Pope Lucius III

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Pope

Lucius III
Pope Lucius III Illustration.jpg
Papacy began1 September 1181
Papacy ended25 November 1185
Predecessor Alexander III
Successor Urban III
Orders
Consecration1159
Created cardinalDecember 1138
by Innocent II
Personal details
Birth nameUbaldo Allucingoli
Bornc. 1100
Lucca, Holy Roman Empire
Died(1185-11-25)25 November 1185
Verona, Holy Roman Empire
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Other popes named Lucius

Pope Lucius III (c. 1100 – 25 November 1185), born Ubaldo Allucingoli, reigned from 1 September 1181 to his death in 1185. [1]

Contents

Biography

A native of the independent republic of Lucca, he was born c. 1100 (perhaps 1097) as Ubaldo, son of Orlando. He is commonly referred to as a member of the aristocratic family of Allucingoli, but this is not proven. [2] He had close ties to the Cistercians, but it seems that he never joined the order. [3] Pope Innocent II named him cardinal in December 1138, initially as cardinal-deacon of San Adriano, then (in May 1141) as cardinal-priest of Santa Prassede. Pope Adrian IV promoted him to the rank of Cardinal Bishop of Ostia and Velletri in December 1158. He was dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals and one of the most influential cardinals under his predecessor Pope Alexander III, whom he had consecrated bishop in 1159.

Lucca Comune in Tuscany, Italy

Lucca is a city and comune in Tuscany, Central Italy, on the Serchio, in a fertile plain near the Tyrrhenian Sea. It is the capital of the Province of Lucca. It is famous for its intact Renaissance-era city walls.

Cistercians Catholic religious order

The Cistercians officially the Order of Cistercians, are a Catholic religious order of monks and nuns that branched off from the Benedictines and follow the Rule of Saint Benedict. They are also known as Bernardines, after the highly influential Bernard of Clairvaux ; or as White Monks, in reference to the colour of the "cuccula" or white choir robe worn by the Cistercians over their habits, as opposed to the black cuccula worn by Benedictine monks.

Pope Innocent II 12th-century Catholic pope

Pope Innocent II, born Gregorio Papareschi, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 14 February 1130 to his death in 1143. His election was controversial and the first eight years of his reign were marked by a struggle for recognition against the supporters of Antipope Anacletus II. He reached an understanding with Lothair II, Holy Roman Emperor who supported him against Anacletus and whom he crowned King of the Romans. Innocent went on to preside over the Second Lateran council.

Election and papacy

After being elected Pope in 1181, he lived at Rome from November 1181 to March 1182, but dissensions in the city compelled him to pass the remainder of his pontificate in exile, mainly at Velletri, Anagni and Verona.

Rome Capital of Italy

Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome also serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber. The Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states.

Velletri Comune in Lazio, Italy

Velletri is an Italian comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome, on the Alban Hills, in Lazio, central Italy. Neighbouring communes are Rocca di Papa, Lariano, Cisterna di Latina, Artena, Aprilia, Nemi, Genzano di Roma, and Lanuvio. Its motto is: Est mihi libertas papalis et imperialis.

Anagni Comune in Lazio, Italy

Anagni is an ancient town and comune in the province of Frosinone, Latium, central Italy, in the hills east-southeast of Rome. It is a historical and artistic center of the Latin Valley.

He was in dispute with the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I over the disposal of the territories of the late Countess Matilda of Tuscany. The controversy over the succession to the inheritance of the Countess had been left unsettled by an agreement of 1177, and the Emperor proposed in 1182 that the Curia should renounce its claim, receiving in exchange two-tenths of the imperial income from Italy, one-tenth for the Pope and the other tenth for the cardinals. Lucius consented neither to this proposition nor to another compromise suggested by Frederick I the next year, nor did a personal discussion between the two potentates at Verona in October 1184 lead to any definite result.

Holy Roman Emperor Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Emperor, officially the Emperor of the Romans, and also the German-Roman Emperor, was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. The title was, almost without interruption, held in conjunction with title of King of Germany throughout the 12th to 18th centuries.

Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor

Frederick I, also known as Frederick Barbarossa, was the Holy Roman Emperor from 2 January 1155 until his death. He was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned in Aachen on 9 March 1152. He was crowned King of Italy on 24 April 1155 in Pavia and emperor by Pope Adrian IV on 18 June 1155 in Rome. Two years later, the term sacrum ("holy") first appeared in a document in connection with his empire. He was later formally crowned King of Burgundy, at Arles on 30 June 1178. He was named Barbarossa by the northern Italian cities which he attempted to rule: Barbarossa means "red beard" in Italian; in German, he was known as Kaiser Rotbart, which has the same meaning.

Matilda of Tuscany Italian feudal margrave of Tuscany, ruler in northern Italy and the chief Italian supporter of Pope Gregory VII during the Investiture Controversy

Matilda of Tuscany was a powerful feudal Margravine of Tuscany, ruler in northern Italy and the chief Italian supporter of Pope Gregory VII during the Investiture Controversy; in addition, she was one of the few medieval women to be remembered for her military accomplishments, thanks to which she was able to dominate all the territories north of the Papal States.

During the conflict between Frederick I and the papacy, the problem of heresy required a political solution. In 1184, Pope Lucius III decreed Ad abolendam that all "counts, barons, rectors, [and] consuls of cities and other places" who did not join in the struggle against heresy when called upon to do so would be excommunicated and their territories placed under interdict – and declared that these provisions joined the apostolic authority of the church with the sanction of imperial power. [4]

Ad abolendam was a decretal and bull of Pope Lucius III, written at Verona and issued 4 November 1184. It was issued after the Council of Verona settled some jurisdictional differences between the Papacy and Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor. The document prescribes measures to uproot heresy and sparked the efforts which culminated in the Albigensian Crusade and the Inquisitions. Its chief aim was the complete abolition of Christian heresy.

In the meantime other causes of disagreement appeared when the Pope refused to comply with Frederick I's wishes as to the Imperial regulation of German episcopal elections which had taken place under the authority of the German-sponsored antipopes, both during and after the recent schism (1159-1176), especially as regards an election to the See of Trier in 1183 contested between the papal candidate Folmar of Karden and the imperial candidate Rudolf of Wied.

Folmar of Karden, also occurring in the variant forms Fulmar, Vollmar, Formal, or Formator, was the Archbishop of Trier from 1183 and the last not also to be a prince elector. He opposed the emperor in the late twelfth-century phase of the Investiture Controversy. The historian Bernhard von Simson characterized Folmar as "that restless, ambitious, and hard-hearted man."

Rudolf of Wied

Rudolf of Wied was anti-Archbishop of Trier from 1183–1189. He was a supporter of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa in the late twelfth century phase of the Investiture Controversy.

In pursuance of his anti-imperial policy, Lucius declined in 1185 to crown Henry of Hohenstaufen as Frederick I's destined successor, and the breach between the Empire and the Curia became wider on questions of Italian politics.

In November 1184 Lucius held a synod at Verona which condemned the Cathars, Paterines, Waldensians and Arnoldists, and anathematized all those declared as heretics and their abettors. Contrary to what is often said, he did not institute the Inquisition, which was not created until the reign of Pope Gregory IX in 1234.

Despite the fulminations of the first three Lateran Councils against married clergy, Lucius wrote in 1184 to the abbot of St. Augustine Canterbury suggesting that the parson of Willesborough should retire and pass the benefice to his promising son, who could then pursue his studies, [5] showing continued papal tolerance of married clergy at this late date.[ citation needed ]

Death

In 1185 preparations began for the Third Crusade in answer to the appeals of King Baldwin IV of Jerusalem. Before they were completed, Lucius III died in Verona.

See also

Notes

  1. Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope Lucius III"  . Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  2. J. M. Brixius, Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums voin 1130–1181, Berlin 1912, p. 90
  3. S. Miranda: Cardinal Ubaldo Allucingoli (note 1); I. S. Robinson, The Papacy 1073–1198. Continuity and innovation, Cambridge University Press 1990, p. 212.
  4. Bornstein, Daniel Ethan, Medieval Christianity , 2009 (Minneapolis: Fortress Press ), 237
  5. A. L. Poole, Domesday Book to Magna Carta, quoting Holtzmann, Papsturkunden

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References

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Ugone
Bishop of Ostia
1158–81
Succeeded by
Theobald
Preceded by
Alexander III
Pope
1181–85
Succeeded by
Urban III