Pope Marinus I

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Pope

Marinus I
108-Marinus I.jpg
Papacy began16 December 882
Papacy ended15 May 884
Predecessor John VIII
Successor Adrian III
Orders
Created cardinal880
by Adrian I
Personal details
Born830
Gallese, Rome, Papal States
Died(884-05-15)15 May 884
Rome, Papal States [1]
Other popes named Marinus

Pope Marinus I ( /məˈrnəs/ ; also Martin II; died 15 May 884) was Pope from 16 December 882 until his death in 884. He succeeded John VIII from around the end of December 882. [2]

Pope leader of the Catholic Church

The pope, also known as the supreme pontiff, is the Bishop of Rome and ex officio leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. Since 1929, the pope has also been head of state of Vatican City, a city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI.

Pope John VIII pope of catholic church from 872 until 882

Pope John VIII was Pope from 14 December 872 to his death in 882. He is often considered one of the ablest pontiffs of the 9th century.

Contents

Prior history

Born at Gallese, Marinus was the son of a priest. He was ordained as a deacon by Pope Nicholas I. [3] Before his election as Pope, he served as Bishop of Caere, which made his election controversial, because, at this stage of history, a bishop was expected never to leave office to move to another see. On three separate occasions he had been employed by the three popes who preceded him as legate to Constantinople, his mission in each case having reference to the controversy started by Photius, [2] Patriarch of Constantinople. [3] In 882, he was sent on behalf of Pope John VIII to Athanasius of Naples to warn him not to trade with the Muslims of southern Italy. [4]

Gallese Comune in Lazio, Italy

Gallese is an Italian comune (municipality) in the Province of Viterbo, 35 kilometres (22 mi) from Viterbo.

Pope Nicholas I pope

Pope Nicholas I, also called Saint Nicholas the Great, was Pope from 24 April 858 to his death in 867. He is remembered as a consolidator of papal authority and power, exerting decisive influence upon the historical development of the papacy and its position among the Christian nations of Western Europe. Nicholas I asserted that the pope should have suzerain authority over all Christians, even royalty, in matters of faith and morals.

Episcopal see the main administrative seat held by a bishop

An episcopal see is, in the usual meaning of the phrase, the area of a bishop's ecclesiastical jurisdiction.

Acts as pope

Among his first acts as pope were the restitution of Formosus as Cardinal Bishop of Portus and the anathematizing of Photius. [5] Due to his respect for Alfred the Great (r. 871–899), he freed the Anglo-Saxons of the Schola Anglorum in Rome from tribute and taxation. [5] He also is recorded to have sent a piece of the True Cross to Alfred as a gift. [6] He died in May or June 884, his successor being Adrian III.

Portus

Portus was a large artificial harbour of Ancient Rome. Sited on the north bank of the north mouth of the Tiber, on the Tyrrhenian coast, it was established by Claudius and enlarged by Trajan to supplement the nearby port of Ostia.

Alfred the Great 9th-century King of Wessex

Alfred the Great was King of Wessex from 871 to c. 886 and King of the Anglo-Saxons from c. 886 to 899. He was the youngest son of King Æthelwulf of Wessex. His father died when he was young and three of Alfred's brothers reigned in turn. Alfred took the throne after the death of his brother Æthelred and spent several years dealing with Viking invasions. He won a decisive victory in the Battle of Edington in 878 and made an agreement with the Vikings, creating what was known as Danelaw in the North of England. Alfred also oversaw the conversion of Viking leader Guthrum to Christianity. He successfully defended his kingdom against the Viking attempt at conquest, and he became the dominant ruler in England. He was also the first King of the West Saxons to style himself King of the Anglo-Saxons. Details of his life are described in a work by 9th-century Welsh scholar and bishop Asser.

Anglo-Saxons Germanic tribes who started to inhabit parts of Great Britain from the 5th century onwards

The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century. They are the direct ancestors of the majority of the modern British people. They comprise people from Germanic tribes who migrated to the island from continental Europe, their descendants, and indigenous British groups who adopted many aspects of Anglo-Saxon culture and language; the cultural foundations laid by the Anglo-Saxons are the foundation of the modern English legal system and of many aspects of English society; the modern English language owes over half its words – including the most common words of everyday speech – to the language of the Anglo-Saxons. Historically, the Anglo-Saxon period denotes the period in Britain between about 450 and 1066, after their initial settlement and up until the Norman conquest. The early Anglo-Saxon period includes the creation of an English nation, with many of the aspects that survive today, including regional government of shires and hundreds. During this period, Christianity was established and there was a flowering of literature and language. Charters and law were also established. The term Anglo-Saxon is popularly used for the language that was spoken and written by the Anglo-Saxons in England and eastern Scotland between at least the mid-5th century and the mid-12th century. In scholarly use, it is more commonly called Old English.

Marinus/Martinus error

Because of the similarity of the names Marinus and Martinus, Popes Marinus I and Marinus II were, in some sources, mistakenly given the name Martinus (and were then listed respectively as Martinus II and Martinus III [7] ). Thus, when the new Pope in 1281 took the name Martin, he became Pope Martin IV.

Pope Marinus II pope

Pope Marinus II was Pope from 30 October 942 to his death in 946.

Pope Martin IV pope

Pope Martin IV, born Simon de Brion, was Pope from 22 February 1281 to his death in 1285. He was the last French pope to have held court in Rome; all subsequent French popes held court in Avignon.

See also

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References

  1. The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. "Marinus I". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
  2. 1 2 Wikisource-logo.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Marinus (popes)"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 17 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 721–722.
  3. 1 2 McBrien, Richard P. (2000). Lives of the Popes: The Pontiffs from St. Peter to Benedict XVI. HarperCollins. p. 142. ISBN   9780060878078.
  4. Philippe Levillain (1 Jan 2002). The Papacy: Gaius-Proxies (illustrated ed.). Psychology Press. p. 969. ISBN   9780415922302.
  5. 1 2 "Pope Marinus I; Martin II". New Catholic Dictionary. 2008. Archived from the original on 1 February 2012. Retrieved 7 February 2011.
  6. Studies in the Early History of Shaftesbury Abbey, Dorset County Council, 1999
  7. Wikisource-logo.svg  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope Marinus I"  . Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton.

Further reading

Francis Dvornik, in Czech František Dvorník, was a priest and academic, and one of the leading twentieth-century experts on Slavic and Byzantine history, and on relations between the churches of Rome and Constantinople.

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
John VIII
Pope
882–884
Succeeded by
Adrian III