Pope Nicholas V

Last updated

Pope

Nicholas V
Bishop of Rome
Paus Nicolaas V door Peter Paul Rubens.jpg
Painting from early 17th century
Papacy began6 March 1447
Papacy ended24 March 1455
Predecessor Eugene IV
Successor Callixtus III
Orders
Ordination1422
by  Niccolò Albergati
Consecration17 March 1447
by  Francesco Condulmer
Created cardinal16 December 1446
by Eugene IV
Personal details
Birth nameTommaso Parentucelli
Born13 November 1397
Sarzana, Republic of Genoa
Died24 March 1455 (aged 57)
Rome, Papal States
Previous post
Other popes named Nicholas
Papal styles of
Pope Nicholas V
C o a Nicolaus V.svg
Reference style His Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous styleNone

Pope Nicholas V (Latin : Nicholaus V; 13 November 1397 – 24 March 1455), born Tommaso Parentucelli, was Pope from 6 March 1447 until his death. [1] Pope Eugene made him a cardinal in 1446 after successful trips to Italy and Germany, and when Eugene died the next year Parentucelli was elected in his place. He took his name Nicholas in memory of his obligations to Niccolò Albergati.

Contents

The Pontificate of Nicholas saw the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks and the end of the Hundred Years War. He responded by calling a crusade against the Ottomans, which never materialized. By the Concordat of Vienna he secured the recognition of papal rights over bishoprics and benefices. He also brought about the submission of the last of the antipopes, Felix V, and the dissolution of the Synod of Basel. A key figure in the Roman Renaissance, Nicholas sought to make Rome the home of literature and art. He strengthened fortifications, restored aqueducts, and rebuilt many churches. He ordered design plans for what would eventually be the Basilica of St. Peter.

Biography

Early life

His mother, Andreola Bosi of Fivizzano, married Bartolomeo Parentucelli, a physician who practiced medicine in Sarzana, an important town in Lunigiana. [2] The Lunigiana region had long been fought over by competing Tuscan, Ligurian and Milanese forces. Tommaso Parentucelli was born in Sarzana in 1397, just three years after the town was taken from the Florentines by the Genoese Republic. His father died while he was young. Parentucelli later became a tutor, in Florence, to the families of the Strozzi and Albizzi, where he met the leading humanist scholars. [3]

He studied at Bologna and Florence, gaining a degree in theology in 1422. [4] Bishop Niccolò Albergati was so awestruck with his capabilities that he took him into his service and gave him the chance to pursue his studies further by sending him on a tour through Germany, France and England. [5] He was able to collect books, for which he had an intellectual's passion, wherever he went. Some of them survive with his marginal annotations. [3]

He attended the Council of Florence [6] and in 1444, when his patron died, he was appointed Bishop of Bologna in his place. [7] Civic disorders at Bologna were prolonged, so Pope Eugene IV soon named him as one of the legates sent to Frankfurt. He was to assist in negotiating an understanding between the Papal States and the Holy Roman Empire, regarding undercutting or at least containing the reforming decrees of the Council of Basel (1431–1439). [5]

Papacy

Pope Nicholas V as depicted in the Nuremberg Chronicle, late 15th-century Nuremberg chronicles f 246v 1 (Nicolaus V).jpg
Pope Nicholas V as depicted in the Nuremberg Chronicle , late 15th-century
Saint Francis of Assisi Appearing before Pope Nicholas V, with Donors, by Antonio Montufar, 1628 Saint Francis of Assisi Appearing before Pope Nicholas V, with Donors (La aparicion de San Francisco de Asis al Papa Nicolas V, con donantes) LACMA M.2008.85.jpg
Saint Francis of Assisi Appearing before Pope Nicholas V, with Donors, by Antonio Montúfar, 1628

His successful diplomacy gained him the reward, on his return to Rome, of the title Cardinal-Priest of Santa Susanna in December 1446. At the papal conclave of 1447 he was elected Pope in succession to Eugene IV on 6 March. He took the name Nicholas in honour of his early benefactor, Niccolò Albergati. [3]

In only eight years, his pontificate delivered important achievements in the political, scientific, and literary history of the world. Politically, he needed to repair relationships which had broken down in the pontificate of Eugene IV. He called the congress which produced the Treaty of Lodi, secured peace with Charles VII of France, and concluded the Concordat of Vienna or Aschaffenburg (17 February 1448) with the German King, Frederick III, [3] by which the decrees of the Council of Basel against papal annates and reservations were abrogated so far as Germany was concerned. In the following year he secured a still greater tactical triumph with the resignation of the Antipope Felix V on 7 April and his own recognition by the rump of the Council of Basel that assembled at Lausanne. [5]

