Pope Evaristus

Last updated
Pope Saint

Evaristus
Bishop of Rome
EEvaristus (smaller).jpg
Diocese Rome
See Rome
Papacy beganc. 99
Papacy endedc. 107
Predecessor Clement I
Successor Alexander I
Personal details
Birth nameEvaristus or Aristus
Born17 April 44
Bethlehem, Judea
Diedc. 107
Rome, Roman Empire
Sainthood
Feast day26 October

Pope Evaristus (died c. 107 AD) was Bishop of Rome of the Catholic Church, succeeding Clement I and holding office from c. 99 to his death c. 107. [1] [2] He was also known as Aristus. He is venerated as a saint in the Eastern Orthodox Church, [3] the Catholic Church, and Oriental Orthodoxy. He is usually accorded the title of martyr; however, there is no confirmation of this. It is likely that He was the Bishop of Rome when John the Apostle died, marking the end of the apostolic Age.

Catholic Church Largest Christian church, led by the Bishop of Rome

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide as of 2017. As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation. The church is headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope. Its central administration is the Holy See.

Pope Clement I 4th Pope of the Catholic Church

Pope Clement I, also known as Saint Clement of Rome, is listed by Irenaeus and Tertullian as Bishop of Rome, holding office from 88 to his death in 99. He is considered to be the first Apostolic Father of the Church, one of the three chief ones together with Polycarp and Ignatius of Antioch.

Eastern Orthodox Church Christian Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, officially the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with approximately 260 million baptised members. It operates as a communion of autocephalous churches, each governed by its bishops in local synods. Roughly half of Eastern Orthodox Christians live in Russia. The church has no central doctrinal or governmental authority analogous to the Bishop of Rome, but the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is recognised by all as primus inter pares of the bishops. As one of the oldest surviving religious institutions in the world, the Eastern Orthodox Church has played a prominent role in the history and culture of Eastern and Southeastern Europe, the Caucasus, and the Near East.

Contents

Biography

Little is known about St. Evaristus. According to the Liber Pontificalis , he came from a family of Greek Jews living in Bethlehem. [4] He was elected during the reign of the Roman emperor Trajan, and succeeded Clement I in the See of Rome.

<i>Liber Pontificalis</i> Book of biographies of popes

The Liber Pontificalis is a book of biographies of popes from Saint Peter until the 15th century. The original publication of the Liber Pontificalis stopped with Pope Adrian II (867–872) or Pope Stephen V (885–891), but it was later supplemented in a different style until Pope Eugene IV (1431–1447) and then Pope Pius II (1458–1464). Although quoted virtually uncritically from the 8th to 18th centuries, the Liber Pontificalis has undergone intense modern scholarly scrutiny. The work of the French priest Louis Duchesne, and of others has highlighted some of the underlying redactional motivations of different sections, though such interests are so disparate and varied as to render improbable one popularizer's claim that it is an "unofficial instrument of pontifical propaganda."

Hellenistic Judaism was a form of Judaism in classical antiquity that combined Jewish religious tradition with elements of Greek culture. Until the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the early Muslim conquests of the eastern Mediterranean, the main centers of Hellenistic Judaism were Alexandria, Egypt and Antioch, the two main Greek urban settlements of the Middle East and North Africa area, both founded at the end of the fourth century BCE in the wake of the conquests of Alexander the Great. Hellenistic Judaism also existed in Jerusalem during the Second Temple Period, where there was conflict between Hellenizers and traditionalists.

Bethlehem Municipality type A in Palestine

Bethlehem is a city located in the central West Bank, Palestine, about 10 km south of Jerusalem. Its population is approximately 25,000 people. It is the capital of the Bethlehem Governorate. The economy is primarily tourist-driven, peaking during the Christmas season, when Christians make pilgrimage to the Church of the Nativity. Rachel's Tomb, an important Jewish holy site, is located at the northern entrance of Bethlehem.

Eusebius, in his Church History IV, I, stated that Evaristus died in the 12th year of the reign of Emperor Trajan after holding the office of bishop of the Romans for eight years. He is said by the Liber Pontificalis to have divided Rome into several titles, assigning a priest to each, and appointed seven deacons for the city.

