Pope Gregory XII

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Pope

Gregory XII
Bishop of Rome
Gregory XII.jpg
Papacy began30 November 1406
Papacy ended4 July 1415
Predecessor Innocent VII
Successor Martin V
Opposed toAvignon claimant:
Benedict XIII
Pisan claimants:
Alexander V
John XXIII
Orders
Consecration1390
Created cardinal12 June 1405
by Innocent VII
Personal details
Birth nameAngelo Corraro or Corario [1]
Bornc.1326 or 1327
Venice, Republic of Venice
Died18 October 1417(1417-10-18) (aged 90–91)
Recanati, Marche, Papal States
Previous post
Coat of arms C o a Gregorio XII.svg
Other popes named Gregory
Papal styles of
Pope Gregory XII
C o a Gregorio XII.svg
Reference style His Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous styleNone

Pope Gregory XII (Latin : Gregorius XII; c.1326 or 1327 – 18 October 1417), born Angelo Corraro, Corario, [1] or Correr, [2] was Pope of the Catholic Church from 30 November 1406 to 4 July 1415 when he was forced to resign to end the Western Schism. He succeeded Pope Innocent VII and in turn was succeeded by Pope Martin V.

Pope Leader of the Catholic Church

The pope, also known as the supreme pontiff, is the bishop of Rome and leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. Since 1929, the pope has also been head of state of Vatican City, a city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI.

Catholic Church Largest Christian church, led by the Bishop of Rome

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide as of 2017. As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation. The church is headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope. Its central administration, the Holy See, is in the Vatican City, an enclave within the city of Rome in Italy.

Western Schism split within the Catholic Church from 1378 to 1417

The Western Schism, also called Papal Schism, Great Occidental Schism and Schism of 1378, was a split within the Catholic Church lasting from 1378 to 1417 in which two, by 1410 three, men simultaneously claimed to be the true pope, and each excommunicated one another. Driven by politics rather than any theological disagreement, the schism was ended by the Council of Constance (1414–1418). For a time these rival claims to the papal throne damaged the reputation of the office.

Contents

Life

Angelo Corraro was born in Venice of a noble family, about 1326 or 1327, and was appointed Bishop of Castello in 1380, succeeding Bishop Nicolò Morosini. [3]

Roman Catholic Diocese of Castello dicocese

The Diocese of Castello, originally the Diocese of Olivolo, is a former Roman Catholic diocese that was based on the city of Venice in Italy. It was established in 774, covering the islands that are now occupied by Venice. Throughout its existence there was tension between the diocese, the Patriarchate of Grado to which it was nominally subordinate, and the Doge of Venice. Eventually in 1451 the diocese and the patriarchate were merged to form the Archdiocese of Venice.

On 1 December 1390 he was made titular Latin Patriarch of Constantinople. On 12 June 1405 he was created cardinal and the Cardinal-Priest of San Marco by Pope Innocent VII. He was Apostolic Administrator of Constantinople from 30 November 1406 to 23 October 1409. [4]

Pope Innocent VII pope

Pope Innocent VII, born Cosimo de' Migliorati, was Pope from 17 October 1404 to his death in 1406.

Papal conclave

Gregory XII was chosen at Rome by a conclave consisting of only fifteen cardinals under the express condition that, should Antipope Benedict XIII (1394–1423), the rival papal claimant at Avignon, renounce all claim to the Papacy, he would also renounce his, so that a fresh election might be made and the Western Schism (1378–1417) ended. He became Supreme Pontiff on 30 November 1406, taking the name Gregory XII. [3]

Antipope Benedict XIII born Pedro Martínez de Luna, Antipope from 1328 to 1423

Pedro Martínez de Luna y Pérez de Gotor, known as el Papa Luna in Spanish and Pope Luna in English, was an Aragonese nobleman, who as Benedict XIII, is considered an antipope by the Catholic Church.

Avignon Prefecture and commune in Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur, France

Avignon is a commune in south-eastern France in the department of Vaucluse on the left bank of the Rhône river. Of the 90,194 inhabitants of the city, about 12,000 live in the ancient town centre enclosed by its medieval ramparts.