In 1450, Nicholas held a Jubilee at Rome, [3] and the offerings of the numerous pilgrims who thronged to Rome gave him the means of furthering the cause of culture in Italy, which he had so much at heart. In March 1452 he crowned Frederick III as Holy Roman Emperor in St. Peter's, in what was the last imperial coronation held in Rome. [5] Within the city of Rome, Nicholas introduced the fresh spirit of the Renaissance both intellectually and architecturally. His plans were of embellishing the city with new monuments worthy of the capital of the Christian world. [3] It was in recognition of this commitment to building that Leon Battista Alberti dedicated to Nicholas V his treatise De re aedificatoria . [8]

Rebuilding Rome

His first care was practical, to reinforce the city's fortifications, [9] cleaning and even paving some main streets and restoring the water supply. The end of ancient Rome is sometimes dated from the destruction of its magnificent array of aqueducts by 6th-century invaders. In the Middle Ages Romans depended for water on wells and cisterns, and the poor dipped their water from the yellow Tiber. The Aqua Virgo aqueduct, originally constructed by Agrippa, was restored by Nicholas and emptied into a simple basin that Alberti designed, the predecessor of the Trevi Fountain. [10]

He continued restoration of the major Roman basilicas, but also of many other Roman churches including Sant' Apostoli, Sant' Eusebio, San Lorenzo fuori le Mura, Santa Maria in Trastevere, Santa Prassede, San Salvatore, Santo Stefano Rotondo, San Teodoro, and especially San Celso. [11] He rebuilt the Ponte Sant' Angelo which had collapsed in 1450, and supported the redevelopment of the surrounding area as a prestigious business and residential district. [12]

Arts patron

But his major focus was on establishing the Vatican as the official residence of the Papacy, replacing the Lateran Palace. He added a substantial new wing including a private chapel to the Vatican, and according to Giannozzo Manetti, biographer of Nicholas planned substantial changes to the Borgo district. He also laid up 2,522 cartloads of marble from the dilapidated Colosseum for use in the later constructions. [13]

The Pope's contemporaries criticised his lavish expenditure on building: Manetti drew parallels with the wealth and expenditure of Solomon, suggesting that Papal wealth was acceptable so long as it was expended to the glory of God and the good of the Church. [14] The decoration of the Niccoline Chapel by Fra Angelico demonstrated this message through its depictions of St Lawrence (martyred for refusing to hand to the Roman state the wealth of the Church) and St Stephen. [15]

Much later
portrait of Filippo Calandrini, the half-brother of Nicholas V, and his cardinal-nephew Filippo Calandrini.jpg
Much later portrait of Filippo Calandrini, the half-brother of Nicholas V, and his cardinal-nephew

Under the generous patronage of Nicholas, humanism made rapid strides as well. The new humanist learning had been hitherto looked on with suspicion in Rome, a possible source of schism and heresy from an unhealthy interest in paganism. For Nicholas, humanism became a tool for the cultural aggrandizement of the Christian capital, and he sent emissaries to the East to attract Greek scholars after the fall of Constantinople. [16] The pope also employed Lorenzo Valla to translate Greek histories, [17] pagan as well as Christian, into Latin. This industry, coming just before the dawn of printing, contributed enormously to the sudden expansion of the intellectual horizon.

Nicholas, with assistance from Enoch of Ascoli and Giovanni Tortelli, founded a library of five thousand volumes, including manuscripts rescued from the Turks after the fall of Constantinople. [18] The Pope himself was a man of vast erudition, and his friend Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini, later Pope Pius II, said of him that "what he does not know is outside the range of human knowledge". Pope Nicholas was also important in establishing the Vatican library and protecting scholars who came to study the works found there. He saved many Greek works and writings using the library as a safe haven for them during the time period. [19]

He was compelled, however, to add that the lustre of his pontificate would be forever dulled by the fall of Constantinople, which the Turks took in 1453. Unsuccessful in a campaign to unite Christian powers to come to the aid of Constantinople, just before that great citadel was conquered, Nicholas had ordered 10 papal ships to sail with ships from Genoa, Venice and Naples to defend the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire. However, the ancient capital fell before the ships could offer any aid. The Pope bitterly felt this catastrophe as a double blow to Christendom and to Greek letters. "It is a second death", wrote Aeneas Silvius, "to Homer and Plato." [5]

Nicholas preached a crusade and endeavoured to reconcile the mutual animosities of the Italian states, but without much success. He did not live long enough to see the effect of the Greek scholars armed with unimagined manuscripts who began to find their way to Italy. [5]