Eusebius Greek church historian

Eusebius of Caesarea, also known as Eusebius Pamphili, was a historian of Christianity, exegete, and Christian polemicist. He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima about 314 AD. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as an extremely learned Christian of his time. He wrote Demonstrations of the Gospel, Preparations for the Gospel, and On Discrepancies between the Gospels, studies of the Biblical text. As "Father of Church History", he produced the Ecclesiastical History, On the Life of Pamphilus, the Chronicle and On the Martyrs. He also produced a biographical work on the first Christian Emperor, Constantine the Great, who ruled between 306 and 337 AD.

<i>Church History</i> (Eusebius) work of Eusebius

The Church History of Eusebius, the bishop of Caesarea was a 4th-century pioneer work giving a chronological account of the development of Early Christianity from the 1st century to the 4th century. It was written in Koine Greek, and survives also in Latin, Syriac and Armenian manuscripts.

Trajan Augustus

Trajan was Roman emperor from 98 to 117. Officially declared by the Senate optimus princeps, Trajan is remembered as a successful soldier-emperor who presided over the greatest military expansion in Roman history, leading the empire to attain its maximum territorial extent by the time of his death. He is also known for his philanthropic rule, overseeing extensive public building programs and implementing social welfare policies, which earned him his enduring reputation as the second of the Five Good Emperors who presided over an era of peace and prosperity in the Mediterranean world.

He is usually accorded the title of martyr; however, there is no confirmation of this[ citation needed ], [5] [6] as Pope Evaristus is listed without that title in the Roman Martyrology, with a feast day on 27 October. [7] It is probable that Evaristus was buried near Saint Peter's tomb in the Vatican. [8] It is also probable that John the Apostle died during the beginning of Evaristus' reign.

The Roman Martyrology is the official martyrology of the Catholic Church. Its use is obligatory in matters regarding the Roman Rite liturgy, but dioceses, countries and religious institutes may add duly approved appendices to it. It provides an extensive but not exhaustive list of the saints recognized by the Church.

Saint Peters tomb Site under St. Peters Basilica to memorialize the location of St. Peters grave

Saint Peter's tomb is a site under St. Peter's Basilica that includes several graves and a structure said by Vatican authorities to have been built to memorialize the location of Saint Peter's grave. St. Peter's tomb is near the west end of a complex of mausoleums that date between about AD 130 and AD 300. The complex was partially torn down and filled with earth to provide a foundation for the building of the first St. Peter's Basilica during the reign of Constantine I in about AD 330. Though many bones have been found at the site of the 2nd-century shrine, as the result of two campaigns of archaeological excavation, Pope Pius XII stated in December 1950 that none could be confirmed to be Saint Peter's with absolute certainty. Following the discovery of bones that had been transferred from a second tomb under the monument, on June 26, 1968, Pope Paul VI claimed that the relics of Saint Peter had been identified in a manner considered convincing.

See also

Related Research Articles

Pope Linus 2nd pope of the Catholic Church

Pope Saint Linus was the second Bishop of Rome and Supreme Pontiff (Pope) of the Catholic Church.

Pope Alexander I 6th Pope of the Catholic Church

Pope Alexander I was the Bishop of Rome from c. 107 to his death c. 115. The Holy See's Annuario Pontificio (2012) identifies him as a Roman who reigned from 108 or 109 to 116 or 119. Some believe he suffered martyrdom under the Roman Emperor Trajan or Hadrian, but this is improbable.

Pope Pius I 10th pope

Pope Pius I was the Bishop of Rome from c. 140 to his death c. 154, according to the Annuario Pontificio. His dates are listed as 142 or 146 to 157 or 161, respectively.

