Pope Innocent VIII

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Pope

Innocent VIII
Bishop of Rome
Innocent VIII 1492.JPG
Papacy began29 August 1484
Papacy ended25 July 1492
Predecessor Sixtus IV
Successor Alexander VI
Orders
Ordinationc. 1450
Consecration28 January 1467
Created cardinal7 May 1473
by Sixtus IV
Personal details
Birth nameGiovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo)
Born1432
Genoa, Republic of Genoa
Died25 July 1492(1492-07-25) (aged 59–60)
Rome, Papal States
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Other popes named Innocent
Papal styles of
Pope Innocent VIII
C o a Innocenzo VIII.svg
Reference style His Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous styleNone

Pope Innocent VIII (Latin : Innocentius VIII; 1432 – 25 July 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo), was Pope from 29 August 1484 to his death in 1492. Born into a prominent Genoese family, he entered the church and was made bishop in 1467, before being elevated to the rank of cardinal by Pope Sixtus IV. He was elected Pope in 1484, as a compromise candidate, after a stormy conclave.

Pope Leader of the Catholic Church

The pope, also known as the supreme pontiff, is the bishop of Rome and leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. Since 1929, the pope has also been head of state of Vatican City, a city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI.

Genoa city in Liguria, Italy

Genoa is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived within the city's administrative limits. As of the 2011 Italian census, the Province of Genoa, which in 2015 became the Metropolitan City of Genoa, counted 855,834 resident persons. Over 1.5 million people live in the wider metropolitan area stretching along the Italian Riviera.

Pope Sixtus IV pope

Pope Sixtus IV, born Francesco della Rovere, was Pope from 9 August 1471 to his death in 1484. His accomplishments as Pope included the construction of the Sistine Chapel and the creation of the Vatican Archives. A patron of the arts, he brought together the group of artists who ushered the Early Renaissance into Rome with the first masterpieces of the city's new artistic age.

Contents

Son of the viceroy of Naples, Battista spent his early years at the Neapolitan court. He became a priest in the retinue of cardinal Calandrini, half-brother to Pope Nicholas V (1447–55), Bishop of Savona under Pope Paul II, and with the support of Giuliano Della Rovere, cardinal. After intense politicking by Della Rovere, Cibo was elected pope in 1484. King Ferrante of Naples had been supported Cybo's competitor, Rodrigo Borgia. The following year, Pope Innocent supported the barons in their failed revolt.

Ferdinand I of Naples King of naples

Ferdinand I, also called Ferrante, was the King of Naples from 1458 to 1494. He was the son of Alfonso V of Aragon and his mistress, Giraldona Carlino.

The Conspiracy of the Barons was a revolution against Ferrante of Aragon, King of Naples by the Neapolitan aristocracy in 1485 and 1486. King Ferdinand the First, also known as Ferrante, aimed at dispelling the feudal particularism, strengthening the royal power as the only unquestionable source of authority. In that political and financial context a crash between the barons and the royalty was inevitable.

In March 1489, Cem, the captive brother of Bayezid II, the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, came into Innocent's custody. Viewing his brother as a rival, the Sultan paid the pope to not to set him free. Any time the Sultan threatened war against the Christian Balkans, Innocent threatened to release this brother, who later died in a military expedition, fighting for King Charles VIII of France against Naples.

Bayezid II Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512

Bayezid II was the eldest son and successor of Mehmed II, ruling as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512. During his reign, Bayezid II consolidated the Ottoman Empire and thwarted a Safavid rebellion soon before abdicating his throne to his son, Selim I. He is most notable for evacuating Sephardi Jews from Spain after the proclamation of the Alhambra Decree and resettling them throughout the Ottoman Empire.

Sultan noble title with several historical meanings

Sultan is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", derived from the verbal noun سلطة sulṭah, meaning "authority" or "power". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who claimed almost full sovereignty in practical terms, albeit without claiming the overall caliphate, or to refer to a powerful governor of a province within the caliphate. The adjective form of the word is "sultanic", and the dynasty and lands ruled by a sultan are referred to as a sultanate.

Ottoman Empire Former empire in Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa

The Ottoman Empire, historically known to its inhabitants and the Eastern world as the Roman Empire, and known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state and caliphate that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. Although initially the dynasty was of Turkic origin, it was Persianised in terms of language, culture, literature and habits. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.