In undertaking these works, Nicholas was moved "to strengthen the weak faith of the populace by the greatness of that which it sees". The Roman populace, however, appreciated neither his motives nor their results, and in 1452 a formidable conspiracy for the overthrow of the papal government under the leadership of Stefano Porcari was discovered and crushed. This revelation of disaffection, together with the fall of Constantinople in 1453, darkened the last years of Pope Nicholas. "As Thomas of Sarzana", he said, "I had more happiness in a day than now in a whole year". [5]

Slavery

Portuguese possessions in Morocco (1415-1769) Portuguese Morocco.PNG
Portuguese possessions in Morocco (1415–1769)

In late spring of 1452 Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI wrote to Pope Nicholas for help against the impending siege by Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II. Nicholas issued the bull Dum Diversas (18 June 1452) authorizing King Alfonso V of Portugal to "attack, conquer, and subjugate Saracens, pagans and other enemies of Christ wherever they may be found". Issued less than a year before the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, the bull may have been intended to begin another crusade against the Ottoman Empire. [20]

Ownership of the Canary Islands continued to be a source of dispute between Spain and Portugal and Nicholas was asked to settle the matter, ultimately in favor of the Portuguese. [21] The geographical area of the concession given in the bull is not explicit, but historian Richard Raiswell finds that it clearly refers to the recently discovered lands along the coast of West Africa. [22] Portuguese ventures were intended to compete with the Muslim trans-Sahara caravans, which played a key role in the highly profitable Muslim slave trade and also held a monopoly on West African gold and ivory. [23]

The Portuguese claimed territorial rights along the African coast by virtue of having invested time and treasure in discovering it; the Castilian claim was based on their being the heirs of their Visigoth ancestors. In 1454 a fleet of caravels from Seville and Cádiz traded along the African coast and upon their return, were intercepted by a Portuguese squadron. Enrique IV of Castile threatened war. Afonso V appealed to the Pope for moral support of Portugal's right to a monopoly of trade in lands she discovered. [24]

The papal bull Romanus Pontifex , issued on January 8, 1455, endorsed Portuguese possession of Cuerta (which they already held), and the exclusive right to trade, navigation, and fishing in the discovered lands, and reaffirmed the previous Dum Diversas. [25] It granted permission to Afonso and his heirs to "... make purchases and sales of any things and goods, and victuals whatsoever, as it may seem fit, with any Saracens and infidels in said regions; ... provided they be not iron instruments, wood used for construction, cordage, ships, and any kinds of armor." [26]

The bull conferred exclusive trading rights to the Portuguese between Morocco and the Indies with the rights to conquer and convert the inhabitants. [27] A significant concession given by Nicholas in a brief issued to King Alfonso in 1454 extended the rights granted to existing territories to all those that might be taken in the future. [28] Consistent with these broad aims, it allowed the Portuguese "to invade, search out, capture, vanquish, and subdue all Saracens and pagans whatsoever, and other enemies of Christ wheresoever placed, and the kingdoms, dukedoms, principalities, dominions, possessions, and all movable and immovable goods whatsoever held and possessed by them and to reduce their persons to perpetual slavery". However, together with a second reference to some who have already been enslaved, this has been used to suggest that Nicholas sanctioned the purchase of black slaves from "the infidel": [29] "... many Guineamen and other negroes, taken by force, and some by barter of unprohibited articles, or by other lawful contract of purchase, have been ... converted to the Catholic faith, and it is hoped, by the help of divine mercy, that if such progress be continued with them, either those peoples will be converted to the faith or at least the souls of many of them will be gained for Christ." [26]

It is on this basis that it has been argued that collectively the two bulls issued by Nicholas gave the Portuguese the rights to acquire slaves along the African coast by force or trade. [25] By dealing with local African chieftains and Muslim slave traders, the Portuguese sought to become key European players in the lucrative slave trade. The concessions given in them were confirmed by bulls issued by Pope Callixtus III (Inter Caetera quae in 1456), Sixtus IV (Aeterni regis in 1481), and Leo X (1514), and they became the models for subsequent bulls issued by Pope Alexander VI: Eximiae devotionis (3 May 1493), Inter Caetera (4 May 1493) and Dudum Siquidem (23 September 1493), in which he conferred similar rights to Spain relating to the newly discovered lands in the Americas. [30]

See also

Related Research Articles

Pope Martin V pope

Pope Martin V, born OttoColonna, was Pope from 11 November 1417 to his death in 1431. His election effectively ended the Western Schism (1378–1417).

