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|Bishop of Rome|
|Papacy began||9 February 1621|
|Papacy ended||8 July 1623|
|Consecration||1 May 1612|
by Cardinal Scipione Caffarelli-Borghese
|Created cardinal||19 September 1616|
by Pope Paul V
|Birth name||Alessandro Ludovisi|
|Born||9 January 1554|
Bologna, Papal States
|Died||8 July 1623 69) (aged|
Rome, Papal States
|Coat of arms|
|Other popes named Gregory|
Pope Gregory XV (Latin : Gregorius XV; 9 January 1554 –8 July 1623), born Alessandro Ludovisi, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 9 February 1621 to his death in 1623.
|Papal styles of|
Pope Gregory XV
|Reference style||His Holiness|
|Spoken style||Your Holiness|
|Religious style||Holy Father|
Alessandro Ludovisi was born in Bologna in 1554 to Pompeo Ludovisi, the Count of Samoggia (now Savigno in the Province of Bologna) and of Camilla Bianchini. He was one of seven children and was born as the third child.
He was educated at the Roman College run by the Society of Jesus in Rome and he then went to the University of Bologna to get degrees in canon and Roman law which he received on June 4, 1575. His early career was as a papal jurist in Rome, and there is no evidence that he had been ordained to the priesthood.
He returned to Rome in 1575 and he served as the Referendary of the Apostolic Signatura from 1593 to 1596 and was appointed as the Vicegerent of Rome in 1597, a position he maintained until 1598. He also served as the Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota from 1599 to 1612.
On 12 March 1612, Pope Paul V appointed him as the Archbishop of Bologna, for which he was presumably ordained to the priesthood and then he was consecrated a bishop on 1 May of that year in the church of San Andrea al Quirinale in Rome.
In August 1616, the pope sent him as Apostolic Nuncio to the Duchy of Savoy, to mediate between Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy and Philip III of Spain in their dispute concerning the Gonzaga Marquisate of Montferrat.
On 19 September 1616, Pope Paul V elevated him to the rank of cardinal and appointed him as a Cardinal Priest with the titular church of Santa Maria in Traspontina.
Ludovisi remained in his episcopal see in Bologna until he went to Rome after the death of Pope Paul V to take part in the conclave at which he was chosen as pope and he selected the pontifical name of "Gregory XV". He was crowned on 14 February 1621 by the protodeacon, Cardinal Andrea Baroni Peretti Montalto, and assumed possession of the Basilica of Saint John Lateran on 14 May 1621.
At the moment of his election, chiefly through the influence of Cardinal Borghese, at his advanced age (he was 67) and with his weak state of health he saw at once that he would need an energetic man, in whom he could place implicit confidence, to assist him in the government of the Church. His nephew Ludovico Ludovisi, a young man of 25 years, seemed to him to be the right person and, at the risk of being charged with nepotism, he created him cardinal on the third day of his pontificate. On the same day, his youngest brother Orazio was appointed Captain General of the Church at the head of the papal army.
The future revealed that Gregory XV was not disappointed in his nephew. The Catholic Encyclopedia allows that "Ludovico, it is true, advanced the interests of his family in every possible way, but he also used his brilliant talents and his great influence for the welfare of the Church, and was sincerely devoted to the pope".Gregory secured for the Ludovisi two dukedoms, one for his brother Orazio, made a Nobile Romano and Duke of Fiano Romano, 1621, and the other, the Duchy of Zagarolo, purchased from the Colonna family by his nephew Ludovico Ludovisi in 1622. A second nephew, Niccolò, was made reigning Prince of Piombino and Lord of the Isola d'Elba in 1634, having married the heiress, 30 March 1632.
Gregory XV interfered little in European politics, beyond assisting Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, and the Catholic League against the Protestants [ citation needed ]—as well as Sigismund III Vasa, King of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, against the Ottoman Empire. His Declaration against Magicians and Witches (Omnipotentis Dei, 20 March 1623) was the last papal ordinance against witchcraft. Former punishments were lessened, and the death penalty was limited to those who were "proved to have entered into a compact with the devil, and to have committed homicide with his assistance".—to the tune of a million gold ducats
He was a learned theologian and manifested a reforming spirit.As an example, his papal bull of 15 November 1621, Aeterni Patris Filius , regulated papal elections, which henceforth were to be by secret ballot; three methods of election were allowed: by scrutiny, compromise and quasi-inspiration. On 6 January 1622, he established the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith, the missionary arm of the Holy See. His pontificate was marked by the canonizations of Teresa of Avila, Francis Xavier, Ignatius Loyola, Philip Neri and Isidore the Farmer. He also beatified Peter of Alcantara. He was influential in bringing the Bolognese artist Guercino to Rome, a landmark in the development of the High Baroque style. He sat for his portrait busts, one of which was by Gian Lorenzo Bernini and by Alessandro Algardi, whose restrained bust in a tondo is in the Church of Santa Maria in Vallicella.
The pope created eleven cardinals in four consistories that saw him elevate his nephew Ludovico and his cousin Marcantonio Gozzadini as cardinals; he also elevated the noted Armand Jean Richelieu as a cardinal.
On 12 March 1622, the pope canonized several saints: Francis Xavier, Ignatius of Loyola, Isidore the Laborer, Philip Neri and Teresa of Ávila.
Gregory XV also beatified three individuals during his pontificate: Ambrose Sansedoni of Siena, Albert the Great, and Peter of Alcantara.
