Pope Eugene III

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Pope Blessed

Eugene III
Pope Eugene III.jpg
Papacy began15 February 1145
Papacy ended8 July 1153
Predecessor Lucius II
Successor Anastasius IV
Orders
Ordination1135
by  Pope Innocent II
Consecration18 December 1145
Personal details
Birth nameBernardo
Born1080 [1]
Pisa, Republic of Pisa, Holy Roman Empire
Died(1153-07-08)8 July 1153
Tivoli, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Previous postAbbot of San Anastasio alle Tre Fontane (1140–45)
Sainthood
Feast day8 July
Venerated in Catholic Church
Title as SaintBlessed
Beatified28 December 1872
Rome, Papal States
by  Pope Pius IX
Attributes
Patronage
Other popes named Eugene
Papal styles of
Pope Eugene II
Emblem of the Papacy SE.svg
Reference style His Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous style Blessed

Pope Eugene III (Latin : Eugenius III; c. 1080 – 8 July 1153), born Bernardo Pignatelli, [2] called Bernardo da Pisa, was Pope from 15 February 1145 to his death in 1153. He was the first Cistercian to become Pope. In response to the fall of Edessa to the Muslims in 1144, Eugene proclaimed the Second Crusade. The crusade failed to recapture Edessa, which was the first of many failures by the Christians in the crusades to recapture lands won in the First Crusade.

Pope Leader of the Catholic Church

The pope, also known as the supreme pontiff, is the bishop of Rome and leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. Since 1929, the pope has also been head of state of Vatican City, a city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI.

The siege of Edessa took place from November 28 to December 24, 1144, resulting in the fall of the capital of the crusader County of Edessa to Zengi, the atabeg of Mosul and Aleppo. This event was the catalyst for the Second Crusade.

Second Crusade 12th-century crusade, the second major crusade

The Second Crusade (1147–1149) was the second major crusade launched from Europe. The Second Crusade was started in response to the fall of the County of Edessa in 1144 to the forces of Zengi. The county had been founded during the First Crusade (1096–1099) by King Baldwin of Boulogne in 1098. While it was the first Crusader state to be founded, it was also the first to fall.

Contents

He was beatified on 28 December 1872 by Pope Pius IX on the account of his sanctity.

Beatification recognition accorded by the Catholic Church of a dead person

Beatification is a recognition accorded by the Catholic Church of a dead person's entrance into Heaven and capacity to intercede on behalf of individuals who pray in his or her name. Beati is the plural form, referring to those who have undergone the process of beatification.

Pope Pius IX 255th Pope of the Catholic Church

Pope Pius IX, born Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti, was head of the Catholic Church from 16 June 1846 to his death on 7 February 1878. He was the longest-reigning elected pope in the history of the Catholic Church, serving for over 31 years. During his pontificate, Pius IX convened the First Vatican Council (1869–70), which decreed papal infallibility, but the council was cut short owing to the loss of the Papal States.

Biography

Early life

Bernardo was born in the vicinity of Pisa. Little is known about his origins and family except that he was son of a certain Godius. [3] From the 16th century he is commonly identified as member of the family of Paganelli di Montemagno, which belonged to the Pisan aristocracy, but this has not been proven and contradicts earlier testimonies that suggest he was a man of rather humble origins. [4] In 1106 he was a canon of the cathedral chapter in Pisa and from 1115 is attested as subdeacon. [5] 1133–1138 he acted as vicedominus of the archdiocese of Pisa. [6]

Pisa Comune in Tuscany, Italy

Pisa is a city and comune in Tuscany, central Italy, straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea. It is the capital city of the Province of Pisa. Although Pisa is known worldwide for its leaning tower, the city of over 91,104 residents contains more than 20 other historic churches, several medieval palaces, and various bridges across the Arno. Much of the city's architecture was financed from its history as one of the Italian maritime republics.