Pontificate

Negotiations to end the schism

The two pontiffs opened wary negotiations to meet on neutral turf at Savona in Liguria, but soon began to waver in their resolve. The Corraro relatives of Gregory XII in Venice and King Ladislaus of Naples, a supporter of Gregory XII and his predecessor for political reasons, used all their influence to prevent the meeting, and each Pope feared being captured by partisans of the rival Pope. [3]

Savona Comune in Liguria, Italy

Savona is a seaport and comune in the west part of the northern Italian region of Liguria, capital of the Province of Savona, in the Riviera di Ponente on the Mediterranean Sea.

Venice Comune in Veneto, Italy

Venice is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region. It is situated on a group of 118 small islands that are separated by canals and linked by over 400 bridges. The islands are located in the shallow Venetian Lagoon, an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave rivers. In 2018, 260,897 people resided in the Comune di Venezia, of whom around 55,000 live in the historical city of Venice. Together with Padua and Treviso, the city is included in the Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area (PATREVE), which is considered a statistical metropolitan area, with a total population of 2.6 million.

Ladislaus of Naples King of Naples

Ladislaus the Magnanimous was King of Naples and titular King of Jerusalem and Sicily, titular Count of Provence and Forcalquier (1386–1414), and titular King of Hungary and Croatia (1390–1414). He was the last male of the senior Angevin line.

The cardinals of Gregory XII openly showed their dissatisfaction at this manoeuvring and gave signs of their intention to abandon him. On 4 May 1408, Gregory XII convened his cardinals at Lucca and ordered them not to leave the city under any pretext. He tried to supplement his following by creating four of his Corraro nephews cardinals – including the future Pope Eugene IV, despite his promise in the conclave that he would create no new cardinals. Seven of the cardinals secretly left Lucca and negotiated with the cardinals of Benedict XIII concerning the convocation of a general council by them, at which both pontiffs should be deposed and a new one elected. Consequently, they summoned the council to Pisa and invited both pontiffs to be present. Neither Gregory XII nor Benedict XIII appeared.

Lucca Comune in Tuscany, Italy

Lucca is a city and comune in Tuscany, Central Italy, on the Serchio, in a fertile plain near the Tyrrhenian Sea. It is the capital of the Province of Lucca. It is famous for its intact Renaissance-era city walls.

Pope Eugene IV Italian pope

Pope Eugene IV, born Gabriele Condulmer, was Pope from 3 March 1431 to his death in 1447. He is the most recent pope to have taken the name "Eugene" upon his election.

Council of Pisa synod

The Council of Pisa was a controversial ecumenical council of the Catholic Church held in 1409. It attempted to end the Western Schism by deposing Benedict XIII (Avignon) and Gregory XII (Rome) for schism and manifest heresy. The College of Cardinals, composed of members of both the Avignon Obedience and the Roman Obedience, who were recognized by each other and by the Council, then elected a third papal claimant, Alexander V, who lived only a few months. He was succeeded by John XXIII.

Meanwhile, Gregory XII stayed with his loyal and powerful protector, the condottiero Carlo I Malatesta, who had come to Pisa in person during the process of the council to support Gregory XII. At the fifteenth session, 5 June 1409, the Council of Pisa deposed the two pontiffs as schismatical, heretical, perjured, and scandalous; they elected Alexander V (1409–10) later that month. [5] Gregory XII, who had meanwhile created ten more cardinals, had convoked a rival council at Cividale del Friuli, near Aquileia; but only a few bishops appeared. Gregory XII's cardinals pronounced Benedict XIII and Alexander V schismatics, perjurers, and devastators of the Church, but their pronouncement went unheeded.

Resolution of the schism

The Council of Constance finally resolved the situation. Gregory XII appointed Carlo Malatesta and Cardinal Giovanni Dominici of Ragusa as his proxies. The cardinal then convoked the council and authorized its succeeding acts, thus preserving the formulas of Papal supremacy.