Pope Callixtus III Pope from 1455 to 1458 from the Borgia family

Pope Callixtus III, also known as Alfonso de Borgia, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 8 April 1455 to his death in 1458. He is the most recent pope to have taken the pontifical name of "Callixtus" upon his election. A member of the powerful Borgia family, Callixtus III was the uncle of Pope Alexander VI, whom he appointed to the College of Cardinals.

Pope Siricius pope

Pope Siricius was Pope from December 384 to his death in 399. He was successor to Pope Damasus I and was himself succeeded by Pope Anastasius I.

Pope Urban VIII 17th-century Catholic pope

Pope Urban VIII was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 6 August 1623 to his death in 1644. He expanded the papal territory by force of arms and advantageous politicking, and was also a prominent patron of the arts and a reformer of Church missions.

Pope Sixtus IV pope

Pope Sixtus IV, born Francesco della Rovere, was pope from 9 August 1471 to his death in 1484. His accomplishments as pope included the construction of the Sistine Chapel and the creation of the Vatican Archives. A patron of the arts, he brought together the group of artists who ushered the Early Renaissance into Rome with the first masterpieces of the city's new artistic age.

Year 1455 (MCDLV) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

Antipope Nicholas V antipope in Rome 1328-1330 during Avignon papcy (1258-1333)

Nicholas V, born Pietro Rainalducci was an antipope in Italy from 12 May 1328 to 25 July 1330 during the pontificate of Pope John XXII (1316–1334) at Avignon. He was the last Imperial antipope—that is, one set up by a Holy Roman Emperor.

Pope Eugene IV Italian pope

Pope Eugene IV, born Gabriele Condulmer, was Pope from 3 March 1431 to his death in 1447. He is the most recent pope to have taken the name "Eugene" upon his election.

Pope Gelasius I pope

Pope Gelasius I was the Supreme Pontiff of the Catholic Church from 1 March AD 492 to his death on 19 November 496. He was probably the third and final Bishop of Rome of Berber descent. Gelasius was a prolific author whose style placed him on the cusp between Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. His predecessor Felix III employed him especially in drafting Papal documents. During his pontificate he called for strict Catholic orthodoxy, more assertively demanded obedience to Papal authority, and, consequently, increased the tension between the Western and Eastern Churches.

Antipope Gregory VIII antipope 1118—1121

Gregory VIII, born Mauritius Burdinus, was antipope from 10 March 1118 until 22 April 1121.

Anastasius Bibliothecarius or Anastasius the Librarian was bibliothecarius and chief archivist of the Church of Rome and also briefly an Antipope.

<i>Inter caetera</i> papal bull

Inter caetera was a papal bull issued by Pope Alexander VI on the fourth of May 1493, which granted to the Catholic Majesties of Ferdinand and Isabella all lands to the "west and south" of a pole-to-pole line 100 leagues west and south of any of the islands of the Azores or the Cape Verde islands.

<i>Dum Diversas</i> papal bull concerning imperialism

Dum Diversas is a papal bull issued on 18 June 1452 by Pope Nicholas V. It authorized Afonso V of Portugal to conquer Saracens and pagans and consign them to "perpetual servitude". Pope Calixtus III reiterated the bull in 1456 with Inter Caetera, renewed by Pope Sixtus IV in 1481 and Pope Leo X in 1514 with Precelse denotionis. The concept of the consignment of exclusive spheres of influence to certain nation states was extended to the Americas in 1493 by Pope Alexander VI with Inter caetera.

Sublimis Deus is a papal encyclical promulgated by Pope Paul III on June 2, 1537, which forbids the enslavement of the indigenous peoples of the Americas and all other people. It goes on to state that the Indians are fully rational human beings who have rights to freedom and private property, even if they are heathen. Another related document is the ecclesiastical letter Pastorale officium, issued May 29, 1537, and usually seen as a companion document to Sublimis Deus.

Romanus Pontifex, Latin for "The Roman Pontiff", is a papal bull written in 1454 by Pope Nicholas V to King Afonso V of Portugal. As a follow-up to the Dum Diversas, it confirmed to the Crown of Portugal dominion over all lands south of Cape Bojador in Africa. Along with encouraging the seizure of the lands of Saracen Turks and non-Christians, it repeated the earlier bull's permission for the enslavement of such peoples. The bull's primary purpose was to forbid other Christian nations from infringing the King of Portugal's rights of trade and colonisation in these regions, particularly amid the Portuguese and Castilian competition for ascendancy over new lands discovered.

Giannozzo Manetti was an Italian politician and diplomat from Florence, who was also a humanist scholar of the early Italian Renaissance.