Between May 1134 and February 1137 he was ordained to the priesthood by Pope Innocent II, who resided at that time in Pisa. [7] Under the influence of Bernard of Clairvaux he entered the Cistercian Order in the monastery of Clairvaux in 1138. A year later he returned to Italy as leader of the Cistercian community in Scandriglia. In Autumn 1140, Pope Innocent II named him abbot of the monastery of S. Anastasio alle Tre Fontane outside Rome. [8] Some chronicles indicate that he was also elevated to the College of Cardinals, [9] but these testimonies probably resulted from a confusion because Bernardo is not attested as cardinal in any document and from the letter of Bernard of Clairvaux addressed to the cardinals shortly after his election clearly appears that he was not a cardinal. [10]

Pope Innocent II 12th-century Catholic pope

Pope Innocent II, born Gregorio Papareschi, was Pope from 14 February 1130 to his death in 1143. His election was controversial and the first eight years of his reign were marked by a struggle for recognition against the supporters of Antipope Anacletus II. He reached an understanding with Lothair II, Holy Roman Emperor who supported him against Anacletus and whom he crowned King of the Romans. Innocent went on to preside over the Second Lateran council.

Bernard of Clairvaux French abbot, theologian

Bernard of Clairvaux, O.Cist was a French abbot and a major leader in the reform of Benedictine monasticism that caused the formation of the Cistercian order.

Clairvaux Abbey abbey located in Aube, in France

Clairvaux Abbey was a Cistercian monastery in Ville-sous-la-Ferté, 15 km from Bar-sur-Aube, in the Aube department in northeastern France. The original building, founded in 1115 by St. Bernard, is now in ruins; the present structure dates from 1708. Clairvaux Abbey was a good example of the general layout of a Cistercian monastery. The Abbey has been listed since 1926 as a historical monument by the French Ministry of Culture.

Papal election

Bernardo was elected pope on 15 February 1145, the same day as the death of his predecessor Lucius II who had unwisely decided to take the offensive against the Roman Senate and was killed by a "heavy stone" thrown at him during an attack on the Capitol. [11] He took the pontifical name of "Eugene III". He was "a simple character, gentle and retiring - not at all, men thought, the material of which Popes are made". [11] He owed his elevation partly to the fact that no one was eager to accept an office the duties of which were at the time so difficult and dangerous and because the election was "held on safe Frangipani territory". [11]

Pope Lucius II pope

Pope Lucius II, born Gherardo Caccianemici dal Orso, was Pope from 9 March 1144 to his death in 1145. His pontificate was notable for the unrest in Rome associated with the Commune of Rome and its attempts to wrest control of the city from the papacy.

His election was assisted by being a friend and pupil of Bernard of Clairvaux, the most influential ecclesiastic of the Western Church and a strong assertor of the pope's temporal authority. The choice did not have the approval of Bernard, however, who remonstrated against the election, writing to the entire Curia:

"May God forgive you what you have done! ... What reason or counsel, when the Supreme Pontiff was dead, made you rush upon a mere rustic, lay hands on him in his refuge, wrest from his hands the axe, pick or hoe, and lift him to a throne?" [11]

Bernard was equally forthright in his views directly to Eugene, writing:

"Thus does the finger of God raise up the poor out of the dust and lift up the beggar from the dunghill that he may sit with princes and inherit the throne of glory." [11]

Despite these criticisms, Eugene seems to have borne no resentment to Bernard [11] and notwithstanding these criticisms, after the choice was made, Bernard took advantage of the qualities in Eugene III which he objected to, so as virtually to rule in his name.

Pontificate

The episcopal consecration of Pope Eugene III Consecration par EUgene III.jpg
The episcopal consecration of Pope Eugene III

During nearly the whole of his pontificate, Eugene III was unable to reside in Rome. Hardly had he left the city to be consecrated in the monastery of Farfa (about 40 km north of Rome), when the citizens, under the influence of Arnold of Brescia, the great opponent of the Pope's temporal power, established the old Roman constitution, the Commune of Rome and elected Giordano Pierleoni to be Patrician . Eugene III appealed for help to Tivoli, Italy, to other cities at feud with Rome, and to King Roger II of Sicily (who sent his general Robert of Selby), and with their aid was successful in making such conditions with the Roman citizens as enabled him for a time to hold the semblance of authority in his capital. But as he would not agree to a treacherous compact against Tivoli, he was compelled to leave the city in March 1146. He stayed for some time at Viterbo, and then at Siena, but went ultimately to France.