Gregory XV died in the Quirinal Palace on 8 July 1623 and was buried in the Church of Sant'Ignazio. He was succeeded by Pope Urban VIII.The pope had been suffering from kidney stones for some time and was bedridden from 16 June to 1 July 1623, having been suffering from diarrhea and a stomach disorder that caused him great discomfort. His condition worsened on 4 July, as a fever greatly weakened him, leading to the pope receiving the Viaticum on 5 July and the Extreme Unction on 6 July, before succumbing to his illness two days later.
Pope Urban VIII was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 6 August 1623 to his death in 1644. He expanded the papal territory by force of arms and advantageous politicking, and was also a prominent patron of the arts and a reformer of Church missions.
Pope Leo XI, born Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 1 to 27 April 1605. His pontificate is one of the briefest in history having lasted under a month. He was from the prominent House of Medici originating from Florence. Medici's mother opposed his entering the priesthood and sought to prevent it by having him given secular honours, but after her death he eventually was ordained a priest in 1567. In his career he served as Florence's ambassador to the pope, Bishop of Pistoia, Archbishop of Florence, papal legate to France, and as the cardinal Prefect for the Congregation of the Bishops and Religious. He was elected to the papacy in the March 1605 papal conclave and served as pope for 27 days.
Pope Paul V, born Camillo Borghese, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 16 May 1605 to his death in 1621. In 1611, he honored Galileo Galilei as a member of the Papal Accademia dei Lincei and supported his discoveries. In 1616, Pope Paul V instructed Cardinal Bellarmine to inform Galileo that the Copernican theory could not be taught as fact, but Bellarmine's certificate allowed Galileo to continue his studies in search for evidence and use the geocentric model as a theoretical device. That same year Paul V assured Galileo that he was safe from persecution so long as he, the Pope, should live. Bellarmine's certificate was used by Galileo for his defense at the trial of 1633.
Giovanni Francesco Barbieri, better known as Guercino, or il Guercino[ɡwerˈtʃiːno], was an Italian Baroque painter and draftsman from Cento in the Emilia region, who was active in Rome and Bologna. The vigorous naturalism of his early manner contrasts with the classical equilibrium of his later works. His many drawings are noted for their luminosity and lively style.
Ludovisi can refer to:
Ludovico Ludovisi was an Italian cardinal and statesman of the Roman Catholic Church. He was an art connoisseur who formed a famous collection of antiquities, housed at the Villa Ludovisi in Rome.
The Ludovisi were an Italian noble family, originating from Bologna. They had close ties with the Papacy and were influential in the Papal States. Alessandro Ludovisi became a cardinal and later Pope Gregory XV. His cardinal-nephew was Ludovico Ludovisi.
Niccolò I Ludovisi was Prince of Piombino from 1634 until his death, along his military and diplomatic career he was known and recorded in historical documents as Commander Niccolò da Candia, for his engagement in the Venetian colony of Crete, the Duchy of Candia
A cardinal-nephew was a cardinal elevated by a pope who was that cardinal's relative. The practice of creating cardinal-nephews originated in the Middle Ages, and reached its apex during the 16th and 17th centuries. The last cardinal-nephew was named in 1689 and the practice was extinguished in 1692. The word nepotism originally referred specifically to this practice, when it appeared in the English language about 1669. From the middle of the Avignon Papacy (1309–1377) until Pope Innocent XII's anti-nepotism bull, Romanum decet pontificem (1692), a pope without a cardinal-nephew was the exception to the rule. Every Renaissance pope who created cardinals appointed a relative to the College of Cardinals, and the nephew was the most common choice, although one of Alexander VI's creations was his own son.
Marcantonio Gozzadini was an Italian Roman Catholic Cardinal.
The papal conclave of 1621 was convened on the death of Pope Paul V and ended with the election of Alessandro Ludovisi as Pope Gregory XV. It was the shortest conclave in the seventeenth century.
The papal conclave of 1623 was convened on the death of Pope Gregory XV and ended with the election of Maffeo Barberini as Pope Urban VIII. It was the first conclave to take place after the reforms that Gregory XV issued in his 1621 bull Aeterni Patris Filius.
Luigi Caetani was an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.
Lelio Falconieri (1585–1648) was an Italian Catholic Cardinal.
Orazio Ludovisi (1561–1624) was an Italian nobleman, military commander and patrician of Bologna. During his brother's reign as Pope Gregory XV, he became Commander of the Papal Armies and Duke of Fiano and Zagarolo.
Luigi Capponi was an Italian Catholic cardinal who became archbishop of Ravenna.
Scipione Lancelotti (1527–1598) was an Italian who became a cardinal within the Roman Catholic Church.
Pietro Campori was an Italian cardinal of the Catholic Church and Bishop of Cremona. He was friends with Scipione Borghese, the nephew of Pope Paul V, and was twice a candidate for election to the papacy in the conclaves of 1621 and 1623.
Cosimo de Torres also Cosmo de Torres and Cosma de Torres (1584–1642) was a Roman Catholic cardinal who served as Cardinal-Priest of Santa Maria in Trastevere (1641–1642), Cardinal-Priest of San Pancrazio (1623–1641), Archbishop of Monreale (1634–1642), Bishop of Perugia (1624–1634), Apostolic Nuncio to Poland (1621–1622), and Titular Archbishop of Hadrianopolis in Haemimonto (1621–1622).
Francesco Sacrati was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Archbishop of Cesena (1622–1623), Cardinal-Priest of San Matteo in Merulana (1621–1623), and Titular Archbishop of Damascus (1612–1622).
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|Catholic Church titles|
| Archbishop of Bologna |
12 March 1612 –9 February 1621
| Cardinal-Priest of Santa Maria in Traspontina |
3 Dec 1618 – 9 Feb 1621
| Pope |
9 February 1621 –8 July 1623