Early years

Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo) was born in Genoa of Greek ancestry, [1] [2] [3] [4] the son of Arano Cybo or Cibo (c. 1375c. 1455) and his wife Teodorina de Mari (c. 1380?), of an old Genoese family. Arano Cybo was viceroy of Naples and then a senator in Rome under Pope Calixtus III (1455–58). Giovanni Battista's early years were spent at the Neapolitan court. While in Naples he was appointed a Canon of the Cathedral of Capua, and was given the Priory of S. Maria d'Arba in Genoa. [5] After the death of King Alfonso, friction between Giovanni Battista and the Archbishop of Genoa decided him to resign his Canonry, and to go to Padua and then to Rome for his education.

Cybo family name

The Cybo, Cibo or Cibei family of Italy is an aristocratic family from Genoa of Greek origin. They came to the city in the 12th century. In 1528 the Cybos formed the 17th "Albergo", a union of noble families of Genoa. The family split in many branches, some living in Genoa, other in Naples by the name of Tomacelli. Its most famous members were Pope Boniface IX. and Pope Innocent VIII.

Greeks in Italy greek presence in Italy

Greek presence in Italy begins with the migrations of the old Greek Diaspora in the 8th century BC, continuing down to the present time. There is an ethnic minority known as the Griko people, who live in the Southern Italian regions of Calabria and Apulia, especially the peninsula of Salento, within the old Magna Graecia region, who speak a distinctive dialect of Greek called Griko. They are believed to be remnants of the ancient and medieval Greek communities, who have lived in the south of Italy for centuries. A Greek community has long existed in Venice as well, the current center of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Italy and Malta, which in addition was a Byzantine province until the 900s and held territory in Morea and Crete until the 1600s. Alongside this group, a smaller number of more recent migrants from Greece lives in Italy, forming an expatriate community in the country. Today many Greeks in Southern Italy follow Italian customs and culture, experiencing assimilation.

Rome Capital of Italy

Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome also serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber. The Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states.

Early career

In Rome he became a priest in the retinue of cardinal Calandrini, half-brother to Pope Nicholas V (1447–55). In 1467, he was made Bishop of Savona by Pope Paul II, but exchanged this see in 1472 for that of Molfetta in south-eastern Italy. In 1473, with the support of Giuliano Della Rovere, later Pope Julius II, he was made cardinal by Pope Sixtus IV, whom he succeeded on 29 August 1484 as Pope Innocent VIII. [6]

Pope Nicholas V Pope of Catholic Church from 1447 until 1455

Pope Nicholas V, born Tommaso Parentucelli, was Pope from 6 March 1447 until his death. Pope Eugene made him a cardinal in 1446 after successful trips to Italy and Germany, and when Eugene died the next year Parentucelli was elected in his place. He took his name Nicholas in memory of his obligations to Niccolò Albergati.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Savona-Noli diocese of the Catholic Church

The Italian Catholic Diocese of Savona-Noli in northern Italy, was historically the Diocese of Savona, from the tenth century. In 1820 the Diocese of Noli was united to the Diocese of Savona. It is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Genoa.

Pope Paul II pope

Pope Paul II, born Pietro Barbo, was Pope from 30 August 1464 to his death in 1471. When his maternal uncle, Gabriele Condulmer, became Pope Eugenius IV, Pietro switched from training to be a merchant to religious studies. His rise in the Church was relatively rapid. Elected pope in 1464, he amassed a great collection of art and antiquities.

Papal election

The papal conclave of 1484 was riven with factions, while gangs rioted in the streets. In order to prevent the election of the Venetian Cardinal Barbo, Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, on the evening before the election, after the cardinals had retired for the night, the Dean of the College of Cardinals, Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, nephew of the late Pope, and Cardinal Borgia, the Vice-Chancellor, visited a number of cardinals and secured their votes with the promise of various benefices. [7]

Marco Barbo of Venice was a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church (1467) and patriarch of Aquileia (1470)

It was claimed that Cardinal della Rovere met secretly with Cardinal Marco Barbo in order to secure him more votes to become pope if he was promised a residence, though Barbo refused in fear it would make the conclave invalid due to simony. Cardinal della Rovere then met with Borgia, who disliked Barbo and wished to block his election, with an offer to turn their votes over to Cibò, promising them benefits for doing so. [7]

Papacy

Shortly after his coronation Innocent VIII addressed a fruitless summons to Christendom to unite in a crusade against the Turks. A protracted conflict with King Ferdinand I of Naples was the principal obstacle. Ferdinand's oppressive government led in 1485 to a rebellion of the aristocracy, known as the Conspiracy of the Barons, which included Francesco Coppola and Antonello Sanseverino of Salerno and was supported by Pope Innocent VIII. Innocent excommunicated him in 1489 and invited King Charles VIII of France to come to Italy with an army and take possession of the Kingdom of Naples, a disastrous political event for the Italian peninsula as a whole. The immediate conflict was not ended until 1494, after Innocent VIII's death.