Pope Sixtus II pope

Pope Sixtus II was the Pope or Bishop of Rome from 31 August 257 until his death on 6 August 258. He was martyred along with seven deacons, including Lawrence of Rome during the persecution of the Catholic Church by Emperor Valerian. According to the Liber Pontificalis, he was born in Greece and was a philosopher; however, this is uncertain, and is disputed by modern western historians arguing that the authors of Liber Pontificalis confused him with that of the contemporary author Xystus, who was a Greek student of Pythagoreanism. He restored the relations with the African and Eastern churches which had been broken off by his predecessor on the question of heretical baptism raised by the heresy Novatianism.

Pope Urban I pope

Pope Urban I was Bishop of Rome or Pope from 222 to 23 May 230. He was born in Rome and succeeded Pope Callixtus I, who had been martyred. It was previously believed for centuries that Urban I was also martyred. However, recent historical discoveries now lead scholars to believe that he died of natural causes.

Pope Zachary pope

Pope Zachary reigned from 3 December or 5 December 741 to his death in 752. A Greek from Santa Severina, Calabria, he was the last pope of the Byzantine Papacy. Most probably he was a deacon of the Roman Church and as such signed the decrees of the Roman council of 732, and succeeded Gregory III on 5 December 741.

Pope Victor I pope

Pope Victor I was Bishop of Rome and hence a pope, in the late second century. He was of Berber origin. The dates of his tenure are uncertain, but one source states he became pope in 189 and gives the year of his death as 199. He was the first bishop of Rome born in the Roman Province of Africa—probably in Leptis Magna. He was later considered a saint. His feast day was celebrated on 28 July as "St Victor I, Pope and Martyr".

Pope Felix I 3rd-century Pope

Pope Felix I was the Bishop of Rome or Pope from 5 January 269 to his death in 274.

The 100s decade ran from January 1, 100, to December 31, 109.

Pope Telesphorus pope

Pope Telesphorus was the 8th Bishop of Rome of the Catholic Church from c. 126 to his death c. 137, during the reigns of Roman Emperors Hadrian and Antoninus Pius. He was of Greek ancestry and born in Terranova da Sibari, Calabria, Italy. The Carmelites venerate Telesphorus as a patron saint of the order since some sources depict him as a hermit living on Mount Carmel. He is also a Martyr according to the ancient testimony of Irenaeus.

Pope Eleutherius Pope and Saint

Pope Eleutherius, also known as Eleutherus, was the Bishop of Rome of the Catholic Church from c. 174 to his death. According to the Liber Pontificalis, he was a Greek born in Nicopolis in Epirus, Greece. His contemporary Hegesippus wrote that he was a deacon of the Roman Church under Pope Anicetus, and remained so under Pope Soter, whom he succeeded around 174.

Pope Fabian pope

Pope Fabian was the Bishop of Rome from 10 January 236 to his death in 250, succeeding Anterus. He is famous for the miraculous nature of his election, in which a dove is said to have descended on his head to mark him as the Holy Spirit's unexpected choice to become the next pope. He was succeeded by Cornelius.

Pope Hyginus 9th Pope

Pope Hyginus was the Bishop of Rome of the Catholic Church from c. 138 to c. 142. Tradition holds that during his papacy he determined the various prerogatives of the clergy and defined the grades of the ecclesiastical hierarchy.

Pope Simplicius pope

Pope Simplicius was pope from 468 to his death in 483. He was born in Tivoli, Italy, the son of a citizen named Castinus. Most of what is known of him personally is derived from the Liber Pontificalis.

Hippolytus of Rome 3rd-century theologian in the Christian Church

Hippolytus was one of the most important second-third century Christian theologians, whose provenance, identity and corpus remain elusive to scholars and historians. Suggested communities include Palestine, Egypt, Anatolia, Rome and regions of the mideast. The best historians of literature in the ancient church, including Eusebius of Caesarea and Jerome, openly confess they cannot name where Hippolytus the biblical commentator and theologian served in leadership. They had read his works but did not possess evidence of his community. Photios I of Constantinople describes him in his Bibliotheca as a disciple of Irenaeus, who was said to be a disciple of Polycarp, and from the context of this passage it is supposed that he suggested that Hippolytus so styled himself. This assertion is doubtful. One older theory asserts he came into conflict with the popes of his time and seems to have headed a schismatic group as a rival to the Bishop of Rome, thus becoming an Antipope. In this view, he opposed the Roman Popes who softened the penitential system to accommodate the large number of new pagan converts. However, he was reconciled to the Church before he died as a martyr.

