Pope John XXI

Last updated
Pope

John XXI
Bishop of Rome
Papacy began8 September 1276
Papacy ended20 May 1277
Predecessor Adrian V
Successor Nicholas III
Orders
OrdinationMay 1275
Created cardinal3 June 1273
by Gregory X
Personal details
Birth namePedro Julião, Peter Juliani
Bornc. 1215
Lisbon, Kingdom of Portugal
Died(1277-05-20)20 May 1277
Viterbo, Papal States
Previous post
Coat of arms C o a Giovanni XXI.svg
Other popes named John

Pope John XXI (Latin : Ioannes XXI; c.1215 – 20 May 1277), born Peter Juliani (Latin : Petrus Iulianus; Portuguese : Pedro Julião), was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 8 September 1276 to his death. Apart from Damasus I (from Roman Lusitania), he has been the only Portuguese pope. [1] He is sometimes identified with the logician and herbalist Peter of Spain (Latin : Petrus Hispanus; Portuguese : Pedro Hispano), which would make him the only pope to have been a physician. [1]

Contents

Early life

Pedro Julião was born in Lisbon between 1210 and 1220. He started his studies at the episcopal school of Lisbon Cathedral and later joined the University of Paris, although some historians claim that he was educated at Montpellier. Wherever he studied, he concentrated on medicine, theology, logic, physics, metaphysics, and Aristotle's dialectic. He is traditionally and usually identified with the medical author Peter of Spain, an important figure in the development of logic and pharmacology. Peter of Spain taught at the University of Siena in the 1240s and his Summulae Logicales was used as a university textbook on Aristotelian logic for the next three centuries. At the court in Lisbon, he was the councilor and spokesman for King Afonso III in church matters. Later,[ when? ] he became prior of Guimarães.

He was Archdeacon of Vermoim (Vermuy) in the Archdiocese of Braga. [2] He tried to become bishop of Lisbon but was defeated. Instead, he became the Master of the school of Lisbon. Peter became the physician of Pope Gregory X (127176) early in his reign. In March 1273[ citation needed ] he was elected Archbishop of Braga, but did not assume that post; instead, on 3 June 1273, Pope Gregory X created him Cardinal Bishop of Tusculum (Frascati). [3]

Papacy

After the death of Pope Adrian V on 18 August 1276, Peter was elected Pope on 8 September. [1] He was crowned a week later on 20 September. One of John XXI's few acts during his brief reign was the reversal of a decree recently passed at the Second Council of Lyon (1274); the decree had not only confined cardinals in solitude until they elected a successor Pope, but also progressively restricted their supplies of food and wine if their deliberations took too long. Though much of John XXI's brief papacy was dominated by the powerful Cardinal Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, who succeeded him as Pope Nicholas III, John attempted to launch a crusade for the Holy Land, pushed for a union with the Eastern church, and did what he could to maintain peace between the Christian nations. He also launched a mission to convert the Tatars, but he died before it could start. [4] To secure the necessary quiet for his medical studies, he had an apartment added to the papal palace at Viterbo, to which he could retire when he wished to work undisturbed. On 14 May 1277, while the pope was alone in this apartment, it collapsed; John was buried under the ruins and died on 20 May in consequence of the serious injuries he had received. He was buried in the Duomo di Viterbo, where his tomb can still be seen.

Legacy

After his death, it was rumored that John XXI had actually been a necromancer, a suspicion frequently directed towards the few scholars among medieval popes (see, e.g., Sylvester II). It was also said that his death had been an act of God, stopping him from completing a heretical treatise. [5] Since the works of "Peter of Spain" continued to be studied and appreciated, however, Dante Alighieri placed "Pietro Spano" in his Paradiso's Sphere of the Sun with the spirits of other great religious scholars.

See also

Related Research Articles

Pope Martin IV pope

Pope Martin IV, born Simon de Brion, was the head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 22 February 1281 to his death. He was the last French pope to have held court in Rome; all subsequent French popes held court in Avignon.

Pope Innocent V pope

Pope Innocent V, born Pierre de Tarentaise, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 21 January to 22 June 1276. A member of the Order of Preachers, he acquired a reputation as an effective preacher. He held one of the two "Dominican Chairs" at university of Paris, and was instrumental in help drawing up the "program of studies" for the Order. In 1269, Peter of Tarentaise was Provincial of the French Province of Dominicans. He was a close collaborator of Pope Gregory X, who named him Bishop of Ostia and raised him to cardinal in 1273.

