Pope Nicholas IV

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Pope

Nicholas IV
Bishop of Rome
NicholasIV.jpg
Papacy began22 February 1288
Papacy ended4 April 1292
Predecessor Honorius IV
Successor Celestine V
Orders
Consecration1281
Created cardinal12 March 1278
by Nicholas III
Personal details
Birth nameGirolamo Masci
Born30 September 1227
Lisciano, Marche, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Died4 April 1292(1292-04-04) (aged 64)
Rome, Papal States
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Coat of arms C o a Niccolo IV.svg
Other popes named Nicholas
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Pope Nicholas IV
C o a Niccolo IV.svg

Pope Nicholas IV (Latin : Nicolaus IV; 30 September 1227 – 4 April 1292), born Girolamo Masci, Pope from 22 February 1288 to his death in 1292. He was the first Franciscan to be elected pope. [1]

Pope Leader of the Catholic Church

The pope, also known as the supreme pontiff, is the bishop of Rome and leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. Since 1929, the pope has also been head of state of Vatican City, a city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI.

Contents

Early life

Jerome Masci (Girolamo Masci) was born on 30 September 1227 at Lisciano, near Ascoli Piceno. [2] [3] He was a pious, peace-loving man whose goals as a Franciscan friar were to protect the Church, promote the crusades, and root out heresy. According to Heinrich of Rebdorf, he was a Doctor of Theology. [4] As a Franciscan friar, he had been elected the Order's superior (minister) for Dalmatia during the Franciscan general chapter held at Pisa in 1272. Pope Gregory X (1271-1276), was sending a legate to the Greek Emperor, Michael Palaiologos, in 1272, to invite the participation of Greek prelates in the Second Council of Lyons. The Pope's ambition was to achieve a reunion of Eastern and Western Christendom. St Bonaventure, then Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans) was asked to select four Franciscans to accompany the Legation as Nuncios. He chose Friar Jerome Masci as one of the four. [5] When Bonaventure, died suddenly during the fifth session of the Order's General Chapter at Lyons on 15 July 1274, Friar Jerome Masci was elected to succeed him as the Franciscan Minister General, even though he was absent at the time, only then returning with the Greek delegates from the embassy to Constantinople. [6]

Ascoli Piceno Comune in Marche, Italy

Ascoli Piceno is a town and comune in the Marche region of Italy, capital of the province of the same name. Its population is around 48,278 but the urban area of the city has more than 93,000.

Crusades A series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period

The crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church. The best-known crusades are the campaigns in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries fought in the eastern Mediterranean, aimed at recovering the Holy Land from Muslim rule. The term crusade is now also applied to other church-sanctioned and even non-religious campaigns. These were fought for a variety of reasons including the suppression of paganism and heresy, the resolution of conflict among rival Roman Catholic groups, or for political and territorial advantage. At the time of the early crusades the word did not exist, and it only much later became the leading descriptive term in English.

Heresy belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs

Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization. A heretic is a proponent of such claims or beliefs. Heresy is distinct from both apostasy, which is the explicit renunciation of one's religion, principles or cause, and blasphemy, which is an impious utterance or action concerning God or sacred things.

Jerome was the associate of John of Vercelli, Master General of the Dominican Order, when the latter was sent by Pope Nicholas III (Giovanni Caetani Orsini) on 15 October 1277, to arrange a peace between Philip IV of France and Alfonso III of Aragon. Jerome and John of Vercelli were again appointed to the same task on 4 April 1278. [7] At the same time, Jerome was ordered to continue for the time being as the Franciscan Minister General. [8]

Blessed John of Vercelli, O.P., was the sixth Master General of the Dominican Order (1264-1283).

Master of the Order of Preachers Wikimedia list article

The Master of the Order of Preachers is the Superior General of the Order of Preachers, commonly known as the Dominicans.

Dominican Order Roman Catholic religious order

The Order of Preachers, also known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Innocent III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216. Members of the order, who are referred to as Dominicans, generally carry the letters OP after their names, standing for Ordinis Praedicatorum, meaning of the Order of Preachers. Membership in the order includes friars, nuns, active sisters, and affiliated lay or secular Dominicans.

In 1278 Jerome was made Cardinal Priest by Pope Nicholas III, and at some point after 16 May 1279 was assigned the titular church of Santa Pudenziana. Even after his appointment as a cardinal, he was allowed to remain as Minister General of the Franciscans until the next general chapter. In the event, however, he was unable to attend the chapter for reasons of ill health, as a letter of apology of Pope Nicholas III, written in May 1279, indicates. [9] On 12 April 1281 he was promoted Cardinal Bishop of Palestrina by Pope Martin IV. [10]

Santa Pudenziana church building in Rome

Santa Pudenziana is a church of Rome, a basilica built in the 4th-century, that is dedicated to Saint Pudentiana, sister of Saint Praxedis and daughter of Saint Pudens. It is a national church for Filipinos and is therefore one of the national churches in Rome.

