Pope Gregory V

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Pope

Gregory V
Pope Gregory V.jpg
Papacy began3 May 996
Papacy ended18 February 999
Predecessor John XV
Successor Sylvester II
Personal details
Birth nameBruno of Carinthia
Bornc. 972
Stainach, Duchy of Carinthia, Holy Roman Empire
Died(999-02-18)18 February 999
Rome, Papal States
Other popes named Gregory

Pope Gregory V, born Bruno of Carinthia (Latin : Gregorius V; c. 972 – 18 February 999) was Pope from 3 May 996 to his death in 999.

Pope leader of the Catholic Church

The pope, also known as the supreme pontiff, is the Bishop of Rome and ex officio leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. Since 1929, the pope has also been head of state of Vatican City, a city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI.

Contents

Family

He was a son of the Salian Otto I, Duke of Carinthia, [1] who was a grandson of Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor. Gregory V succeeded Pope John XV when only twenty-four years of age. He was the chaplain of his cousin Emperor Otto III, who presented him as candidate.

Otto I, Duke of Carinthia Duke of Carinthia

Otto I, called Otto of Worms, a member of the Salian dynasty, was Duke of Carinthia from 978 to 985 and again from 1002 until his death.

Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor German king and first emperor of the Ottonian empire

Otto I, traditionally known as Otto the Great, was German king from 936 and Holy Roman Emperor from 962 until his death in 973. He was the oldest son of Henry I the Fowler and Matilda.

Pope John XV pope

Pope John XV was Pope from August 985 to his death in 996. He succeeded Pope John XIV (983–984). He was said to have been Pope after another Pope John who reigned four months after John XIV and was named "Papa Ioannes XIV Bis" or "Pope John XIVb". This supposed second John XIV never existed, rather he was confused with a certain cardinal deacon John, son of Robert, who was opposed to antipope Boniface VII and is now excluded from the papal lists.

Gregory V is often counted as the first German Pope (or the second if Boniface II, an Ostrogoth, is counted). [2]

Pope Boniface II pope

Pope Boniface II was the first Germanic pope. He reigned from 17 September 530 until his death in 532. He was born an Ostrogoth.

Ostrogoths

The Ostrogoths were the eastern branch of the older Goths. The Ostrogoths traced their origins to the Greutungi – a branch of the Goths who had migrated southward from the Baltic Sea and established a kingdom north of the Black Sea, during the 3rd and 4th centuries. They built an empire stretching from the Black Sea to the Baltic. The Ostrogoths were probably literate in the 3rd century, and their trade with the Romans was highly developed. Their Danubian kingdom reached its zenith under King Ermanaric, who is said to have committed suicide at an old age when the Huns attacked his people and subjugated them in about 370.

Policies

Pope Gregory V with Emperor Otto III, c. 1450 Otto III wird von Papst Gregor V. zum Kaiser gesalbt.jpg
Pope Gregory V with Emperor Otto III, c. 1450

Politically, Gregory V acted consistently as the Emperor's representative in Rome and granted many exceptional privileges to monasteries within the Holy Roman Empire. One of his first acts was to crown Otto III Emperor on 21 May 996. [3] Together, they held a synod a few days after the coronation in which Arnulf, Archbishop of Reims, was ordered to be restored to his See of Reims, and Gerbert of Aurillac, the future Pope Sylvester II, was condemned as an intruder. Robert II of France, who had been insisting on his right to appoint bishops, was ultimately forced to back down, and also to put aside his wife Bertha of Burgundy, by the rigorous enforcement of a sentence of excommunication on the kingdom. [4]

Holy Roman Empire Varying complex of lands that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe

The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also came to include the neighboring Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, and numerous other territories.

Pope Sylvester II pope

Pope Sylvester II or Silvester II was Pope from 2 April 999 to his death in 1003. Originally known as Gerbert of Aurillac, he was a prolific scholar and teacher. He endorsed and promoted study of Arab and Greco-Roman arithmetic, mathematics, and astronomy, reintroducing to Europe the abacus and armillary sphere, which had been lost to Latin Europe since the end of the Greco-Roman era. He is said to be the first to introduce in Europe the decimal numeral system using Hindu-Arabic numerals. He was the first French Pope.