On hearing of the fall of Edessa (now the modern day city of Urfa, the first of the Crusader states established in the Levant) to the Turks, which occurred in 1144, he had, in December 1145, addressed the bull Quantum praedecessores to Louis VII of France, calling on him to take part in another crusade. At a great diet held at Speyer in 1146, King of the Romans Conrad III and many of his nobles were also incited to dedicate themselves to the crusade by the eloquence of Bernard who preached to an enormous crowd at Vézelay. [11]

In the end, the Second Crusade was "an ignominious fiasco" [11] and, after travelling for a year, the army abandoned their campaign after just five days of siege "having regained not one inch of Muslim territory." [11] The crusaders suffered immense losses in both men and materiel and suffered, in the view of one modern historian, "the ultimate humiliation which neither they, nor their enemies, would forget". [11]

Eugene III held synods in northern Europe at Paris, [12] Rheims (March 1148), [13] [14] and Trier in 1147 [15] that were devoted to the reform of clerical life. He also considered and approved the works of Hildegard of Bingen.

In June 1148, Eugene III returned to Italy and took up his residence at Viterbo. He was unable to return to Rome due to the popularity of Arnold of Brescia, who opposed Papal temporal authority, in the city. He established himself at Prince Ptolemy's fortress in Tusculum, the closest town to Rome at which he could safely install himself, on 8 April 1149.

There he met the returning Crusader king Louis VII of France and his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine who were by then barely on speaking terms given the strains of the failed Crusade and the suggestion that Eleanor may have entered into a relationship with her uncle Raymond during the Crusade. Eugene, "a gentle, kind-hearted man who hated to see people unhappy" [11] attempted to assuage the pain of the failed Crusade and their failing marriage by insisting that they slept in the same bed and "by daily converse to restore the love between them". [11] His efforts were unsuccessful, and two years later Eugene agreed to annul the marriage on the grounds of consanguinity. [11] Eleanor went on to remarry and become the wife of one King of England, and the mother of two.

Eugene stayed at Tusculum until 7 November. At the end of November 1149, through the aid of the King of Sicily, he was again able to enter Rome, but the atmosphere of open hostility from the Comune soon compelled him to retire (June 1150).

The death of Pope Eugene III Mort Eugene III.jpg
The death of Pope Eugene III

The Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa had promised to aid him against his revolted subjects, but this was not to be: Eugene III died at Tivoli on 8 July 1153. Though the citizens of Rome were jealous of the efforts of Eugene III to assert his temporal authority, they were always ready to recognize him as their spiritual lord. Besides that, they deeply reverenced his personal character. Until the day of his death he continued to wear, under his robes, the coarse habit of a Cistercian monk. [11] Accordingly, he was buried in the Vatican with every mark of respect, and his tomb soon acquired an extraordinary fame for miraculous cures.

Beatification

The people of Rome were quick to recognize Eugene III as a pious figure who was meek and spiritual. His tomb acquired considerable fame owing to the miracle purported to have occurred there and his cause for sainthood commenced. Pope Pius IX beatified him in 1872.

See also

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References

Citations

  1. Horn, p. 35.
  2. Pope Blessed Eugene III, New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia
  3. Horn, p. 31.
  4. J. M. Brixius, Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130–1181, Berlin 1912, p. 86; Eugenio III. Horn, p. 33–34, has rejected the attribution of this familiar denomination to Eugene III as completely unfounded.
  5. Horn, p. 34–35.
  6. Horn, p. 34.
  7. Horn, p. 35–36.
  8. Horn, p. 36–40.
  9. On that ground Brixius, p. 41 no. 7, lists him among the cardinals created by Innocent II.
  10. Horn, p. 42–45.
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 NORWICH, JOHN JU (2012). The Popes: A History. London: Vintage. ISBN   9780099565871.
  12. J.-D. Mansi (ed.), Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, editio novissima Tomus XXI (Venice: A. Zatta, 1776), pp. 707-712. Carl Joseph Hefele, Histoire des conciles d'après les documents originaux Tome V, première partie (Paris: Letouzey 1912), pp. 812-817.
  13. Mansi, pp. 711-736.
  14. P. Jaffe, Regesta pontificum Romanorum, II (Leipzig: Veit 1888), pp. 52-53.
  15. Mansi, pp. 737-738. Hefele, pp. 821-822.

Sources

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Lucius II
Pope
1145–53
Succeeded by
Anastasius IV