|Bishop of Rome|
|Papacy began||13 August 1099|
|Papacy ended||21 January 1118|
by Gregory VII
|Died||21 January 1118 (aged c. 63–68)|
Rome, Papal States
|Other popes named Paschal|
Pope Paschal II (Latin : Paschalis II; 1050 x 1055 – 21 January 1118), born Ranierius, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 13 August 1099 to his death in 1118. A monk of the Abbey of Cluny, he was created the cardinal-priest of San Clemente by Pope Gregory VII (1073–85) in 1073. He was consecrated as pope in succession to Pope Urban II (1088–99) on 19 August 1099. His reign of almost twenty years was exceptionally long for a medieval pope.
Ranierius was born in Bleda, near Forlì, Romagna. He became a monk at Cluny at an early age.
During the long struggle of the papacy with the Holy Roman emperors over investiture, Paschal II zealously carried on the Hildebrandine policy in favor of papal privilege, but with only partial success. Henry V, son of Emperor Henry IV, took advantage of his father's excommunication to rebel, even to the point of seeking out Paschal II for absolution for associating with his father.But, Henry V was even more persistent in maintaining the right of investiture than Emperor Henry IV had been before his death in 1106. The imperial Diet at Mainz invited Paschal II to visit Germany and settle the trouble in January 1106, but the pope in the Council of Guastalla (October 1106) simply renewed the prohibition of investiture.
In the same year he brought to an end the investiture struggle in England, in which Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury, had been engaged with Henry I of England, by retaining to himself exclusive right to invest with the ring and crozier, but recognizing the royal nomination to vacate benefices and the oath of fealty for temporal domains. Paschal went to France at the close of 1106 to seek the mediation of Philip I of France and his son Louis in the imperial struggle, but he returned to Italy in September 1107, his negotiations remaining without result. When Henry V advanced with an army into Italy in order to be crowned, the pope agreed to a compact in February 1111 which stipulated that before receiving the imperial crown, Henry was to abjure all claims to investitures, whilst the pope undertook to compel the prelates and abbots of the empire to restore all the temporal rights and privileges which they held from the crown.Preparations were made for the coronation on 12 February 1111, but the Romans rose in revolt against Henry, and the German king retired, taking the pope and Curia with him.
After 61 days of harsh imprisonment, during which Prince Robert I of Capua's Norman army was repulsed on its rescue mission, Paschal II yielded and guaranteed investiture to the emperor. Henry V was then crowned in St. Peter's on 13 April 1111, and, after exacting a promise that no revenge would be taken for what had happened, withdrew beyond the Alps. The Hildebrandine party was aroused to action, however; a Lateran council of March 1112 declared null and void the concessions extorted by violence; a council held at Vienne in October 1111 excommunicated the emperor; and Paschal II sanctioned the proceeding.
Pope Paschal II ordered the building of the basilica of Santi Quattro Coronati on the ashes of the one burned during the Norman sack of Rome in 1084.
During Paschal's trip to France in 1106–1107, he consecrated the Cluniac church of Notre Dame at La Charité-sur-Loire,the second largest church in Europe at the time.
Towards the end of his pontificate trouble began anew in England; Paschal II complained in 1115 that councils were held and bishops translated without his authorization, and he threatened Henry I with excommunication. Matilda of Tuscany was said to have bequeathed all her allodial lands to the Church upon her death in 1115, but the donation was neither publicly acknowledged in Rome nor is any documentary record of the donation preserved. Emperor Henry V at once laid claim to Matilda's lands as imperial fiefs and forced the pope to flee from Rome. Paschal II returned after the emperor's withdrawal at the beginning of 1118, but died within a few days, on 21 January 1118.
In 1116, Paschal II, at the behest of Count Ramon Berenguer III of Barcelona, issued a crusade for the capture of Tarragona.
During Paschal's papacy some efforts were made by the Byzantine Emperor Alexios I to bridge the schism between the Orthodox and the Catholic Church, but these failed, as Paschal pressed the demand that the patriarch of Constantinople recognise the pope's primacy over "all the churches of God throughout the world" in late 1112. This was something the patriarch could not do in face of opposition from the majority of clergy, the monastic world, and the laity.
Pope Paschal II issued the bull Pie postulatio voluntatis on 15 February 1113.It brought under Papal protection and confirmed as a religious order the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem, later known as the Knights Hospitaller and today known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. It also confirmed the order's acquisitions and donations in Europe and Asia and exempted it from all authority save that of the pope.
puis de Cluny à La Charité, où, au milieu d'un très grand concours d'archevêques, d'évêques et de moines, il dédia et consacra ce fameux monastère [...] 6) Le 9 mars 1107. Le monastère de la Charité-sur-Loire (Nièvre, arrondissement de Cosne) était un prieuré clunisien.
The Concordat of Worms was an agreement between the Catholic Church and the Holy Roman Empire which regulated the procedure for the appointment of bishops and abbots in the Empire. Signed on 23 September 1122 in the German city of Worms by Pope Callixtus II and Emperor Henry V, the agreement set an end to the Investiture Controversy, a conflict between state and church over the right to appoint religious office holders that had begun in the middle of the 11th century.
