Pope Gregory XIV

Last updated


Gregory XIV
Bishop of Rome
Gregor XIV.jpg
Portrait by Philip Galle, c.1591
Church Catholic Church
Papacy began5 December 1590
Papacy ended16 October 1591
Predecessor Urban VII
Successor Innocent IX
Orders
Ordination1551
Consecration13 March 1564
by  St. Charles Borromeo
Created cardinal12 December 1583
by Gregory XIII
Personal details
Born
Niccolò Sfondrato

11 February 1535
Died16 October 1591(1591-10-16) (aged 56)
Rome, Papal State
Previous post(s)
  • Abbot of Civate (1551–1560)
  • Bishop of Cremona (1560–1590)
  • Cardinal-Priest of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere (1585–1590)
Coat of arms C o a Gregorio XIV.svg
Other popes named Gregory

Pope Gregory XIV (Latin : Gregorius XIV; Italian : Gregorio XIV; 11 February 1535 – 16 October 1591), born Niccolò Sfondrato [1] or Sfondrati, [2] was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 5 December 1590 to his death in 1591.

Contents

Early career

Niccolò Sfondrati was born at Somma Lombardo, then part of the Duchy of Milan, in the highest stratum of Milanese society. His mother, of the house of Visconti, died in childbirth. His father Francesco Sfondrati, a senator of the ancient comune of Milan, was created Cardinal-Priest by Pope Paul III in 1544. [3]

In his youth he was known for his modest lifestyle and stringent piety. He studied law at Perugia and Padua, was ordained a priest and swiftly appointed Bishop of Cremona, in 1560, in time to participate in the sessions of the Council of Trent from 1561 to 1563. Pope Gregory XIII made him a Cardinal-Priest of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere on 12 December 1583. Sfondrati was a close follower of Carlo Cardinal Borromeo, and when the cardinal died, he celebrated the Requiem Mass for Borromeo on 7 November 1584. [4] Sfondrati was an intimate friend and a great admirer of Philip Neri, an Italian priest who died in 1595 and was canonised in 1622.

Papal election

After the death of Pope Urban VII on 27 September 1590, the Spanish ambassador Olivares presented the conclave a list of the seven cardinals who would be acceptable to his master Philip II of Spain. On 5 December 1590, after two months of deadlock, Sfondrati, one of Philip II's seven candidates but who had not aspired to the office, was elected pope. Alessandro Cardinal Montalto came to Sfondrati's cell to inform him that the Sacred College had agreed on his election and found him kneeling in prayer before a crucifix. [5]

On the day after he was elected Pope, Gregory XIV burst into tears and said to the cardinals: "God forgive you! What have you done?" [5] In his bull of 21 March 1591, Cogit nos, he forbade under pain of excommunication all betting concerning the election of a Pope, the duration of a pontificate, or the creation of new cardinals.

Papacy

Gregory XIV's brief pontificate was marked by vigorous intervention in favour of the Catholic party in the French Wars of Religion. Instigated by the king of Spain and the duke of Mayenne, he excommunicated Henry IV of France on 1 March 1591, reiterating the 1585 declaration of Pope Sixtus V that as a heretic (Protestant) Henry was ineligible to succeed to the throne of Catholic France and ordered the clergy, nobles, judicial functionaries, and the Third Estate of France to renounce him. [5]

Gregory XIV levied an army for the invasion of France, and dispatched his nephew Ercole Sfondrati to France at its head. He also sent a monthly subsidy of 15,000 scudi to Paris to reinforce the Catholic League. By coming down solidly on the side of Spanish interests, in part because Gregory XIV was elected due to the influence of the Spanish cardinals, the recent papal policy of trying to maintain a balance between Spain and France was abandoned.

Gregory XIV created five cardinals in two consistories, among whom was his nephew Paolo Emilio Sfondrati, his Secretary of State. He attempted to convince Philip Neri, a long-time friend, to accept the post of Cardinal, but Neri refused, saying that there were many more deserving of the honour than him.

In a decree dated 18 April 1591 (Bulla Cum Sicuti), Gregory XIV ordered reparations to be made by Catholics in the Philippines to the natives, who had been forced into slavery by Europeans, and he commanded under pain of excommunication of the owners that all native slaves in the islands be set free.

The biographers mention that Pope Gregory XIV had a nervous tendency to laughter, which occasionally became irresistible and even manifested itself at his coronation. Gregory XIV, who was in poor health before his election to the papacy, died due to a large gallstone and was succeeded by Innocent IX.