Robert II of France King of France

Robert II, called the Pious or the Wise, was King of the Franks from 996 to 1031, the second from the House of Capet. He was born in Orléans to Hugh Capet and Adelaide of Aquitaine. Robert distinguished himself with an extraordinarily long reign for the time. His 35-year-long reign was marked by his attempts to expand the royal domain by any means, especially by his long struggle to gain the Duchy of Burgundy. His policies earned him many enemies, including three of his sons. He was also known for his difficult marriages: he married three times, annulling two of these and attempting to annul the third, prevented only by the Pope's refusal to accept a third annulment.

Until the conclusion of the council of Pavia in 997, Gregory V had a rival in the person of the antipope John XVI (997–998), whom Crescentius II and the nobles of Rome had chosen against the will of the youthful Emperor Otto III, Gregory's cousin. The revolt of Crescentius II was decisively suppressed by the Emperor, who marched upon Rome. John XVI fled, and Crescentius II shut himself up in the Castel Sant'Angelo. The Emperor's troops pursued the antipope, captured him, cut off his nose and ears, cut out his tongue, blinded him, and publicly degraded him before Otto III and Gregory V. [5] When the much respected St. Nilus of Rossano castigated both the Emperor and Pope for their cruelty, John XVI was sent to the monastery of Fulda in Germany, where he lived until c. 1001. [6] The Castel Sant'Angelo was besieged, and when it was taken in 998, Crescentius II was hanged upon its walls.

Pavia Comune in Lombardy, Italy

Pavia is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy in northern Italy, 35 kilometres south of Milan on the lower Ticino river near its confluence with the Po. It has a population of c. 73,000. The city was the capital of the Kingdom of the Lombards from 572 to 774.

Antipope John XVI 10th-century Italian priest and antipope

John XVI was an antipope from 997 to 998.

Castel SantAngelo castle and museum in Rome

The Mausoleum of Hadrian, usually known as Castel Sant'Angelo, is a towering cylindrical building in Parco Adriano, Rome, Italy. It was initially commissioned by the Roman Emperor Hadrian as a mausoleum for himself and his family. The building was later used by the popes as a fortress and castle, and is now a museum. The structure was once the tallest building in Rome.

Death

Gregory V died suddenly, not without suspicion of foul play, on 18 February 999. He is buried in St. Peter's Basilica near Pope Pelagius I. His successor was Gerbert, who took the name Sylvester II.

Crime unlawful act forbidden and punishable by criminal law

In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term "crime" does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition, though statutory definitions have been provided for certain purposes. The most popular view is that crime is a category created by law; in other words, something is a crime if declared as such by the relevant and applicable law. One proposed definition is that a crime or offence is an act harmful not only to some individual but also to a community, society or the state. Such acts are forbidden and punishable by law.

St. Peters Basilica Italian Renaissance church in Vatican City

The Papal Basilica of St. Peter in the Vatican, or simply St. Peter's Basilica, is an Italian Renaissance church in Vatican City, the papal enclave within the city of Rome.

Pope Pelagius I pope

Pope Pelagius I was Pope from 556 to his death in 561. He was the second pope of the Byzantine Papacy, and like his predecessor, a former apocrisiarius to Constantinople.

See also

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The Salian dynasty was a dynasty in the High Middle Ages. The dynasty provided four German Kings (1024–1125), all of whom went on to be crowned Holy Roman Emperor (1027–1125); as such, the term Salic dynasty is also used to refer to the Holy Roman Empire of the time as a separate term.

The 990s decade ran from January 1, 990, to December 31, 999.