Sicut dudum is a papal bull promulgated by Pope Eugene IV in Florence on January 13, 1435, which forbade the enslavement of local natives in the Canary Islands who had converted or were converting to Christianity. Sicut dudum was meant to reinforce Creator Omnium, issued the previous year, condemning Portuguese slave raids in the Canary Islands. Over forty years after Creator omnium and Sicut dudum, Pope Sixtus IV found it necessary to repeat the prohibition in his papal bull Regimini gregis, which threatened the excommunication of all captains or pirates who enslaved Christians.

Niccolò Albergati Catholic cardinal

Blessed Niccolò Albergati was an Italian Roman Catholic prelate and professed member from the Carthusians. He became a cardinal and had served as a papal diplomat to France and England (1422–23) in addition to serving as the Bishop of Bologna from 1417 until his death.

Christianity in the 15th century Christianity-related events during the 15th century

The 15th century is part of the High Middle Ages, the period from the coronation of Charlemagne in 800 to the close of the 15th century, which saw the fall of Constantinople (1453), the end of the Hundred Years War (1453), the discovery of the New World (1492), and thereafter the Protestant Reformation (1515). It also marked the later years of scholasticism

Creator Omnium

Creator Omnium was a bull issued by Pope Eugene IV in 1434 which excommunicated anyone who enslaves Christians of the Canary Islands.

References

Notes

  1. Filelfo & Robin (2009), p. 370.
  2. Gregorious & Hamilton (1900), p. 106.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Pope Nicholas V". www.newadvent.org.
  4. Hay (1995), p. 164.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Hayes, Carlton Joseph Huntley (1911). "Nicholas (popes)"  . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica . 19 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  6. Hollingsworth (1995), p. 238.
  7. Terpstra (1995), p. 34.
  8. Leon Battista Alberti at the Encyclopædia Britannica
  9. Cheetham (1983), p. 180.
  10. Karmon, David (August 2005). "Restoring the Ancient Water Supply System in Renaissance Rome" (PDF). The Waters of Rome. University of Virginia (3): 4–6.
  11. Hollingsworth (1995), p. 240.
  12. Hollingsworth (1995), p. 241.
  13. Manetti (1734).
  14. Hollingsworth (1995), p. 243.
  15. Hibbert, Christopher. The Borgias and Their Enemies: 1431-1519, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2008, p. 9 ISBN   9780151010332
  16. Duffy (1997), p. 181.
  17. Sider (2005), p. 147.
  18. Bobrick, Benson. (2001). Wide as the waters: the story of the English Bible and the revolution it inspired. New York:Simon & Schuster. p. 84. ISBN   0-684-84747-7.
  19. Murray, Stuart (2012). The Library: An Illustrated History. New York: Skyhorse Publishing. p. 121.
  20. Sardar, Ziauddin, and Davies, Merryl Wyn. 2004. The No-Nonsense Guide to Islam. Verso. ISBN   1-85984-454-5. p. 94.
  21. Stogre (1992), p. 65.
  22. Rodriguez, Junius P. (6 March 1997). "The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery". ABC-CLIO via Google Books.
  23. Phipps, William E. (6 March 2004). "Amazing Grace in John Newton: Slave Ship Captain, Hymn Writer, and Abolitionist". Mercer University Press via Google Books.
  24. Bown, Stephen R. (14 February 2012). "1494: How a Family Feud in Medieval Spain Divided the World in Half". Macmillan via Google Books.
  25. 1 2 Elliott, Mary; Hughes, Jazmine (19 August 2019). "A Brief History of Slavery That You Didn't Learn in School". The New York Times . Retrieved 20 August 2019.
  26. 1 2 See full text pp. 20–26 (English) in European Treaties Bearing on the History of the United States and Its Dependencies to 1648, Washington, D.C., Frances Gardiner Davenport, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1917–37 – Google Books. Reprint edition, 4 vols., (October 2004), Lawbook Exchange, ISBN   1-58477-422-3; also at http://www.nativeweb.org/pages/legal/indig-romanus-pontifex.html
  27. The Historical Encyclopedia of world slavery", Richard Raiswell, p. 469
  28. "Slavery and the Catholic Church", John Francis Maxwell, p. 55, Barry Rose Publishers, 1975
  29. Earle, T. F.; Lowe, K. J. P. (2005). Black Africans in Renaissance Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 281. ISBN   978-0521815826.
  30. "The Historical Encyclopedia of world slavery", Richard Raiswell, p. 469, "Black Africans in Renaissance Europe", P. 281, Luis N. Rivera, 1992, p. 25

Bibliography

Further reading

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Eugene IV
Pope
6 March 1447 – 24 March 1455
Succeeded by
Callixtus III