Pope Nicholas III Pope from 1277 to 1280

Pope Nicholas III, born Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 25 November 1277 to his death.

Pope Nicholas IV 191st Pope of the Catholic Church

Pope Nicholas IV, born Girolamo Masci, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 22 February 1288 to his death. He was the first Franciscan to be elected pope.

Peter of Spain Spanish philosopher

Peter of Hispania was the author of the Tractatus, later known as the Summulae Logicales, an important medieval university textbook on Aristotelian logic. As the Latin Hispania was considered to include the entire Iberian peninsula, he is traditionally and usually identified with the Portuguese scholar and ecclesiastic Peter Juliani, who was elected Pope John XXI in 1276. The identification is sometimes disputed, usually by Spanish authors, who claim the author of the Tractatus was a Castilian Blackfriar. He is also sometimes identified as Petrus Ferrandi Hispanus.

Blessed John of Vercelli, O.P., was the sixth Master General of the Dominican Order (1264-1283).

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Braga Roman Catholic archdiocese in Portugal

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Braga is an archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church in Portugal.

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Gaeta archdiocese

The Archdiocese of Gaeta is a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical territory in southern Italy, in the city of Gaeta, in the Lazio region. The archbishop's throne is located in the cathedral of SS. Erasmus and Marcianus and the Assumption of the Virgin Mary in Gaeta. The diocese is subordinate to the bishop of the Diocese of Rome, the pope.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Ferentino

The Roman Catholic diocese of Ferentino existed until 1986, when it was united into the new diocese of Frosinone-Veroli-Ferentino.

Thomas of Frignano (1305–1381) was an Italian Franciscan theologian. He became Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor, and on 19 July 1372 was approved by Pope Gregory XI as patriarch of Grado.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Teramo-Atri diocese of the Catholic Church

The Diocese of Teramo-Atri is a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical territory in Abruzzo, central Italy. The current extent of the diocese was established in 1949, when the historic Diocese of Teramo was combined with the Diocese of Penne-Atri, in the Abruzzo. It is suffragan of the Archdiocese of Pescara-Penne.

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Agrigento archdiocese

The Italian Catholic Archdiocese of Agrigento, in Sicily, was elevated to archiepiscopal status in 2000. The historic diocese of Agrigento was also known as the Diocese of Grigenti, and Diocese of Agrigentum. It used to be a suffragan of the archdiocese of Monreale.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Teano-Calvi diocese of the Catholic Church

The Diocese of Teano-Calvi is a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical territory in Campania, southern Italy, created in 1986. It is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Naples. The historic Diocese of Teano and Diocese of Calvi Risorta were united in 1818, forming the diocese of Calvi e Teano.

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Brindisi-Ostuni archdiocese

The Italian Catholic Archdiocese of Brindisi-Ostium in Apulia, has carried its present name since 1986. It is a suffragan of the archdiocese of Lecce.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Anagni-Alatri diocese of the Catholic Church

The Italian Catholic Diocese of Anagni-Alatri, in Lazio, has existed since 1986. In that year the Diocese of Alatri was united to the historical Diocese of Anagni. The diocese is a suffragan of the Diocese of Rome.

Bertrand de Saint-Martin was a French cardinal.

September 1276 papal election

The September 1276 papal election is the only papal election to be the third election of the same year. The election was also the first non-conclave, since the establishment of the papal conclave after the papal election, 1268–1271.

Cosma Orsini was an Italian Roman Catholic bishop and cardinal.

Gervasius Giançolet de Glincamp was born in the diocese of Mans, son of Gervais, great-grandson of Eudes, chevalier and seigneur de Groestel. He was a Roman Catholic cardinal and diplomat. He had a brother, Jean de Glincamp, who became Abbot of S. Remi in Reims. Another relative, a first-cousin, Robert de Glincamp, was bishop of Mans (1298-1309).

Simone Paltanieri

Simone Paltanieri, son of Pesce Paltanieri, member of a distinguished family, was an Italian Roman Catholic cardinal.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the Popes, (HarperCollins, 1997), 222.
  2. Conradus Eubel, Hierarchia catholica medii aevi Tomus I, editio altera (Monasterii 1913), p. 144.
  3. Conradus Eubel, Hierarchia catholica medii aevi Tomus I, editio altera (Monasterii 1913), p. 9.
  4. Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope John XXI (XX)"  . Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  5. Odorico Raynaldi, sub anno 1227, no. 19.

Bibliography

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Adrian V
Pope
127677
Succeeded by
Nicholas III