Relations with the Ottoman Empire

Bayezid II ruled as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512. His rule was contested by his brother Cem, who sought the support of the Mamluks of Egypt. Defeated by his brother's armies, Cem sought protection from the Knights of St. John in Rhodes. Prince Cem offered perpetual peace between the Ottoman Empire and Christendom. However, the sultan paid the Knights a large amount to keep Cem captive. Cem was later sent to the castle of Pierre d'Aubusson in France. Sultan Bayezid sent a messenger to France and requested Cem to be kept there; he agreed to make an annual payment in gold for his brother's expenses.

In March 1489, Cem was transferred to the custody of Innocent VIII. Cem's presence in Rome was useful because whenever Bayezid intended to launch a military campaign against the Christian nations of the Balkans, the Pope would threaten to release his brother. In exchange for maintaining the custody of Cem, Bayezid paid Innocent VIII 120,000 crowns, a relic of the Holy Lance and an annual fee of 45,000 ducats. [8] Cem died in Capua on February 25, 1495 on a military expedition under the command of King Charles VIII of France to conquer Naples.

Relations with witchcraft

On the request of German inquisitor Heinrich Kramer, Innocent VIII issued the papal bull Summis desiderantes (5 December 1484), which supported Kramer's investigations against magicians and witches:

"It has recently come to our ears, not without great pain to us, that in some parts of upper Germany, [...] Mainz, Köln, Trier, Salzburg, and Bremen, many persons of both sexes, heedless of their own salvation and forsaking the catholic faith, give themselves over to devils male and female, and by their incantations, charms, and conjurings, and by other abominable superstitions and sortileges, offences, crimes, and misdeeds, ruin and cause to perish the offspring of women, the foal of animals, the products of the earth, the grapes of vines, and the fruits of trees, as well as men and women, cattle and flocks and herds and animals of every kind, vineyards also and orchards, meadows, pastures, harvests, grains and other fruits of the earth; [...]" [9]

The bull was written in response to the request of Dominican Heinrich Kramer for explicit authority to prosecute witchcraft in Germany, after he was refused assistance by the local ecclesiastical authorities, [10] who disputed his authority to work in their dioceses. Some scholars view the bull as "clearly political", motivated by jurisdictional disputes between the local German Catholic priests and clerics from the Office of the Inquisition who answered more directly to the pope. [11]

Malleus Maleficarum, 1520 edition Malleus maleficarum, Koln 1520, Titelseite.jpg
Malleus Maleficarum, 1520 edition

Nonetheless, the bull failed to ensure that Kramer obtained the support he had hoped for, causing him to retire and to compile his views on witchcraft into his book Malleus Maleficarum , which was published in 1487. Kramer would later claim that witchcraft was to blame for bad weather. Both the papal letter appended to the work and the supposed endorsement of Cologne University for it are problematic. The letter of Innocent VIII is not an approval of the book to which it was appended, but rather a charge to inquisitors to investigate diabolical sorcery and a warning to those who might impede them in their duty, that is, a papal letter in the by then conventional tradition established by John XXII and other popes through Eugenius IV and Nicholas V (1447–55). [12]

Other events

In 1487, Innocent confirmed Tomas de Torquemada as Grand Inquisitor of Spain. Also in 1487, Innocent issued a bull [13] denouncing the views of the Waldensians (Vaudois), offering plenary indulgence to all who should engage in a Crusade against them. Alberto de' Capitanei, archdeacon of Cremona, responded to the bull by organizing a crusade to fulfill its order and launched an offensive in the provinces of Dauphiné and Piedmont. Charles I, Duke of Savoy eventually interfered to save his territories from further confusion and promised the Vaudois peace, but not before the offensive had devastated the area and many of the Vaudois fled to Provence and south to Italy.

