|Bishop of Rome|
|Papacy began||c. AD 67|
|Papacy ended||c. AD 76|
|Ordination||by Paul the Apostle|
|Born||c. AD 10|
Volterra, Italia, Roman Empire
|Died||c. AD 76 (aged 65–66)|
Rome, Italia, Roman Empire
|Buried||possibly Vatican Hill|
|Feast day||23 September|
|Venerated in||All Christian denominations that venerate saints|
|Attributes||Papal vestments Pallium|
Pope Linus ( // ( listen ), Greek : Λῖνος, Linos; died c. AD 76) was the second bishop of Rome. His pontificate lasted from c. AD 67 to his death. As with all the early popes, he was later canonized.
Among those to have been pope, Peter, Linus, and Clement I are specifically named in the New Testament.Linus is mentioned in the valediction of the Second Epistle to Timothy as being with Paul the Apostle in Rome near the end of Paul's life.
The earliest witness to the episcopate of Linus was Irenaeus, who in c. AD 180 wrote that "the blessed apostles, then, having founded and built up the Church, committed into the hands of Linus the office of the episcopate."
According to the earliest succession lists of bishops of Rome, passed down by Irenaeus and Hegesippus and attested by the historian Eusebius, Linus was entrusted with his office by the apostles Peter and Paul after they had established the Christian church in Rome. By this primitive reckoning he might be considered therefore the first pope, but from the late 2nd or early 3rd century the convention began of regarding Peter as the first pope.
Jerome described Linus as "the first after Peter to be in charge of the Roman Church"and Eusebius described him as "the first to receive the episcopate of the church at Rome, after the martyrdom of Paul and Peter". John Chrysostom wrote that "this Linus, some say, was second bishop of the Church of Rome after Peter", while the Liberian Catalogue described Peter as the first bishop of Rome and Linus as his successor in the same office.
The Liber Pontificalisalso enumerated Linus as the second bishop of Rome after Peter, and stated that Peter consecrated two bishops, Linus and Anacletus for the priestly service of the community, while devoting himself instead to prayer and preaching, and that it was Clement I to whom he entrusted the universal Church and whom he appointed as his successor. Tertullian also wrote of Clement as the successor of Peter. Jerome named Clement as "the fourth bishop of Rome after Peter, if indeed the second was Linus and the third Anacletus, although most of the Latins think that Clement was second after the apostle."
The Apostolic Constitutionsnote that Linus, whom Paul the Apostle consecrated, was the first bishop of Rome and was succeeded by Clement I, whom Peter the Apostle ordained and consecrated.
The Liberian Catalogue and the Liber Pontificalis date the episcopate of Linus as AD 56 to 67, during the reign of Nero, but Jerome dated it as AD 67 to 78, and Eusebius dated the end of his episcopate in the second year of the reign of Titus, scire licet, AD 80.
Linus is named in the valediction of the Second Epistle to Timothy .In that epistle, Linus is noted as being with Paul the Apostle in Rome near the end of Paul's life. Irenaeus stated that this is the same Linus who became Bishop of Rome, and this conclusion is generally still accepted.
According to the Liber Pontificalis, Linus was an Italian born in Volterra in Tuscany. His father's name was recorded as Herculanus. The Apostolic Constitutions denominated his mother Claudia; immediately after the name Linus in 2 Timothy 4:21 a Claudia is named, but the Bible does not explicitly identify Claudia as Linus' mother. According to the Liber Pontificalis, Linus decreed that women should cover their heads in church, created the first 15 bishops, and died a martyr.It dated his death as 23 September, on which date he is still commemorated. His name is included in the Roman Canon of the Mass.
With respect to Linus' purported decree prescribing the covering of women's heads, J.P. Kirsch commented in the Catholic Encyclopedia that "without doubt this decree is apocryphal, and copied by the author of the Liber Pontificalis from Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians (11:5) and arbitrarily attributed to the first successor of the Apostle in Rome. The statement made in the same source, that Linus suffered martyrdom, cannot be proved and is improbable. For between Nero and Domitian there is no mention of any persecution of the Roman Church; and Irenaeus (1. c., III, iv, 3) from among the early Roman bishops designates only Telesphorus as a glorious martyr."The Roman Martyrology does not categorize Linus as a martyr as does the Liber Pontificalis ; the current entry in the former regarding him states: "At Rome, the commemoration of Saint Linus, Pope, to whom, as Saint Irenaeus narrates, the blessed Apostles entrusted the responsibility of the episcopate of the Church founded in the City, and whom the blessed Paul the Apostle mentions as a companion of his."
A tomb that Torrigio discovered in Saint Peter's Basilica in 1615 and which was inscribed with the letters LINVS was assumed to be the tomb of Pope Linus. However, a note by Torrigio records that these were merely the final five letters of some unknown longer name, such as "Aquilinus" or "Anullinus". A letter on the martyrdom of Peter and Paul was attributed to Linus, but in fact it was determined to date to the 6th century.Despite the absence of recent corroborating evidence, presumably the Liber Pontificalis is correct in asserting that Linus was buried on the Vatican Hill adjacent to Peter the Apostle in what is now known as the Vatican Necropolis beneath Saint Peter's Basilica in Vatican City.
The city of Saint-Lin-Laurentides in Canada is named in his honour.
Ignatius of Antioch, also known as Ignatius Theophorus, was an early Christian writer and bishop of Antioch. While en route to Rome, where he met his martyrdom, Ignatius wrote a series of letters. This correspondence now forms a central part of a later collection of works known to be authored by the Apostolic Fathers. He is considered to be one of the three most important of these, together with Clement of Rome and Polycarp. His letters also serve as an example of early Christian theology. Important topics they address include ecclesiology, the sacraments, and the role of bishops.
Pope Victor I was the fourteenth bishop of Rome in the late second century. He was of Berber origin. The dates of his tenure are uncertain, but one source states he became pope in 189 and gives the year of his death as 199. He was the first bishop of Rome born in the Roman Province of Africa—probably in Leptis Magna. He was later considered a saint. His feast day was celebrated on 28 July as "St Victor I, Pope and Martyr".
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Pope Telesphorus was the eighth bishop of Rome from c. 126 to his death c. 137, during the reigns of Roman Emperors Hadrian and Antoninus Pius. He was of Greek ancestry and born in Terranova da Sibari, Calabria, Italy. The Carmelites venerate Telesphorus as a patron saint of the order since some sources depict him as a hermit living on Mount Carmel. He is also a martyr according to the ancient testimony of Irenaeus.
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Pope Anacletus, also known as Cletus, was the third bishop of Rome, following Peter and Linus. Anacletus served as pope between c. 79 and his death, c. 92. Cletus was a Roman who, during his tenure as pope, ordained a number of priests and is traditionally credited with setting up about twenty-five parishes in Rome. Although the precise dates of his pontificate are uncertain, he "...died a martyr, perhaps about 91". Cletus is mentioned in the Roman Canon of the mass; his feast day is April 26.
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The canon of the New Testament is the set of books many modern Christians regard as divinely inspired and constituting the New Testament of the Christian Bible. For historical Christians, canonization was based on the whether the material was from authors socially approximate to the apostles and not based solely on divine inspiration – however, many modern scholars recognize that the New Testament texts were not written by apostles. For most, it is an agreed-upon list of twenty-seven books that includes the canonical Gospels, Acts, letters attributed to various apostles, and Revelation, though there are many textual variations. The books of the canon of the New Testament were written before 120 AD. In early Christian history, there was much inconsistency among the content of various historical canons, and it was not until hundreds of years later between the third and sixth centuries during which canonical consistency became apparent, possibly influenced by the invention of the codex.
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