Palestrina Comune in Lazio, Italy

Palestrina is a modern Italian city and comune (municipality) with a population of about 22,000, in Lazio, about 35 kilometres east of Rome. It is connected to the latter by the Via Prenestina. It is built upon the ruins of an ancient city of the same name.

Pope Martin IV pope

Pope Martin IV, born Simon de Brion, was Pope from 22 February 1281 to his death in 1285. He was the last French pope to have held court in Rome; all subsequent French popes held court in Avignon.

Pontificate

Papal conclave

After the death of Pope Honorius IV on 3 April 1287, the Conclave was held in Rome, at the papal palace next to Santa Sabina on the Aventine Hill, where Pope Honorius had died. [11] This was in accordance with the Constitution "Ubi Periculum" of Pope Gregory X. At the beginning, in April, there were thirteen cardinals in Rome; three Cardinals—Gerardo Bianchi, Giovanni Boccamati, and Jean Cholet—did not attend at all. The Sacred College was for a time hopelessly divided in its selection of a successor. When six of the electors died during the year 1287 (Ancher Pantaleon, Geoffrey de Bar, Hugh of Evesham, Giordano Orsini, Comes de Casanate, and Goffredo of Alatri—some, at least, carried off by fever), the others, with the sole exception of Jerome Masci, left the Conclave and returned to their homes. It was not until the following year that they reassembled. The electors at that time were seven in number: Jerome Masci, along with Latino Malabranca, Bentivenga de Bentivengis, Bernard de Languissel, Matteo Rosso Orsini, Giacomo Colonna, and Benedetto Caetani. On 15 February 1288, the survivors unanimously elected Jerome Masci, to the papacy on the first scrutiny. It is said that the Cardinals were impressed by his steadfastness in remaining at the papal palace, but there is no real documentation as to their motives. As he admitted in his electoral manifesto, Cardinal Masci was extremely reluctant to accept, [12] and indeed he persisted in his refusal for an entire week. Finally, on 22 February, he gave in and agreed. [13] He became the first Franciscan pope and chose the name Nicholas IV in remembrance of Nicholas III, who had made him a Cardinal. [10]

Pope Honorius IV pope

Pope Honorius IV, born Giacomo Savelli, was Pope from 2 April 1285 to his death in 1287. During his pontificate he largely continued to pursue the pro-French political policy of his predecessor, Pope Martin IV.

New Cardinals

Given the considerable losses to the numbers of the Sacred College in 1286 and 1287, it is not surprising that Nicholas IV quickly proceeded to fill vacancies. What is surprising is that he did not even reach the number of cardinals who were alive under Honorius IV, let alone exceed it. On 16 May 1288, he named six new cardinals: Bernardus Calliensis, Bishop of Osimo (who died in 1291), Hugues Aiscelin (Seguin) de Billon, OP, of the diocese of Clermont in the Auvergne; [14] Matthew of Aquasparta in Tuscany, Minister General of the Franciscans since 1287; Pietro Peregrosso of Milan, the Vice-Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church; Napoleone Orsini; and Pietro Colonna. [15]

Nicholas IV issued an important constitution on 18 July 1289, which granted to the cardinals one-half of all income accruing to the Holy See and a share in the financial management, thereby paving the way for that independence of the College of Cardinals which, in the following century, was to be of detriment to the papacy.

Actions

In regard to the question of the Sicilian succession, as feudal suzerain of the kingdom, Nicholas annulled the treaty, concluded in 1288 through the mediation of Edward I of England, which confirmed James II of Aragon in the possession of the island of Sicily. This treaty had not properly seen to papal interests. In May 1289 he crowned King Charles II of Naples and Sicily after the latter had expressly recognized papal suzerainty, and in February 1291 concluded a treaty with Kings Alfonso III of Aragon and Philip IV of France looking toward the expulsion of James from Sicily. [10]

In 1288 Nicholas met with the Nestorian Christian Rabban Bar Sauma from China.

In August 1290 he granted the status of studium generale to the university that King Denis of Portugal has just founded a few months earlier in the city of Lisbon. [16]

The loss of Acre in 1291 stirred Nicholas IV to renewed enthusiasm for a crusade. He sent missionaries, among them the Franciscan John of Monte Corvino, [1] to labour among the Bulgarians, Ethiopians, Mongols, Tatars and Chinese.