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pope Clement XIV</span> Head of the Catholic Church from 1769 to 1774

Pope Clement XIV, born Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 19 May 1769 to his death in 1774. At the time of his election, he was the only Franciscan friar in the College of Cardinals, having been a member of OFM Conventual. To date, he is the last pope to take the pontifical name of "Clement" upon his election.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pope Gregory XV</span> Head of the Catholic Church from 1621 to 1623

Pope Gregory XV, born Alessandro Ludovisi, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 9 February 1621 to his death in 1623.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pope Gregory XIII</span> Head of the Catholic Church from 1572 to 1585

Pope Gregory XIII, born Ugo Boncompagni, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 13 May 1572 to his death in 1585. He is best known for commissioning and being the namesake for the Gregorian calendar, which remains the internationally accepted civil calendar to this day.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pope Innocent IX</span> Head of the Catholic Church in 1591

Pope Innocent IX, born Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 29 October to 30 December 1591.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pope Leo XI</span> Head of the Catholic Church in 1605

Pope Leo XI, born Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 1 April 1605 to his death. His pontificate is one of the briefest in history, having lasted under a month. He was from the prominent House of Medici originating from Florence. Medici's mother opposed his entering the priesthood and sought to prevent it by having him given secular honours, but after her death he eventually was ordained a priest in 1567. In his career he served as Florence's ambassador to the pope, Bishop of Pistoia, Archbishop of Florence, papal legate to France, and as the cardinal Prefect for the Congregation of the Bishops and Religious. He was elected to the papacy in the March 1605 papal conclave and served as pope for 27 days.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pope Sixtus V</span> Head of the Catholic Church from 1585 to 1590

Pope Sixtus V, born Felice Piergentile, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 24 April 1585 to his death. As a youth, he joined the Franciscan order, where he displayed talents as a scholar and preacher, and enjoyed the patronage of Pius V, who made him a cardinal. As a cardinal, he was known as Cardinal Montalto.

Papal coats of arms are the personal coat of arms of popes of the Catholic Church. These have been a tradition since the Late Middle Ages, and has displayed his own, initially that of his family, and thus not unique to himself alone, but in some cases composed by him with symbols referring to his past or his aspirations. This personal coat of arms coexists with that of the Holy See.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Federico Borromeo</span> Italian cardinal

Federico Borromeo was an Italian cardinal and Archbishop of Milan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bonifazio Bevilacqua Aldobrandini</span>

Bonifazio Bevilacqua Aldobrandini was an Italian Cardinal. He was the uncle of Pope Gregory XIV.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Paolo Emilio Sfondrati</span>

Paolo Emilio Sfondrati was an Italian Cardinal.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1592 papal conclave</span>

The 1592 papal conclave elected Pope Clement VIII in succession to Pope Innocent IX.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">October–December 1590 papal conclave</span>

The October to December 1590 papal conclave was the second conclave of 1590, and the one during which Gregory XIV was elected as the successor of Urban VII. This conclave was marked by unprecedented royal interference from Philip II of Spain.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Francesco Sfondrati</span>

Francesco Sfondrati (1493–1550) was an Italian Roman Catholic bishop and cardinal and the father of Pope Gregory XIV.

Pedro de Deza (1520–1600) was a Spanish Roman Catholic cardinal and bishop.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Giovanni Vincenzo Gonzaga</span> Italian cardinal

Giovanni Vincenzo Gonzaga (1540–1591) was an Italian Roman Catholic cardinal.

Scipione Lancelotti (1527–1598) was an Italian who became a cardinal within the Roman Catholic Church.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Francesco Sforza (cardinal)</span>

Francesco Sforza (1562–1624) was an Italian cardinal and bishop.

Sfondrati is an Italian surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Camillo Caetani (Gaetano) was an Italian aristocrat and Papal diplomat in several European capitals during the early Counterreformation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Alfonso Visconti</span> 17th-century Catholic cardinal

Alfonso Visconti (1552–1608) was an Italian Roman Catholic cardinal and diplomat.

References

  1. "Baynes, T. S.; Smith, W.R., eds. (1880). "Gregory XIV."  . Encyclopædia Britannica . Vol. 11 (9th ed.). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
  2. Francesco Patrizi's Hermetic Philosophy, Cees Leijenhorst, Gnosis and Hermeticism from Antiquity to Modern Times, ed. R. van den Broek, Wouter J. Hanegraaff, (State University of New York Press, 1998), 125.
  3. Terence Scully, The Opera of Bartolomeo Scappi (1570), (University of Toronto Press, 2008), vi.
  4. "Miranda, "Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church"".
  5. 1 2 3 Wikisource-logo.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Ott, Michael (1910). "Pope Gregory XIV". In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia . Vol. 7. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by Bishop of Cremona
1560 – 1590
Succeeded by
Preceded by Pope
5 December 1590 – 16 October 1591
Succeeded by