Pope Donus pope

Pope Donus was Bishop of Rome from 2 November 676 to his death in 678. He was the son of a Roman named Mauricius. Few details survive about the person or achievements of Donus, beyond what is recorded in the Liber Pontificalis.

Kedron (Kedronos) of Alexandria, fourth Pope of Alexandria & Patriarch of the See of St. Mark. When the priest and Bishops who served in the country learned that the Bishop Avilius, Patriarch of Alexandria had died, they grieved greatly and they gathered in Alexandria to consult with the Christian people there, and they cast the ballot to find out who deserved to sit on the Throne of Alexandria. They all agreed, with the confirmation of God, to elect a righteous man named Kedronos. It was said that he was among those who had been baptized by Saint Mark, and he was enthroned Patriarch in Babab (October), in 96 AD, during the reign of the Roman Emperor Trajan.

Saint Alexander may refer to one of several saints including:

Papal name the regnal name taken by the head of the Catholic Church

A papal name or pontificial name is the regnal name taken by a pope. Both the head of the Catholic Church, usually known as the Pope, and the Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria choose papal names. As of 2013, Pope Francis is the Catholic Pope, and Tawadros II or Theodoros II is the Coptic Pope. This article discusses and lists the names of Catholic Popes; another article has a list of Coptic Orthodox Popes of Alexandria.

References

  1. Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope St. Evaristus"  . Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  2. According to Annuario Pontificio , he died in 108.
  3. Orthodox England - The Holy Orthodox Popes of Rome
  4. Anastasius (bibliothecarius) (1602). Bibliothecarii Historia, de vitis romanorvm pontificvm a b.Petro apostolo vsqve ad Nicolavm I. nunquam hactenus typis excusa. Deinde Vita Hadriani II. et Stephani VI. auctore Gvilielmo Bibliothecario. Ex bibliotheca Marci Velseri ... Accessere variae lectiones, partim ex codie. mss. Biblioth. vaticanae, partim ex conciliorum tomis, Annalibus ecclesiast. Caes. Baronij ... exceptae. in typographeio I. Albini. p. 3. 1 Euaristus, natione Grecus, ex patre Iudaeo nomine Iuda, de ciuitate Bethleem, sedit ann. VIIII m. X d. II. Fuit autem temporibus Domitiani et Neruae Traiani, a consulatu Valentis et Veteris (96) usque ad Gallo et Bradua consulibus (108). Martyrio coronatur. 2 Hic titulos in urbe Roma diuidit presbiteris et VII diaconos ordinauit qui custodirent episcopum praedicantem, propter stilum ueritatis. 3 Hic fecit ordinationes III per mens. Decemb., presbiteros XVII, diaconos II; episcopos per diuersa loca XV. Qui etiam sepultus est iuxta corpus beati Petri, in Vaticanum, VI kal. Nouemb. Et cessauit episcopatus dies XVIIII.
  5. "Commemoration of Pope Saint Evaristus, Martyr - Proper of the Holy Mass". Archived from the original on October 15, 2019.
  6. Alexis-François Artaud de Montor. The lives and times of the popes : including the complete gallery of the portraits of the pontiffs reproduced from "Effigies pontificum romanorum Dominici Basae": being a series of volumes giving the history of the world during the Christian era. archive.org . p. 21. Archived from the original on October 15, 2019. Quote: "Ignatius died of the wounds that were inflicted by ferocious beasts; Evaristus died under the hands of executioners, more cruel than the wild beasts themselves."
  7. "Martyrologium Romanum" (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2001 ISBN   88-209-7210-7)
  8. Catholic Online. "St. Evaristus".
<i>Encyclopædia Britannica</i> Eleventh Edition 1910 Encyclopedia

The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition (1910–11), is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication. Some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopaedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, and many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic. Some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries.

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Clement I
Bishop of Rome
Pope

98–105
Succeeded by
Alexander I