Thereupon on 4 July 1415, Malatesta, acting in the name of Gregory XII, pronounced the resignation of the Pope, which the cardinals accepted. According to prior agreement, they agreed to retain all the cardinals that had been created by Gregory XII, thus satisfying the Corraro clan, and appointed Gregory XII Bishop of Frascati, Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals and perpetual legate at Ancona. The Council then set aside Antipope John XXIII (1410–15), the successor of Alexander V. After the former follower of Benedict XIII appeared, the council declared him deposed; and the Western Schism was ended. A new Roman pontiff, Pope Martin V, was elected after Gregory XII's death. Therefore, the Papal seat was vacant for two years.

Retirement and death

The rest of Gregory XII's life was spent in peaceful obscurity in Ancona. He was the last pope to resign until Benedict XVI did so on 28 February 2013, almost 598 years later. [6]

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 "Wikisource-logo.svg Baynes, T.S.; Smith, W.R., eds. (1880). "Gregory XII."  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 11 (9th ed.). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 178.
  2. Miranda, Salvador. "Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church
  3. 1 2 3 Ott, Michael. "Pope Gregory XII." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 7. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 30 December 2015
  4. "Titular Episcopal See of Castello". GCatholic. Retrieved 24 November 2013.
  5. Caulfield, Philip (11 February 2013). "Pope Gregory XII, the last pope to resign, stepped down amid the Great Western Schism in 1415". Daily News. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
  6. "Pope Benedict XVI to resign citing poor health". BBC News. Retrieved 11 February 2013.

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  2. Angelo Correr, Latin Patriarch of Constantinople, administrator of the see of Coron and governor of the March of Ancona − cardinal-priest of S. Marco, then Pope Gregory XII in the obedience of Rome ; became cardinal-bishop of Frascati (Tusculum) after his abdication, † 18 October 1417
  3. Francesco Uguccione, archbishop of Bordeaux − cardinal-priest of SS. IV Coronati, † 14 July 1412
  4. Giordano Orsini, archbishop of Naples − cardinal-priest of SS. Silvestro e Martino, then cardinal-bishop of Albano, cardinal-bishop of Sabiny, † 29 May 1438
  5. Giovanni Migliorati, archbishop of Ravenna − cardinal-priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, † 16 October 1410
  6. Pietro Filargo, OFM, archbishop of Milan − cardinal-priest of SS. XII Apostoli, then Antipope Alexander V in the obedience of Pisa, † 3 May 1410
  7. Antonio Arcioni, bishop of Ascoli Piceno − cardinal-priest of S. Pietro in Vincoli, † 21 July 1405
  8. Antonio Calvi, bishop of Todi − cardinal-priest of S. Prassede, then cardinal-priest of S. Marco, † 2 October 1411
  9. Oddone Colonna, administrator of the suburbicarian see of Palestrina − cardinal-deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro, became Pope Martin V on 11 November 1417, † 20 February 1431
  10. Pietro Stefaneschi, protonotary apostolic − cardinal-deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria, then cardinal-deacon of SS. Cosma e Damiano and again cardinal-deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria (1410), † 30 October 1417
  11. Jean Gilles, papal legate in the ecclesiastical provinces of Cologne, Reims and Trier − cardinal-deacon of SS. Cosma e Damiano, † 1 July 1408
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Antoine de Challant, was a Savoyard cleric who served as Chancellor of the Count of Savoy and was coopted into the papal curia by Pope Benedict XIII of the Avignon Obedience, who created him a cardinal and named him Archbishop of Moûtiers-Tarentaise. He served principally as a diplomat for the pope in negotiations directed toward the settling of the Great Western Schism, though his efforts had to be directed mostly to keeping Benedict from being repudiated by the French government. He himself finally abandoned Benedict and joined the cardinals who called for a general council of the Church. He participated in the Council of Pisa, and was one of the electors of Pope Alexander V. He also participated in the Council of Constance, and was one of the electors of Pope Martin V.

References

Catholic Church titles
Vacant
Title last held by
Paul Palaiologos Tagaris
 TITULAR 
Latin Patriarch of Constantinople
1390–1405
Succeeded by
Louis of Mitylene
Preceded by
Innocent VII
Pope
30 November 1406 – 4 July 1415
Avignon claimant: Benedict XIII
Pisan claimants: Alexander V & John XXIII
Succeeded by
Martin V