Pope Innocent IX

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Pope

Innocent IX
Bishop of Rome
Innocent IX 2.jpg
Papacy began29 October 1591
Papacy ended30 December 1591
Predecessor Gregory XIV
Successor Clement VIII
Orders
Ordination11 March 1544
Consecration1560
Created cardinal12 December 1583
by Pope Gregory XIII
Personal details
Birth nameGiovanni Antonio Facchinetti
Born20 July 1519
Bologna, Papal States
Died30 December 1591(1591-12-30) (aged 72)
Rome, Papal States
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Coat of arms C o a Innocenzo IX.svg
Other popes named Innocent

Pope Innocent IX (Latin : Innocentius IX; 20 July 1519 – 30 December 1591), born Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti, [1] was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 29 October to 30 December 1591.

Catholic Church Largest Christian church, led by the Bishop of Rome

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide as of 2017. As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation. The church is headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope. Its central administration is the Holy See.

Papal States Territories mostly in the Appenine Peninsula under the sovereign direct rule of the pope between 752–1870

The Papal States, officially the State of the Church, were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870. They were among the major states of Italy from roughly the 8th century until the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia successfully unified the Italian Peninsula by conquest in a campaign virtually concluded in 1861 and definitively in 1870. At their zenith, the Papal States covered most of the modern Italian regions of Lazio, Marche, Umbria and Romagna, and portions of Emilia. These holdings were considered to be a manifestation of the temporal power of the pope, as opposed to his ecclesiastical primacy.

Contents

Prior to his short papacy, he had been a canon lawyer, diplomat, and chief administrator during the reign of Pope Gregory XIV (r. 1590–1591).

Diplomat person appointed by a state to conduct diplomacy with another state or international organization

A diplomat is a person appointed by a state or an intergovernamental institution such as the United Nations or the European Union to conduct diplomacy with one or more other States or international organizations.

Pope Gregory XIV 16th-century Catholic pope

Pope Gregory XIV, born Niccolò Sfondrato or Sfondrati, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 5 December 1590 to his death in 1591.

Biography

Early life and priesthood

Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti, whose family came from Crodo, in the diocese of Novara, northern Italy, was born in Bologna on 20 July 1519. He was the son of Antonio Facchinetti and Francesca Cini.

Crodo Comune in Piedmont, Italy

Crodo is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Verbano-Cusio-Ossola in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 140 kilometres (87 mi) northeast of Turin and about 35 kilometres (22 mi) northwest of Verbania. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 1,487 and an area of 61.8 square kilometres (23.9 sq mi).

Italy European country

Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a European country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps and surrounded by several islands. Italy is located in Southern Europe, and it is sometimes considered as part of Western Europe. The country covers a total area of 301,340 km2 (116,350 sq mi) and shares land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, and the enclaved microstates of Vatican City and San Marino. Italy has a territorial exclave in Switzerland (Campione) and a maritime exclave in the Tunisian Sea (Lampedusa). With around 60 million inhabitants, Italy is the fourth-most populous member state of the European Union.

Bologna Comune in Emilia-Romagna, Italy

Bologna is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna region in Northern Italy. It is the seventh most populous city in Italy, at the heart of a metropolitan area of about one million people.

He studied at the University of Bologna - which was pre-eminent in jurisprudence — where he obtained a doctorate in both civil and canon law in 1544. He was later ordained to the priesthood on 11 March 1544 and was appointed a canon of the church of Saints Gervasio and Protasio of Domodossola in 1547. [2]

University of Bologna university in Bologna, Italy

The University of Bologna is a research university in Bologna, Italy. Founded in 1088 by an organised guild of students, it is the oldest university in the world, as well as one of the leading academic institutions in Italy and Europe. It is one of the most prestigious Italian universities, commonly ranking in the first places of national rankings.

He travelled to Rome and he became the secretary to Cardinal Nicolò Ardinghelli before entering the service of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, brother of the Duke of Parma and grandson of Pope Paul III (1534–1549), one of the great patrons of the time. The cardinal, who was the Archbishop of Avignon, sent Facchinetti there as his ecclesiastical representative and subsequently recalled him to the management of his affairs at Parma, where he was acting governor of the city, from 1556 to 1558. He was also made the Referendary of the Apostolic Signatura in 1559 and held that post for a year.

Alessandro Farnese (cardinal) Italian cardinal and diplomat

Alessandro Farnese, an Italian cardinal and diplomat and a great collector and patron of the arts, was the grandson of Pope Paul III, and the son of Pier Luigi Farnese, Duke of Parma, who was murdered in 1547. He should not be confused with his nephew, Alessandro Farnese, Governor of the Spanish Netherlands, grandson of Emperor Charles V and great-grandson of Pope Paul III.