Death

Nicholas IV died in Rome on 4 April 1292, in the palace which he had built next to the Liberian Basilica (S. Maria Maggiore). He was buried in the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore. [17] His epitaph reads: "Here lies Nicolas IV son of St. Francis" (Hic requiescit / Nicolaus PP Quartus / Filius Beati Francisci). [18]

Taxatio

The 1291–92 Taxatio he initiated, which was a detailed valuation for ecclesiastical taxation of English and Welsh parish churches and prebends, remains an important source document for the medieval period. An edition was reprinted by the Record Commission in 1802 as Taxatio Ecclesiastica Angliae et Walliae Auctoritate. [19]

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 McBrien, Richard P., Live of the Popes, p.226, Harper Collins, 2000
  2. Hourihane, Colum (2012). The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture, Volume 2. OUP USA. p. 441. ISBN   978-0195395365.
  3. Kelly, J N D; Walsh, Michael (2010). A Dictionary of Popes. Oxford: OUP Oxford. p. 207. ISBN   978-0199295814.
  4. Marquardi Freheri, Rerum Germanicarum Scriptores editio tertia (curante Burcardo Gotthelffio Struvio) Tomus Primus (Argentorati: sumptibus Ioannis Reinholdi Dulsseckerii 1717), p. 605.
  5. Luca Wadding, Annales Minorum IV second edition (edited by J. M. Fonseca) (Rome 1732), p. 345. Their instructions, drawn up by Pope Gregory, are printed at pp. 353-355.
  6. Luke Wadding, Annales Minorum IV second edition (edited by J.M. Fonseca) (Rome 1732), p. 399 and 411.
  7. August Potthast, Regesta Pontificum Romanorum II (Berlin 1875), nos. 21165, 21294-21295; 21310; and see A. Theiner, Caesaris S.R.E. Card. Baronii Annales Ecclesiastici 22 (Bar-le-Duc 1870), under the year 1277, no. 47, p. 402.
  8. Potthast, no. 21356.
  9. Potthast, no. 21582.
  10. 1 2 3 Weber, Nicholas. "Pope Nicholas IV." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 11. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 29 Jan. 2015. Conrad Eubel, Hierarchia catholica medii aevi I, editio altera, (Monasterii 1913), pp. 10, 37, 46; and cf. p. 206.
  11. Sede Vacante and Conclave of 1287-1288 (Dr. J. P. Adams).
  12. Judicia Dei abyssus in A. Theiner, Caesaris S.R.E. Card. Baronii Annales Ecclesiastici 23 (Bar-le-Duc 1871), under the year 1288, § 5; p. 25; V. Langlois, Registres de Nicolas IV I, pp. 1-3 no. 1 (February 23, 1288).
  13. This is the story told by Heinrich of Rebdorf, in Marquardi Freheri, Rerum Germanicarum Scriptores editio tertia (curante Burcardo Gotthelffio Struvio) Tomus Primus (Argentorati: sumptibus Ioannis Reinholdi Dulsseckerii 1717), p. 605.
  14. Hugues Aiscelin was Master of the Sacred Palaces, appointed either by Martin IV or Honorius IV: J. Catalano, De magistro sacri palatii apostolici (Rome 1751), pp. 62-63.
  15. Conradus Eubel, Hierarchia catholica medii aevi I, editio altera (Monasterii 1913), p. 11.
  16. The Papacy and the Rise of the Universities, Gaines Post, Education and Society in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, Vol. 54, ed. William J. Courtney, Jurgen Miethke, Frank Rexroth and Jacques Verger, (Brill, 2017), 188.
  17. A. Theiner, Caesaris S.R.E. Card. Baronii Annales Ecclesiastici 23 (Bar-le-Duc 1870), under the year 1292, § 17, p. 123. Richard P. McBrien, Live of the Popes, 226. His sepulchral inscription is recorded by Vincenzo Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma XI (Roma 1877), p. 11, no. 6.
  18. Marioli, Luigi (2014). "Premessa". In Callori di Vignale, Flavia; Santamaria, Ulderico (eds.). Il Calice di Guccio di Mannaia (in Italian). Edizioni Musei Vaticani. p. 10. ISBN   9788882713300.
  19. The Taxatio Project Archived 2016-06-29 at the Wayback Machine , Humanities Research Institute, University of Sheffield

Bibliography

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Bonaventure
Minister General
of the Order of Friars Minor

1274–1279
Succeeded by
Bonagratia de San Giovanni in Persiceto
Preceded by
Pope Honorius IV
Pope
22 February 1288 – 4 April 1292
Succeeded by
Pope Celestine V