The First Council of the Lateran was the 9th ecumenical council recognized by the Catholic Church. It was convoked by Pope Callixtus II in December 1122, immediately after the Concordat of Worms. The council sought to bring an end to the practice of the conferring of ecclesiastical benefices by people who were laymen, free the election of bishops and abbots from secular influence, clarify the separation of spiritual and temporal affairs, re-establish the principle that spiritual authority resides solely in the Church and abolish the claim of the Holy Roman Emperor to influence papal elections.
Pope Honorius II, born Lamberto Scannabecchi, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 21 December 1124 to his death in 1130.
Pope Callixtus II or Callistus II, born Guy of Burgundy, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 1 February 1119 to his death in 1124. His pontificate was shaped by the Investiture Controversy, which he was able to settle through the Concordat of Worms in 1122.
Pope Gelasius II, born Giovanni Caetani or Giovanni da Gaeta, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 24 January 1118 to his death in 1119. A monk of Monte Cassino and chancellor of Pope Paschal II, Caetani was unanimously elected to succeed him. In doing so, he also inherited the conflict with Emperor Henry V over investiture. Gelasius spent a good part of his brief papacy in exile.
The Investiture Controversy, also called Investiture Contest, was a conflict between the church and the state in medieval Europe over the ability to choose and install bishops (investiture) and abbots of monasteries and the pope himself. A series of popes in the 11th and 12th centuries undercut the power of the Holy Roman Emperor and other European monarchies, and the controversy led to nearly 50 years of civil war in Germany.
Gregory VIII, born Mauritius Burdinus, was antipope from 10 March 1118 until 22 April 1121.
Guibert or Wibert of Ravenna was an Italian prelate, archbishop of Ravenna, who was elected pope in 1080 in opposition to Pope Gregory VII and took the name Clement III. Gregory was the leader of the movement in the church which opposed the traditional claim of European monarchs to control ecclesiastical appointments, and this was opposed by supporters of monarchical rights led by the Holy Roman Emperor. This led to the conflict known as the Investiture Controversy. Gregory was felt by many to have gone too far when he excommunicated the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV and supported a rival claimant as emperor, and in 1080 the pro-imperial Synod of Brixen pronounced that Gregory was deposed and replaced as pope by Guibert.
Victor IV was an antipope for a short time, from March to 29 May 1138.
Bruno di Segni was an Italian Roman Catholic prelate and professed member from the Order of Saint Benedict who served as the Bishop of Segni and the Abbot of Montecassino. He studied under the Benedictines in Bologna before being appointed a canon of the cathedral chapter of Siena. He he was invited to Rome where he became a bishop and counselled four consecutive popes. He served as an abbot in Montecassino but his chastising Pope Paschal II on the Concordat of Ponte Mammolo in 1111 prompted the pope to relieve him of his duties as abbot and order Bruno to return to his diocese, where he died just over a decade later. Bruno's canonization was celebrated on 5 September 1181 under Pope Lucius III who presided over the celebration in the late bishop's diocese.
Geoffrey of Vendôme was a French Benedictine monk, writer and cardinal.
Cuno of Praeneste was a German Cardinal and papal legate, an influential diplomatic figure of the early 12th century, active in France and Germany. He held numerous synods throughout Europe, and excommunicated the Emperor Henry V numerous times, in the struggle over the issue of lay investiture of ecclesiastical offices. He spent six years promoting the acceptance of Thurstan of York as archbishop by King Henry I of England, without making York subject to Canterbury. He was seriously considered for election to the papacy in 1119, which he refused.
Pons of Melgueil was the seventh Abbot of Cluny from 1109 to 1122.
Henry V was King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor, as the fourth and last ruler of the Salian dynasty. He was made co-ruler by his father, Henry IV, in 1098.
The 1118 Papal Election was held to choose the successor for Pope Paschal II, who died in Rome on 21 January 1118, after an 18-year pontificate. Pope Gelasius II was elected as his successor. The election happened during the Investiture Controversy, a conflict between supporters of the Papacy and those of the Holy Roman Emperor. The election was held under the threat of possible violence due to the controversy. The Cardinal electors took refuge in the Benedictine monastery, S. Maria in Pallara, during the election. Within minutes of his election as pope, Gelasius II was attacked and imprisoned by the Frangipani faction, supporters of the Holy Roman Emperor. Gelasius managed to escape, but at the emperor's arrival with his army, he fled Rome and never returned.
Vitalis of Albano was a Cardinal and bishop of Albano.
Divizo was a Roman Catholic Cardinal and Cardinal-priest of the titulus of Santi Silvestro e Martino ai Monti, originally called the titulus Equitii. In 1108, he was papal legate to Germany. He opposed the conciliatory policy of Pope Paschal II to the German King Henry in the Investiture controversy, was imprisoned with the pope and fifteen other cardinals, and forced to sign papal agreements. He then worked against them in the Roman synod of March 1112. After the synod, he was sent to Germany as a legate to Henry V, to work out a compromise. In the winter of 1121 he was promoted Cardinal-bishop of Tusculum (Frascati).
Anastasius was a Roman Catholic Cardinal, and Cardinal-priest of the titulus of S. Clemente in Rome.
Theobaldus was a 12th century Roman Catholic Cardinal, and Cardinal-priest of the titulus of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo in Rome. He is given a second name, Teuto, by Alfonso Chacón, but Teuto was actually a predecessor of Theobaldus at Ss. Giovanni e Paolo.
Rainerius was a 12th century Roman Catholic Cardinal, and Cardinal-priest of the titulus of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro in Rome.