Parma Comune in Emilia-Romagna, Italy

Parma is a city in the northern Italian region of Emilia-Romagna famous for its architecture, music, art, prosciutto (ham), cheese and surrounding countryside. It is home to the University of Parma, one of the oldest universities in the world. Parma is divided into two parts by the stream of the same name. The district on the far side of the river is Oltretorrente. Parma's Etruscan name was adapted by Romans to describe the round shield called Parma.

Pope Paul III Pope

Pope Paul III, born Alessandro Farnese, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 13 October 1534 to his death in 1549.

The tomb of Innocent IX. Tomb of pope Innocent IX.jpg
The tomb of Innocent IX.

Episcopate and cardinalate

In 1560, Facchinetti was named as the Bishop of Nicastro, in Calabria, [3] and in 1562 was present at the Council of Trent. He was the first bishop to actually reside in the diocese in three decades. Pope Pius V (1566–1572) sent him as papal nuncio to Venice in 1566 [4] to further the papal alliance with Spain and Venice against the Turks, which ultimately resulted in the victory of Lepanto in 1571. He was recalled from Venice in 1572 and was made the Prior Commendatario of S. Andrea di Carmignano in the diocese of Padua from 1576 to 1587. [5]

Calabria Region of Italy

Calabria, known in antiquity as Bruttium, is a region in Southern Italy.

Council of Trent 19th Ecumenical Council of the Catholic Church

The Council of Trent, held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent, was the 19th ecumenical council of the Catholic Church. Prompted by the Protestant Reformation, it has been described as the embodiment of the Counter-Reformation.

Pope Pius V 16th-century Catholic pope

Pope Pius V, born Antonio Ghislieri, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 8 January 1566 to his death in 1572. He is venerated as a saint of the Catholic Church. He is chiefly notable for his role in the Council of Trent, the Counter-Reformation, and the standardization of the Roman rite within the Latin Church. Pius V declared Thomas Aquinas a Doctor of the Church.

Relinquishing his see to pursue his career in Rome in 1575 and also because of health reasons, he was named the Titular Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem in 1572. He occupied that post until he was made a cardinal.

Pope Gregory XIII made him a cardinal on 12 December 1583 as the Cardinal-Priest of Santi Quattro Coronati and he was to receive the red hat and title on 9 January 1584. Pope Gregory XIV made him the Prefect of the Apostolic Signatura in 1591.

Papacy

Papal styles of
Pope Innocent IX
C o a Innocenzo IX.svg
Reference style His Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous styleNone

Even before Pope Gregory XIV died, Spanish and anti-Spanish factions were electioneering for the next pope. Philip II of Spain's (r. 1556–1598) high-handed interference at the previous conclave was not forgotten: he had barred all but seven cardinals. This time the Spanish party in the College of Cardinals did not go so far, but they still controlled a majority, and after a quick conclave they raised Facchinetti to the papal chair as Pope Innocent IX. It took three ballots to elect him as pope. Facchinetti received 24 votes on 28 October but was not successful in that ballot to be elected as pope. He received 28 votes on 29 October in the second ballot while the third saw him prevail. [6]

The cardinal protodeacon Andreas von Austria crowned Innocent IX as pontiff on 3 November 1591. He elevated two cardinals to the cardinalate in the only papal consistory of his papacy on 18 December 1591.

Mindful of the origin of his success, Innocent IX supported, during his two months' pontificate, the cause of Philip II and the Catholic League against Henry IV of France (r. 1589–1610) in the French Wars of Religion (1562–1598), where a papal army was in the field. [7] His death, however, prevented the realisation of Innocent IX's schemes.

His grandnephew Giovanni Antonio Cardinal Facchinetti de Nuce, Jr., was one of two cardinals appointed during the weeks of Innocent IX's pontificate. A later member of the Cardinalate was his great-grandnephew Cesare Facchinetti (made a Cardinal in 1643).

Death

Innocent IX died in the early morning of 30 December 1591. He was buried in the Vatican grottoes in a simple tomb.

On 18 December, the pope made a pilgrimage of Rome's seven pilgrimage churches, despite being ill, and caught a cold as a result. This became a heavy cough combined with a fever that led to his death. [8]

See also

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References

  1. John Jeffries Martin, Venice's Hidden Enemies: Italian Heretics in a Renaissance City, (University of California Press, 1993), 183.
  2. John Jeffries Martin, Venice's Hidden Enemies: Italian Heretics in a Renaissance City, 183.
  3. John Jeffries Martin, Venice's Hidden Enemies: Italian Heretics in a Renaissance City, 183.
  4. John Jeffries Martin, Venice's Hidden Enemies: Italian Heretics in a Renaissance City, 183.
  5. Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the Popes, (HarperCollins, 2000), 295.
  6. "Sede Vacante 1591". 24 July 2015. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  7. Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the Popes, 296.
  8. "SEDE VACANTE 1591". 24 July 2015. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
unknown
Titular Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem
1572–85
Succeeded by
Scipione Gonzaga
Preceded by
Gregory XIV
Pope
29 October – 30 December 1591
Succeeded by
Clement VIII