The noted Franciscan theologian Angelo Carletti di Chivasso, whom Innocent in 1491 appointed as Apostolic Nuncio and Commissary, conjointly with the Bishop of Mauriana, was involved in reaching the peaceful agreement between Catholics and Waldensians. [14]

In 1486, Innocent VIII was persuaded that at least thirteen of the 900 theses of Giovanni Pico della Mirandola were heretical, and the book containing the theses was interdicted. [15]

In Rome, he ordered the Belvedere of the Vatican to be built, intended for summer use, on an unarticulated slope above the Vatican Palace. His successor would later turn the building into the Cortile del Belvedere. In season, he hunted at Castello della Magliana, which he enlarged. Constantly confronted with a depleted treasury, he resorted to the objectionable expedient of creating new offices and granting them to the highest bidders. [6] The fall of Granada in January 1492, was celebrated in the Vatican and Innocent granted Ferdinand II of Aragon the epithet "Catholic Majesty."

Slavery

Minnich (2005) notes that the position of Renaissance popes towards slavery, a common institution in contemporary cultures, varied. Minnich states that those who allowed the slave trade did so in the hope of gaining converts to Christianity. [16] In the case of Innocent he permitted trade with Barbary merchants in which foodstuffs would be given in exchange for slaves who could then be converted to Christianity. [16]

King Ferdinand of Aragon gave Innocent 100 Moorish slaves who shared them out with favoured Cardinals. [17] The slaves of Innocent were called "moro", meaning "dark-skinned man", in contrast to negro slaves who were called "moro nero". [18]

Canonizations

The pope named two saints during his pontificate: Catherine of Vadstena (1484) and Leopold III (1485).

Consistories

Innocent VIII named eight cardinals in one consistory which was held on 9 March 1489; the pope named three of those cardinals in pectore (one of whom being a successor in Giovanni de' Medici who became Pope Leo X) with two of them having their names released after the pope died to ensure that they could vote in the 1492 conclave.

Death

In July 1492, Innocent developed a fever. He was said to have been given the world's first blood transfusion by his Jewish physician Giacomo di San Genesio, who had him bathe in the blood of three 10-year-old boys. The boys subsequently died. [19] The evidence for this story, however, is unreliable and may have been motivated by antisemitism. Innocent VIII died himself on the 25th of July. [20]

Mystery over his tomb

A mysterious inscription on his tomb in Saint Peter in Rome states: “Nel tempo del suo Pontificato, la gloria della scoperta di un nuovo mondo” (transl. "During his Pontificate, the glory of the discovery of a new world."). The fact is that he died seven days before the departure of Christopher Columbus for his supposedly first voyage over the Atlantic, raising speculations that Columbus actually traveled before the known date and re-discovered the Americas for the Europeans before the supposed date of October 12, 1492. The Italian journalist and writer Ruggero Marino, in his book Cristoforo Colombo e il Papa tradito (transl. Christopher Columbus and the betrayed Pope) is convinced of this after having studied Columbus's papers for over 25 years. [21]

Family

Innocent had two illegitimate children born before he entered the clergy [6] "towards whom his nepotism had been as lavish as it was shameless". [22] In 1487 he married his elder son Franceschetto Cybo (d. 1519) to Maddalena de' Medici (1473–1528), the daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici, who in return obtained the cardinal's hat for his thirteen-year-old son Giovanni, later Pope Leo X. His daughter Teodorina Cybo married Gerardo Usodimare and had a daughter. Savonarola chastised him[ who? ] for his worldly ambitions. [23]

His grandnephew was Bindo Altoviti, one of the most influential bankers of his time and patron of the arts, being friends with Raphael and Michelangelo.