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Pope John XVII pope

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Pope John XVIII pope of the Catholic Church

Pope John XVIII was Pope and ruler of the Papal states from January 1004 to his abdication in June 1009. He was born Giovanni Fassano at Rome, the son of a Roman priest, either named Leo according to Johann Peter Kirsch, or named Ursus according to Horace K Mann.

Gregory has been the name of sixteen Roman Catholic Popes and two Antipopes. The Latin name is Gregorius.

  1. Pope Gregory I "the Great" (590–604), after whom the Gregorian chant is named
  2. Pope Gregory II (715–731)
  3. Pope Gregory III (731–741)
  4. Pope Gregory IV (827–844)
  5. Pope Gregory V (996–999)
  6. Pope Gregory VI (1045–1046)
  7. Pope Gregory VII (1073–1085), after whom the Gregorian Reform is named
  8. Pope Gregory VIII (1187)
  9. Pope Gregory IX (1227–1241)
  10. Pope Gregory X (1271–1276)
  11. Pope Gregory XI (1370–1378)
  12. Pope Gregory XII (1406–1415)
  13. Pope Gregory XIII (1572–1585), after whom the Gregorian calendar is named
  14. Pope Gregory XIV (1590–1591)
  15. Pope Gregory XV (1621–1623)
  16. Pope Gregory XVI (1831–1846)
Heribert of Cologne Archbishop of Cologne

Saint Heribert was a German Roman Catholic prelate who served as the Archbishop of Cologne from 999 until his death. He also served as the Chancellor for the Emperor Otto III since 994. He also collaborated with Saint Heinrich II with whom relations were strained though were strengthened over time.

Nilus the Younger Italian saint

Saint Nilus the Younger,, , was a monk, abbot, and founder of Italo-Greek monasticism in southern Italy. He is venerated as a saint in the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches, and his feast day is celebrated on September 26 in both the Byzantine Calendar and the Roman Martyrology.

Conrad I, Duke of Carinthia duke of Carinthia from 1004

Conrad I, a member of the Salian dynasty, was Duke of Carinthia from 1004 until his death.

Crescentius the Elder Italian noble and aristocrat

Crescentius the Elder was a politician and aristocrat in Rome who played a part in the papal appointment.

Crescentius the Younger Italian noble

Crescentius the Younger, son of Crescentius the Elder, was a leader of the aristocracy of medieval Rome. During the minority of Holy Roman Emperor Otto III, he declared himself Consul of Rome and made himself de facto ruler of Rome. After being deposed, he led a rebellion, seized control of Rome, and appointed an antipope, but the rebellion failed and Crescentius was eventually executed.

Papal appointment

Papal appointment was a medieval method of selecting a pope. Popes have always been selected by a council of Church fathers, however, Papal selection before 1059 was often characterized by confirmation or "nomination" by secular European rulers or by their predecessors. The later procedures of the papal conclave are in large part designed to constrain the interference of secular rulers which characterized the first millennium of the Roman Catholic Church, and persisted in practices such as the creation of crown-cardinals and the jus exclusivae. Appointment might have taken several forms, with a variety of roles for the laity and civic leaders, Byzantine and Germanic emperors, and noble Roman families. The role of the election vis-a-vis the general population and the clergy was prone to vary considerably, with a nomination carrying weight that ranged from near total to a mere suggestion or ratification of a prior election.

References

  1. Brooke 2014, p. 438.
  2. Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the Popes: The Pontiffs from St. Peter to Benedict XVI, (HarperCollins Publishers, 2000), 138.
  3. Medieval Germany: An Encyclopedia, Ed. John M. Jeep, (Garland Publishing, Inc., 2001), 961.
  4. Eleanor Shipley Duckett, Death and Life in the Tenth Century, (University of Michigan Press, 1988), 130.
  5. The Papacy: An Encyclopedia, Ed. Philippe Levillain, (Routledge, 2002), 646.
  6. Agasso, Domenico. "San Nilo da Rossano", Santi e Beati, February 1, 2001

Sources

Pope Gregory V
Born: 972 Died: 999
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
John XV
Pope
996–999
Succeeded by
Sylvester II