in French Community, Belgium

Liège is a major Walloon city and municipality and the capital of the Belgian province of Liège.

German Tyrol is a historical region in the Alps now divided between Austria and Italy. It includes largely ethnic German areas of historical County of Tyrol: the Austrian state of Tyrol and the province of South Tyrol but not the largely Italian-speaking province of Trentino.

Arrival in Italy

During the envoys’ absence, imperial authority in Rome became virtually extinguished as the Tusculan faction reasserted its power. A former pope, Benedict IX, residing at Tusculum, had been watching the situation in Rome intently, and had decided that now was his opportunity to reclaim what was his. He approached the Margrave Boniface III of Tuscany for help, and Boniface, who did not like the emperor, was easily convinced to help anyone who would disrupt Henry's authority. After Benedict had used his extensive supply of gold to gain a large number of followers, the Margrave's influence enabled him to occupy the papal throne for over eight months, from 8 November 1047 until 17 July 1048. [4]

Tusculum ancient Latin and Roman city and archeological site in the Alban Hills of Latium, Italy

Tusculum is a ruined Roman city in the Alban Hills, in the Latium region of Italy.

In the meantime, Henry was marching down towards Italy with Poppo, accompanying him at least as far as Ulm. [5] Here it came to light that the papal exchequer was close to bankrupt, and so Poppo was allowed to retain the revenues of his see. In addition, a deed was drawn up on 25 January 1048 that granted Poppo an important forest in the valley of Puster. Having done this, and unable to leave Germany in case there might be an uprising during his absence, Henry III directed Margrave Boniface to conduct the Pope-designate to Rome in person, and in the emperor's name to arrange for the enthroning of the new Pope.

Given his role in the usurpation by Benedict IX, and his attitude towards Henry III, it is unsurprising that Boniface at first refused, advising Poppo when he entered Tuscany, "I cannot go to Rome with you. The Romans have again installed Benedict, and he has won over the whole city to his cause. Besides, I am now an old man." [6] Having nowhere to turn, and unable to proceed, Poppo had no choice but to turn around and return to Germany, where he informed Henry of what had transpired.

Papal coronation

Upon receiving the news, Henry was furious. Poppo was quickly sent back to Boniface, carrying with him a letter from the Emperor which ordered him to arrange the expulsion of Benedict and the enthroning of his successor. Henry was simple and direct. "Learn, you who have restored a Pope who was canonically deposed, and who have been led by love of money to despise my commands, learn that, if you do not amend your ways, I will soon come and make you." [7] These threats soon reduced Boniface to obedience. He sent a body of troops into Rome and forcibly expelled Benedict from the city.

After Benedict IX's removal, the Bishop of Brixen (Poppo) entered the city in triumph, as the Romans, with every demonstration of joy, welcomed the bishop who would be Pope. He was enthroned at the Lateran as Pope Damasus II on 17 July 1048. His pontificate, however, was of short duration. Overcome, in all likelihood, by the heat of Rome, he retired to Palestrina, but it was too late. After a brief reign of twenty-three days, he died on 9 August and was buried in San Lorenzo fuori le Mura. According to Panvinio, Damasus’ sarcophagus was large and "adorned with reliefs representing a vineyard, with cupids as the wine gatherers." [8]

The shortness of Damasus II's reign led to rumors that he had been poisoned by a man named Gerhard Brazutus, a friend of Benedict IX and a follower of Hildebrand. However, the source for this information is extremely suspect, [9] and a more likely scenario is that he died of malaria. [10]

See also

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Poppo can mean:

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References

  1. Coulombe, Charles A., Vicars of Christ: A History of the Popes, (Citadel Press, 2003), 204.
  2. Wikisource-logo.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Damasus". Encyclopædia Britannica . 7 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 786.
  3. Matthews, Rupert (2013). The Popes: Every Question Answered. New York: Metro Books. p. 131. ISBN   978-1-4351-4571-9.
  4. 1 2 Oestereich, Thomas. "Pope Damasus II." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. 26 September 2017
  5. 1 2 Mann, p. 288
  6. Mann, pg 289
  7. Mann, pp. 289–290
  8. Mann, p. 290
  9. Mann, p. 291
  10. The Reform of the Church, J.P. Whitney, The Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. V, ed. J.R. Tanner, C.W. Previte-Orton, Z.N. Brooke, (Cambridge University Press, 1968), 23.
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Benedict IX
Pope
1048
Succeeded by
Leo IX