See also

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References

Notes

  1. Smith, Philip (2009). The History of the Christian Church. General Books LLC. pp. 219–220. ISBN   9781150722455. CHARACTER OF INNOCENT VIII... Cardinal John Baptist Cibo,' who was elected as Innocent VIII. (1484–1492)...His family was of Greek origin, but had been long settled at Genoa and Naples by the name of Tomacelli that to which Boniface IX. belonged. The name of Cibo was taken from the chess-board pattern (itii/30s) in their arms. The father of Innocent had been Viceroy of Naples under King Rene, and Senator of Rome under Calixtus III.
  2. Thomas, Joseph (2010). The Universal Dictionary of Biography and Mythology. Cosimo, Inc. p. 704. ISBN   9781616400712. Cybo or Cibo, che-bo', (Arano or Aaron,) the ancestor of a noble Genoese family, was born of Greek origin at Rhodes in 1377. He was Viceroy of Naples about 1442, and died in 1457, leaving a son, who became Pope Innocent VIII. in 1485.
  3. Munsell, Joel (1858). The every day book of history and chronology: embracing the anniversaries of memorable persons and events in every period and state of the world, from the creation to the present time. Appleton. p. 295. OCLC   1305369. INNOCENT VIII (John Baptist Cibo), pope, died. He was a Genoese nobleman of Greek descent; employed his influence to reconcile the quarrels of the Christian princes with one another, and left behind him the character of a high minded and benevolent man.
  4. Monstrelet, Enguerrand de ; Dacier, Baron Joseph Bonaventure, Johnes, Thomas (1810). The chronicles of Enguerrand de Monstrelet. London, Printed for Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown. p. 366. OCLC   2286229. + Innocent VIII.—John Baptista Cibo, a noble Genoese, but originally of Greek extraction. He was called, prior to his elevation to the papacy, the cardinal of Melfe. He had several children before ho entered holy orders, and did not neglect them during his reign.)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  5. Francesco Serdonati (1829). Vita e fatti d'Innocenzo VIII., papa CCXVI. Milan: Tip. di V. Ferrario. p. 10.
  6. 1 2 3 Wikisource-logo.svg Weber, Nicholas (1910). "Pope Innocent VIII"  . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia . 8. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  7. 1 2 John Paul Adams, "Sede Vacante August 12, 1484—August 29, 1484", California State University, Northridge, retrieved: 2016-08-03.
  8. Duffy, Eamon (2006). Saints & Sinners – A History of the Popes. Yale University Press. ISBN   978-0-300-11597-0, p.196
  9. Wikisource:Summis desiderantes
  10. Kors, Alan Charles; Peters, Edward (2000). Witchcraft in Europe, 400-1700: A Documentary History. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN   0-8122-1751-9, p.177
  11. Darst, David H. (October 15, 1979). "Witchcraft in Spain: The Testimony of Martín de Castañega's Treatise on Superstition and Witchcraft (1529)". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 123 (5): p. 298
  12. cf., Joyy et al., Witchcraft and Magic In Europe, p. 239 (2002).
  13. Innocent VIII (1669). Id nostri cordis. Histoire générale des Eglises Evangeliques des Vallées du Piemont ou Vaudoises. 2. p. 8.[ dead link ]
  14. Wikisource-logo.svg Donovan, Stephen (1907). "Bl. Angelo Carletti di Chivasso"  . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia . 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  15. Wikisource-logo.svg Lejay, Paul (1911). "Giovanni Pico della Mirandola"  . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia . 10. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  16. 1 2 Minnich, p. 281
  17. "For the glory of God", Rodney Stark, p. 330, Princeton University Press, 2003, ISBN   0-691-11436-6)
  18. David Brion Davis, p. 101 fn. 21
  19. Burg G. (2012). History of sexually transmitted infections (STI). Giornale Italiano Di Dermatologia E Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Societa Italiana Di Dermatologia E Sifilografia, 147(4), 329-40.
  20. Duffin, Jacalyn History of Medicine: A scadalously short introduction University of Toronto Press, 1999, p. 171
  21. Carnimeo, Nicolò (2014-05-19). "Haiti, i dubbi sul ritrovamento della Santa Maria di Colombo (Doubts over the finding of the Santa Maria of Colombo)". ilfattoquotidiano.it2014. Retrieved 2013-05-21.
  22. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Innocent/Innocent VIII"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 14 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 581–582. (sub-section within article "innocent", pp. 577–583)
  23. The Life of Girolamo Savonarola (1959) by Roberto Ridolfi
  24. "The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture - Paperback - David Brion Davis - Oxford University Press". Oup.com. 1988-10-20. Archived from the original on 2013-02-04. Retrieved 2013-06-23.
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Giovanni Arcimboldi
Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals
1484
Succeeded by
Giovanni Michiel
Preceded by
Sixtus IV
Pope
29 August 1484 – 25 July 1492
Succeeded by
Alexander VI